Child pornography (also called CP, child sexual abuse material,[1] CSAM,[2] child porn, or kiddie porn) is a type of erotic material that depicts persons under the age of 18. The precise characteristics of what constitutes child pornography varies by criminal jurisdiction.[3][4]

Child pornography is often produced through online solicitation, coercion and covert photographing. Pornographic pictures of minors are also often produced by children and teenagers themselves without the involvement of an adult. In some cases, "hands on" sexual abuse (such as forcible rape) is involved during production. Images and videos featuring minors are sometimes collected and shared by online sex offenders.

Laws regarding child pornography generally include sexual images involving prepubescents, pubescent, or post-pubescent minors and computer-generated images that appear to involve them. Most possessors of child pornography who are arrested are found to possess images of prepubescent children; possessors of pornographic images of post-pubescent minors are less likely to be prosecuted, even though those images also fall within the statutes.[5]

Child pornography is illegal and censored in most jurisdictions in the world.[6][7][8] Ninety-four of 187 Interpol member states had laws specifically addressing child pornography as of 2008, though this does not include nations that ban all pornography.[6]

Terminology and definitions

The precise definition of the term "child pornography" varies by jurisdictions and there is no consensus in international law regarding the precise meaning of the word.[4][3]

In the United States, child pornography is generally defined as sexually explicit depictions of persons under the age of 18. In Canada, child pornography can also entail depictions of fictional minors.[9] In the United Kingdom, the law does not use the term "child pornography", though it does define a series of illegal sexual materials that are commonly regarded as child pornography.[10] Some English jurisdictions use the COPINE scale to sort potentially sexual media involving minors.[11]

In the 2000s, use of the term child abuse images increased by both scholars and law enforcement personnel because the term "pornography" can carry the inaccurate implication of consent and create distance from the abusive nature of the material.[12][13][14][15][16][excessive citations] A similar term, child sexual abuse material, is used by some official bodies,[2][17][18] and similar terms such as "child abuse material", "documented child sexual abuse", and "depicted child sexual abuse" are also used, as are the acronyms CAM and CAI.[15] The term "child pornography" retains its legal definitions in various jurisdictions, along with related terms such as "indecent photographs of a child" and others.[12][13][14][19][needs update] In 2008, the World Congress III against the Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents stated in their formally adopted pact that "Increasingly the term 'child abuse images' is being used to refer to the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents in pornography. This is to reflect the seriousness of the phenomenon and to emphasize that pornographic images of children are in fact records of a crime being committed."[20]

Production

The characteristics of child pornography production cases varies widely. Some materials are produced through coercion, seduction or coaxing. Other erotic images depicting children are photographed covertly (e.g. showering pictures). Violent "hands-on" offenses (such as forcible rape) are rare in criminal cases of child pornography production, instead most of such cases involve online solicitation, the exchange of gifts and promises of romance. In many cases, child pornography is often produced by minors themselves without the participation of an adult.[21]

In April 2018, The Daily Telegraph reported that of the sexually explicit images of children and teenagers (11 to 15 year-olds) found on the Internet, 31% were made by children or teenagers from November 2017 to February 2018, with 40% in December 2017; 349 cases in January 2017 and 1717 in January 2018. The images were made by children or teenagers photographing or filming each other or as selfies, without adults present or coercing, by unwittingly imitating adult pornographic or nude images or videos (including of celebrities) that they had found on the Internet. The report said that sex offenders trawled for and amassed such images.[22][23]

A 2007 study in Ireland, undertaken by the Garda Síochána, revealed the most serious content in a sample of over 100 cases involving indecent images of children. In 44% of cases, the most serious images depicted nudity or erotic posing, in 7% they depicted sexual activity between children, in 7% they depicted non-penetrative sexual activity between adults and children, in 37% they depicted penetrative sexual activity between adults and children, and in 5% they depicted sadism or bestiality.[24] A 2012 study reported that, in a sample of child pornography production arrest cases from 2009, 37% of the reviewed material was adult-produced and 39% was produced by minors with some involvement of an adult, the remaining items were produced by minors only.[21]

Artificially generated or simulated imagery

Main article: Simulated child pornography

Simulated child pornography produced without the direct involvement of children in the production process itself includes modified photographs of real children, non-minor teenagers made to look younger (age regression), fully computer-generated imagery,[25] and adults made to look like children.[26]

