File:Man and woman naked.jpg
A man and a woman nude (specifically, nude in public)

Nudity or nakedness is the state of wearing no clothing.[1] The wearing of clothing is exclusively a human characteristic. The amount of clothing worn depends on functional considerations, such as a need for warmth or protection from the elements, and social considerations.

In some circumstances, a minimum amount of clothing or none at all may be considered socially acceptable, while in others much more clothing may be expected.

Personal attitudes to nudity

See also: Modesty

Enlisting in the Marines. Recruiting office. San Francisco, Dec. 1941

People, as individuals and in groups, have varying attitudes towards their own nudity and the nudity of others. Some people are relaxed about appearing less than fully clothed in front of others, while others are uncomfortable or inhibited in that regard. Many people are uncomfortable or inhibited when others can see their sexual arousal. People are nude in a variety of situations, and whether they are prepared to disrobe in front of others depends on the social context in which the issue arises. For example, people need to bathe without clothing, some people also sleep in the nude, some prefer to sunbathe in the nude or at least topless. Many people are prepared to disrobe for a medical examination, while others are nude in other situations. Some people adopt nudism as a lifestyle.

Though the wearing of clothes is the social norm in most cultures, some cultures, groups and individuals are more relaxed about nudity, though attitudes often depend on context. On the other hand, some people feel uncomfortable in the presence of any nudity, and the presence of a nude person in a public place can give rise to controversy, irrespective of the attitude of the person who is nude. Many people have strong views on nudity, which to them can involve issues and standards of modesty, decency and morality, many of which may be influenced by their religious teachings. Some people have a psychological aversion to nudity, called gymnophobia. Many people regard nudity to be inherently sexual and erotic.

An individual's personal attitudes to modesty have an impact on their attitudes to their own nudity as well as that of others. Some people regard any display of bare skin as erotic or offensive, while others are more relaxed about nudity. The attitudes to nudity are strongly dependent on the context in which it takes place, so that what may be considered inappropriate in one context (e.g. on a public street) may be acceptable in another context (e.g. in the home). These are individual subjective standards. Even personal standards take into account exceptional situations, when standards are waived or qualified, as in the case of medical examinations.

Public facilities generally reflect generally accepted community standards of dress. The same applies to public toilets, changing rooms, etc., where some degree of disrobing must take place. In those situations, gender-specific facilities are usually provided so as to reduce embarrassment of users of these facilities to predictable levels. Some countries allow non-gender-specific open space changing rooms with individual cubicles or stalls, and in some cultures communal showering, non-segregated saunas and other bathing facilities are also accepted. In some cultures and for some individuals, nudity even in segregated areas may be considered inappropriate and embarrassing.

Nudity (sex-related or not) is also to be found in visual arts (see also art nude, nude photography, nudity in film), on the Internet and in performing arts. It is a factor in adult entertainment of various types.


Full nudity refers to complete nudity, while partial nudity refers to less than full nudity, with parts of the body covered in some manner. The term partial nudity is sometimes used to refer to exposure of skin beyond what the person using the expression considers to be within the limits of modesty. If the exposure is within the standards of modesty of a given culture and setting (e.g. wearing a bikini at a non-nude beach), terms such as nudity, partial or otherwise, are not normally used. If however, the degree of exposure exceeds the cultural norms of the setting, or if the activity or setting includes nudity as an understood part of its function, such as a nude beach, terminology relating to nudity and degrees thereof are typically used. Toplessness is regarded by most people as partial nudity.

Full frontal nudity describes a state of full nudity with the subject facing forward with the whole front of the body exposed, including intimate parts such as a man's penis or woman's vulva. Partial frontal nudity typically only refers to the exposure of the breasts. Non-frontal nudity describes nudity where the whole back side of the body, including the buttocks, is exposed, or a side-view from any other direction.