Sexting and filming among minors

Main article: Sexting

Sexting is sending, receiving, or forwarding sexually explicit messages, photographs, or images, primarily between mobile phones, of oneself to others (such as dating partners or friends). It may also include the use of a computer or any digital device.[27] Such images may be passed along to others or posted on the Internet. In many jurisdictions, the age of consent is lower than the age of majority, and a minor who is over the age of consent can legally have sex with a person of the same age. Many laws on child pornography were passed before cell phone cameras became common among teenagers close in age to or over the age of consent and sexting was understood as a phenomenon. Teenagers who are legally able to consent to sex, but under the age of majority, can be charged with production and distribution of child pornography if they send naked images of themselves to friends or sex partners of the same age.[28][29] The University of New Hampshire's Crimes Against Children Research Center estimates that 7 percent of people arrested on suspicion of child pornography production in 2009 were teenagers who shared images with peers consensually.[29] Such arrests also include teenage couples or friends with a small age disparity, where one is a legal adult and the other is not.[30][31] In some countries, mandatory sentencing requires anybody convicted of such an offense to be placed on a sex offender registry.[30][31]

The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new section, as appropriate. (November 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Legal professionals and academics have criticized the use of child pornography laws with mandatory punishments against teenagers over the age of consent for sex offenses. Florida cyber crimes defense attorney David S. Seltzer wrote of this that "I do not believe that our child pornography laws were designed for these situations ... A conviction for possession of child pornography in Florida draws up to five years in prison for each picture or video, plus a lifelong requirement to register as a sex offender."[32]

In a 2013 interview, assistant professor of communications at the University of Colorado Denver, Amy Adele Hasinoff, who studies the repercussions of sexting has stated that the "very harsh" child pornography laws are "designed to address adults exploiting children" and should not replace better sex education and consent training for teens. She went on to say, "Sexting is a sex act, and if it's consensual, that's fine ... Anyone who distributes these pictures without consent is doing something malicious and abusive, but child pornography laws are too harsh to address it."[33]

Cybersex trafficking

Main article: Cybersex trafficking

Child victims of cybersex trafficking are forced into live streaming,[34] pornographic exploitation[35][36][37][38][39] on webcam which can be recorded and later sold.[40] Victims are raped by traffickers or coerced to perform sex acts on themselves or other children while being filmed and broadcast in real time. They are frequently forced to watch the paying consumers on shared screens and follow their orders.[41] It occurs in 'cybersex dens', which are rooms equipped with webcams.[42][41] Overseas predators and pedophiles seek out and pay to watch the victims.[43][44][45]

Distribution and receipt

Philip Jenkins notes that there is "overwhelming evidence that [child pornography] is all but impossible to obtain through nonelectronic means."[46] The Internet has radically changed how child pornography is reproduced and disseminated, and, according to the United States Department of Justice, resulted in a massive increase in the "availability, accessibility, and volume of child pornography."[47]

Digital cameras and Internet distribution facilitated by the use of credit cards and the ease of transferring images across national borders has made it easier than ever before for users of child pornography to obtain the photographs and videos.[5][48]

In 2019, the New York Times reported that child pornography was now a crisis. Tech companies such as Facebook, Microsoft and Dropbox reported over 45 million cases of child sexual abuse material which was more than double what was found the year before and 44 million more than in 2014.[49]

Offender characteristics

Child pornography offenders are predominatly white, aged between 25 and 50 years and, in relation to "hands on" child sex abusers, more likely to be employed. On multiple studies, they have been reported to have higher education at a rate of 30%. Research has also shown that around 50% of child pornography offenders were single either at the time of their offences or after they were prosecuted.[50] Child pornography offenders are also less likely to be parents compared to contact offenders. Scholars have also found that while "hands-on" offenders are relatively likely to transition into pornography offenders (with some admitting to using child pornography as a substitute for committing contact offenses), the opposite is rarely the case.[51]

In a study conducted by Michael Seto in 2010, 33 to 50% of a sample of child pornography offenders reported having sexual interest in children. Another 2009 study diagnosed 31% of its sample of online child sex offenders with pedophilia. Aside from a predominant sexual interest in children, other reasons for online child pornography offending include indiscriminate sexual interest, pornography addiction and accidental access to child pornography material.[51] Having a history of child pornography offending has been stated by some researchers to be a valid diagnostic indicator of pedophilia.[52]

A meta-analysis of nine studies conducted by Seto in 2011 reported a sexual recidivism rate of 5% for follow-up periods ranging from one to six years. Another paper published by Seto in 2015 reported a sexual recidivism rate of 11% in a 5-year follow-up period. Research has also shown that offenders that measure high on antisociality and atypical sexual interests are most likely to sexually reoffend.[9] Other studies have also reported rates of recidivism for child pornography offenders that are inferior to those of contact child sex offenders. People who have commited both pornography and contact offences have a higher recidivism rate for contact offences than child pornography offenders.[52]

Relation to child molestation

Main article: Relationship between child pornography and child sexual abuse

Experts differ over any causal link between child pornography and child sexual abuse, with some experts saying that it increases the risk of child sexual abuse,[53] and others saying that use of child pornography reduces the risk of offending.[54][55] A 2008 American review of the use of Internet communication to lure children outlines the possible links to actual behaviour regarding the effects of Internet child pornography.[56]

According to one paper from the Mayo Clinic based on case reports of those under treatment, 30% to 80% of individuals who viewed child pornography and 76% of individuals who were arrested for Internet child pornography had molested a child. As the total number of those who view such images can not be ascertained, the ratio of passive viewing to molestation remains unknown. The report also notes that it is difficult to define the progression from computerized child pornography to physical acts against children.[57] Several professors of psychology state that memories of child abuse are maintained as long as visual records exist, are accessed, and are "exploited perversely."[58][59]

A study by Wolak, Finkelhor, and Mitchell states that:[60]

[R]ates of child sexual abuse have declined substantially since the mid-1990s, a time period that corresponds to the spread of CP online. ... The fact that this trend is revealed in multiple sources tends to undermine arguments that it is because of reduced reporting or changes in investigatory or statistical procedures. ... [T]o date, there has not been a spike in the rate of child sexual abuse that corresponds with the apparent expansion of online CP.

Laws

Main article: Legality of child pornography

History

The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new section, as appropriate. (November 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

In the United States, the first federal law to ban the for-profit production and distribution of child pornography was the Protection of Children Against Sexual Exploitation Act of 1977. In response to New York v. Ferber, 458 U.S. 747 (1982), a U.S. Supreme Court decision allowing the prohibition of child pornography even if it did not meet the obscenity standard established in Miller v. California, Congress passed the Child Protection Act of 1984, broadening the definition of child pornography and criminalizing nonprofit child pornography trafficking. The 1986 Meese Report found that child pornography was a cause of serious harm; this led to the passage of the Child Sexual Abuse and Pornography Act of 1986, which increased penalties for repeat offenders.[61]

International coordination of law enforcement

One of the primary mandates of the international policing organization Interpol is the prevention of crimes against children involving the crossing of international borders, including child pornography and all other forms of exploitation and trafficking of children.[62][63]

The USA Department of Justice coordinates programs to track and prosecute child pornography offenders across all jurisdictions, from local police departments to federal investigations, and international cooperation with other governments.[5] Efforts by the Department to combat child pornography includes the National Child Victim Identification Program, the world's largest database of child pornography, maintained by the Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section of the United States Department of Justice and the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) for the purpose of identifying victims of child abuse.[64][65]

Google announced in 2008 that it is working with NCMEC to help automate and streamline how child protection workers sift through millions of pornographic images to identify victims of abuse. Google has developed video fingerprinting technology and software to automate the review of some 13 million pornographic images and videos that analysts at the center previously had to review manually.[66] However the technology behind Google's automated detection are known to raise false accusations.[67]

National and international law

The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new section, as appropriate. (November 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (November 2023)

Child pornography laws provide severe penalties for producers and distributors in almost all societies, usually including incarceration, with shorter duration of sentences for non-commercial distribution depending on the extent and content of the material distributed. Convictions for possessing child pornography also usually include prison sentences, but those sentences are often converted to probation for first-time offenders.[12]

In 2006, the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (ICMEC) published a report of findings on the presence of child pornography legislation in the then-184 INTERPOL member countries. It later updated this information, in subsequent editions, to include 196 UN member countries.[68][69][70][71] The report, entitled "Child Pornography: Model Legislation & Global Review", assesses whether national legislation:

(1) exists with specific regard to child pornography; (2) provides a definition of child pornography; (3) expressly criminalizes computer-facilitated offenses; (4) criminalizes the knowing possession of child pornography, regardless of intent to distribute; and (5) requires ISPs to report suspected child pornography to law enforcement or to some other mandated agency.[69][72][73]

ICMEC stated that it found in its initial report that only 27 countries had legislation needed to deal with child pornography offenses, while 95 countries did not have any legislation that specifically addressed child pornography, making child pornography a global issue worsened by the inadequacies of domestic legislation.[74] The 7th Edition Report found that still only 69 countries had legislation needed to deal with child pornography offenses, while 53 did not have any legislation specifically addressing the problem.[68] Over seven years of research from 2006 to 2012, ICMEC and its Koons Family Institute on International Law and Policy report that they have worked with 100 countries that have revised or put in place new child pornography laws.[75][76][77][78]

A 2008 review of child pornography laws in 187 countries by the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (ICMEC) showed that 93 had no laws that specifically addressed child pornography. Of the 94 that did, 36 did not criminalize possession of child pornography regardless of intent to distribute.[79] This review, however, did not count legislation outlawing all pornography as being "specific" to child pornography. It also did not count bans on "the worst forms of child labor".[6] Some societies such as Canada and Australia have laws banning cartoon, manga, or written child pornography and others require ISPs (Internet Service Providers) to monitor internet traffic to detect it.[80][81][82]

The United Nations Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography requires parties to outlaw the "producing, distributing, disseminating, importing, exporting, offering, selling or possessing for the above purposes" of child pornography.[83] The Council of Europe's Cybercrime Convention and the EU Framework Decision that became active in 2006 require signatory or member states to criminalize all aspects of child pornography.[12]

Organizations

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2023)

There are many anti-child pornography organizations, such as the Financial Coalition Against Child Pornography, Association of Sites Advocating Child Protection, ECPAT International, and International Justice Mission.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ Lee, Hee-Eun; Ermakova, Tatiana; Ververis, Vasilis; Fabian, Benjamin (September 2020). "Detecting child sexual abuse material: A comprehensive survey". Forensic Science International: Digital Investigation. 34: 301022. doi:10.1016/j.fsidi.2020.301022. S2CID 225487613.
  2. ^ a b "Online child sexual abuse material". ReportCyber | Cyber.gov.au. 23 December 2015. Archived from the original on 1 August 2018.
  3. ^ a b Ly, Thanh; Dwyer, R. Gregg; Fedoroff, J. Paul (2018). "Characteristics and treatment of internet child pornography offenders". Behavioral Sciences & the Law. 36 (2): 216–234. doi:10.1002/bsl.2340. ISSN 0735-3936. PMID 29659072. Most studies do not provide an explicit definition of child pornography. Instead, it seems that the definition largely depends on what the law defines as child pornography. Because of this, the definition of child pornography can change based on the laws that govern the land in which an individual is found guilty. Most of the studies in this article define child pornography as stimuli that are sexual in nature that include persons under the age of 18.
  4. ^ a b Gillespie, Alisdair A. (2018). "Child pornography". Information & Communications Technology Law. 27 (1): 30–54. doi:10.1080/13600834.2017.1393932. ISSN 1360-0834. S2CID 261771447. There is no single definition of 'child pornography' and indeed the term itself remains controversial... The difficulty with this is that there are hundreds of many different definitions available. Even international law cannot agree...
  5. ^ a b c Wells, Melissa; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis; Mitchell, Kimberly J. (July 2007). "Defining Child Pornography: Law Enforcement Dilemmas in Investigations of Internet Child Pornography Possession 1" (PDF). Police Practice and Research. 8 (3): 269–282. doi:10.1080/15614260701450765. S2CID 10876828. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2018 – via University of New Hampshire.
  6. ^ a b c Child Sexual Abuse Material: Model Legislation & Global Review (9th ed.). International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children. 2018.[page needed]
  7. ^ "World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children". 27 July 2002. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  8. ^ Malamuth, Neil M. (2018). ""Adding fuel to the fire"? Does exposure to non-consenting adult or to child pornography increase risk of sexual aggression?". Aggression and Violent Behavior. 41: 74–89. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2018.02.013. S2CID 149279109.
  9. ^ a b Seto, Michael C.; Eke, Angela W. (2015). "Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT)". Law and Human Behavior. 39 (4): 416–429. doi:10.1037/lhb0000128. ISSN 1573-661X. PMID 25844514.
  10. ^ Gillespie, Alisdair A. (2 January 2018). "Child pornography". Information & Communications Technology Law. 27 (1): 30–54. doi:10.1080/13600834.2017.1393932. ISSN 1360-0834. S2CID 261771447.
  11. ^ Taylor, Max.; Holland, Gemma; Quayle, Ethel (2001). "Typology of Paedophile Picture Collections". The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles. 74 (2): 97–107. doi:10.1177/0032258X0107400202. ISSN 0032-258X. S2CID 148756344.
  12. ^ a b c d Akdeniz, Yaman (2008). Internet child pornography and the law: national and international responses. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-7546-2297-0.
  13. ^ a b Wortley, Richard; Stephen Smallbone (2006). Situational Prevention Of Child Sexual Abuse, Volume 19 of Crime prevention studies. Criminal Justice Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-1-881798-61-3.
  14. ^ a b Sanderson, Christiane (2004). The seduction of children: empowering parents and teachers to protect children from child sexual abuse. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-84310-248-9.
  15. ^ a b "Blocking access to child abuse material – Terminology". INTERPOL. Archived from the original on 8 October 2010.
  16. ^ "NSPCC Policy Summary – Child Abuse Images" (PDF). National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, London, UK. April 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2011.
  17. ^ "Access blocking / Crimes against children / Crime areas / Internet / Home - INTERPOL". Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  18. ^ "Industry Reporting of Child Sexual Abuse Material - Europol". Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  19. ^ Quayle, Ethel (September 2008). "The COPINE Project". Irish Probation Journal. 5. ISSN 1649-6396.
  20. ^ Mathew, Lina A. "Online Child Safety from Sexual Abuse in India". Journal of Information, Law & Technology. 2009 (1): 21.
  21. ^ a b Wolak, Janis (2012). "Trends in Arrests for Child Pornography Production: The Third National Juvenile Online Victimization Study (NJOV‐3)". Crimes Against Children Research Center.
  22. ^ Rudgard, Olivia. "Children's own 'sex selfies' fuelling rise in child abuse images". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  23. ^ The Daily Telegraph, Wednesday 18 April 2018, page 1 (bottom right corner) and page 2.
  24. ^ Claire Milner, Ian O'Donnel (2007). Child Pornography: Crime, computers and society. Willan Publishing. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-84392-357-2.
  25. ^ Virtueel filmpje geldt ook als porno, AD, 11 March 2008
  26. ^ Paul, Bryant; Linz, Daniel G. (February 2008). "The Effects of Exposure to Virtual Child Pornography on Viewer Cognitions and Attitudes Toward Deviant Sexual Behavior" (PDF). Communication Research. 35 (1): 3–38. doi:10.1177/0093650207309359. S2CID 10679425. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2008 – via Department of Communication - University of California, Santa Barbara.
  27. ^ Salter, Michael (2013). "Beyond Criminalisation and Responsibilitisim Sexting, Gender and Young People". Sydney Law School. 24: 310–315.
  28. ^ "Sexting teens can go too far - 12/14/08 - Philadelphia News - 6abc.com". Abclocal.go.com. 14 December 2008. Archived from the original on 31 January 2010. Retrieved 16 October 2009.
  29. ^ a b Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly (April 2012). "Trends in Arrests for Child Pornography Production: The Third National Juvenile Online Victimization Study (NJOV‐3)". Crimes Against Children Research Center. Durham, NH.
  30. ^ a b Feyerick, Deborah; Steffen, Sheila. "'Sexting' lands teen on sex offender list - CNN.com". CNN's American Morning. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  31. ^ a b Brady, Nicole (23 July 2011). "'Sexting' youths placed on sex offenders register". Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  32. ^ Cyber Crime Lawyer Blog: Miami Criminal Defense Lawyer Archived 1 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, December 2008
  33. ^ Seidman, Karen. "Child pornography laws 'too harsh' to deal with minors sexting photos without consent, experts say". National Post News – Canada. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  34. ^ Brown, Rick; Napier, Sarah; Smith, Russell G (2020), Australians who view live streaming of child sexual abuse: An analysis of financial transactions, Australian Institute of Criminology, ISBN 9781925304336 pp. 1–4.
  35. ^ Carback, Joshua T. (2018). "Cybersex Trafficking: Toward a More Effective Prosecutorial Response". Criminal Law Bulletin. 54 (1): 64–183. SSRN 3171275.
  36. ^ "Philippine children exploited in billion-dollar webcam paedophilia industry". The Sydney Morning Herald. 8 July 2014.
  37. ^ "6 Iligan kids rescued from cybersex den". Philippine News Agency. 13 January 2019.
  38. ^ "Philippines Makes More Child Cybersex Crime Arrests, Rescues". VOA. 12 May 2017.
  39. ^ "First paedophile in NSW charged with cybersex trafficking". the Daily Telegraph. 27 March 2017.
  40. ^ "Study on the Effects of New Information Technologies on the Abuse and Exploitation of Children" (PDF). UNODC. 2015.
  41. ^ a b "Cyber-sex trafficking: A 21st century scourge". CNN. 18 July 2013.
  42. ^ "International Efforts by Police Leadership to Combat Human Trafficking". FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. 8 June 2016.
  43. ^ "Philippines targets cybersex trafficking but young victims are often left in limbo". South China Morning Post. 6 May 2019.
  44. ^ "Cheap tech and widespread internet access fuel rise in cybersex trafficking". NBC News. 30 June 2018.
  45. ^ "Surge in online sex trade of children challenges anti-slavery campaigners". Reuters. 1 December 2016.
  46. ^ Jenkins, Philip (2005). "Law Enforcement Efforts Against Child Pornography Are Ineffective". In Lewis, Angela (ed.). At Issue: Child Sexual Abuse. San Diego, California: Greenhaven Press. ISBN 978-1565106888.
  47. ^ Child Pornography Archived 6 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Child Exploitation and Obscenity, Department of Justice
  48. ^ "Child porn among fastest growing internet businesses". National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, USA. 5 August 2005. Archived from the original on 18 October 2007. Retrieved 13 March 2008.
  49. ^ Keller, Michael H.; Dance, Gabriel J. X. (28 September 2019). "The Internet Is Overrun With Images of Child Sexual Abuse. What Went Wrong?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  50. ^ Houtepen, Jenny A.B.M.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Bogaerts, Stefan (2014). "From child pornography offending to child sexual abuse: A review of child pornography offender characteristics and risks for cross-over". Aggression and Violent Behavior. 19 (5): 466–473. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2014.07.011.
  51. ^ a b Ly, Thanh; Dwyer, R. Gregg; Fedoroff, J. Paul (March 2018). "Characteristics and treatment of internet child pornography offenders". Behavioral Sciences & the Law. 36 (2): 216–234. doi:10.1002/bsl.2340. ISSN 0735-3936. PMID 29659072.
  52. ^ a b Babchishin, Kelly M.; Hanson, R. Karl; VanZuylen, Heather (2015). "Online Child Pornography Offenders are Different: A Meta-analysis of the Characteristics of Online and Offline Sex Offenders Against Children". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 44 (1): 45–66. doi:10.1007/s10508-014-0270-x. ISSN 0004-0002. PMID 24627189. S2CID 254251866.
  53. ^ Carr, John (2004). "Child abuse, child pornography and the internet: Executive summary". NCH. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  54. ^ "Child porn consumers safe from prosecution in the Czech Republic". Radio.cz. 9 February 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2009.
  55. ^ Diamond, Milton. The Effects of Pornography: an international perspective, Pacific Center for Sex and Society", University of Hawai’i, 4 October 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  56. ^ Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Ybarra, Michele L. (2008). "Online 'predators' and their victims: Myths, realities, and implications for prevention and treatment". American Psychologist. 63 (2): 111–128. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.362.8143. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.63.2.111. PMID 18284279.
  57. ^ Hall, Ryan C.W.; Hall, Richard C.W. (April 2007). "A Profile of Pedophilia: Definition, Characteristics of Offenders, Recidivism, Treatment Outcomes, and Forensic Issues" (PDF). Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 82 (4): 457–471. doi:10.4065/82.4.457. PMID 17418075. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2017 – via Dr. Ryan Hall.
  58. ^ Wortley, Richard; Stephen Smallbone. "Child Pornography on the Internet". Problem-Oriented Guides for Police. No. 41: 17. The children portrayed in child pornography are first victimized when their abuse is perpetrated and recorded. They are further victimized each time that record is accessed.
  59. ^ Sheldon, Kerry; Dennis Howitt (2007). Sex Offenders and the Internet. John Wiley and Sons. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-470-02800-1. ...supplying the material to meet this demand results in the further abuse of children Pictures, films and videos function as a permanent record of the original sexual abuse. Consequently, memories of the trauma and abuse are maintained as long as the record exists. Victims filmed and photographed many years ago will nevertheless be aware throughout their lifetimes that their childhood victimization continues to be exploited perversely.
  60. ^ Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly (March 2011). "Child Pornography Possessors: Trends in Offender and Case Characteristics". Sexual Abuse. 23 (1): 22–42. doi:10.1177/1079063210372143. PMID 21349830. S2CID 14088692.
  61. ^ U.S. Sentencing Commission (October 2009). "Child Pornography Statutes in the Pre-Guidelines Era" (PDF). The History of the Child Pornography Guidelines. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  62. ^ "Crimes against children". Interpol. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
  63. ^ Bantekas, Ilias; Susan Nash (2003). International Criminal Law 2/E. Routledge Cavendish. p. 265. ISBN 978-1-85941-776-8.
  64. ^ Houston Chronicle, "Government developing huge child porn database". 4 April 2003
  65. ^ CBS News, "Combating Kiddie Porn", 6 April 2003
  66. ^ "Google enlists video ID tools to fight child porn". Msnbc. 14 April 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2008.
  67. ^ Hill, Kashmir (21 August 2022). "A Dad Took Photos of His Naked Toddler for the Doctor. Google Flagged Him as a Criminal". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 August 2022.
  68. ^ a b "Child Pornography: Model Legislation & Global Review". ICMEC. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015.
  69. ^ a b Mark Gibney; Wouter Vandenhole (2013). Litigating Transnational Human Rights Obligations: Alternative Judgments. Routledge. p. 63. ISBN 978-1135121051.
  70. ^ Jay LaBonte (2007). Parents Guide to the Internet. Lulu. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-1430307693.
  71. ^ John J. Barbara (2007). Handbook of Digital and Multimedia Forensic Evidence. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 978-1597455770.
  72. ^ Embassy Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) (25 June 2008). "Icmec Explores Areas of Cooperation With Godr to Combat Child Sexual Exploitation". Archived from the original on 30 November 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  73. ^ Yaman Akdeniz (2013). Internet Child Pornography and the Law: National and International Responses. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 106, 275, 278, 293. ISBN 978-1409496076.
  74. ^ "Model Legislation Update: Since the Beginning", ICMEC. April 2010.
  75. ^ Rhona Schuz (2014). The Hague Child Abduction Convention: A Critical Analysis. A&C Black. pp. 82–83. ISBN 978-1782253082.
  76. ^ Permanent Bureau (February 2004), "Strategic Plan Update, submitted by the Permanent Bureau", Hague Conference on Private International Law, Preliminary Document # 14, p. 6
  77. ^ "ICMEC to Train Officers in Bangkok September 18–21". Virtual Global Taskforce. 5 September 2012. Archived from the original on 12 March 2015.
  78. ^ The Koons Family Institute on International Law and Policy (2012) "Child Pornography: Model Legislation & Global Review" Archived 8 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine, 7th Edition
  79. ^ "New Study Reveals Child Pornography Not a Crime In Most Countries" (Press release). International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children. Archived from the original on 10 July 2021. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  80. ^ AFP (17 July 2007). "Queensland man charged over SMS child pornography". Archived from the original on 18 September 2007.
  81. ^ Canadian Arrested for Importing Loli-porn Manga (4 March 2005, Anime News Network). Retrieved 23 June 2008.
  82. ^ "REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9775".
  83. ^ "Article 3, (1)(c)". Archived from the original on 20 November 2012.