Public nudity

Main article: Public nudity

A group of naturists on a beach

A society's attitude to public nudity varies depending on the culture, time, location and context of an activity. There are many exceptions and particular circumstances in which nudity is tolerated, accepted or even encouraged in public spaces. Such examples would include a nude beach, within some intentional communities (such as naturist resorts or clubs) and at special events.

In general and across cultures, evidence of sexual arousal are commonly covered and those parts of the human body that can display arousal are also normally covered. Sex organs and often women's breasts are covered, even when other parts of the body may be freely uncovered. Yet the nudity taboo may have meanings deeper than the immediate possibility of sexual arousal, for example, in the cumulative weight of tradition and habit. Clothing also expresses and symbolizes authority, and more general norms and values besides those of a sexual nature.

While some European countries such as Germany are rather tolerant about public nudity,[2] in many countries public nudity may meet social disapproval or even constitute a misdemeanor of indecent exposure. In 2012, the city council of San Francisco proposed a ban on public nudity in the inner city area. This was met by harsh resistance since the city is usually known for its liberal culture.[3][4] Similarly, park rangers began filing tickets against nudists at San Onofre State Beach in 2010, also a place with long tradition of public nudity.[5]

Social nudity

Some people take part in non-sexual public nude events. These may be in a naturist resort or club or at a nude beach. Outdoor nude recreation can take place in private or rural areas, though generally limited to warm weather.

Others practice casual public nudity. Topfree sunbathing is considered acceptable by many on the beaches of Finland, France, Spain, Italy and most of the rest of Europe (and even in some outdoor swimming pools); however, exposure of the genitals is restricted to nudist areas in most regions. In the United States, topfree sunbathing and wearing thongs are not common in many areas, but are limited to nude beaches in various locations. It is normally acceptable for men in the U.S. to be barechested or shirtless when engaged in outdoor recreational activities.

World Naked Bike Ride in London, 2012

Where the social acceptability of nudity in certain places may be well understood, the legal position is often less clear cut. In England, for example, the law does not actually prohibit simple public nudity, but does forbid indecent exposure[citation needed]. In practice, this means that successful prosecution hangs on whether there is a demonstrable intention to shock others, rather than simply a desire to be nude in a public place. Specifically, using nudity to "harass, alarm or distress" others is an offence against the Public Order Act of 1986. Occasional attempts to prove this point by walking naked around the country therefore often result in periods of arrest, followed by release without charge, and inconsistencies in the approach between different police jurisdictions. Differences in the law between England and Scotland appear to make the position harder for naked ramblers once they reach Scotland.

Photography of installations of massed nude people in public places, as made repeatedly around the world by Spencer Tunick, claim artistic merit.

Means of attracting attention

Main article: Nudity and protest

Nudity is at times used to draw attention to a cause, with the participants desiring to remain anonymous. Public nude events are at times staged as a forum for usually unrelated messages, such as clothing-optional bike rides. At times, the cause is merely a personal justification for taking part in a nude event, which are popular in their own right. Many nude calendars are produced each year featuring naked men or women. Some of these are produced to raise money for charities or other causes. Nudity, like sexuality, is also used to draw attention for a commercial purpose, such as for promotion or advertising.

Private nudity

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Woman sleeping in the nude

Nudity in an entirely private context is more common but varies. It depends on whether a person is alone, and if not on the cultural context and on the nature of a relationship of those who jointly occupy the same private space. The cultural background of each person as well as their religious teachings will have an impact on the way they view their own nudity as well as those of others. Some cultures deprecate nudity, even in a private context, more than others. Besides the nature of a relationship, attitudes and incidences of nudity will also depend on the level of inhibition that each person has, as well as the level of privacy to which that person or couple can be assured - for example, some parts of the home may be seen from the outside or there may be a possibility of others walking in. The expectation of privacy may be confined to the home and sometimes the backyard. Inside the home, it may be restricted to the bedroom or just the bathroom. According to a 2004 United States survey, 31% of men and 14% of women report sleeping in the nude,[6] while a 1996 BBC survey revealed that in the U.K. 47% of men and 17% of women do.[7] Some individuals and couples adopt naturism as a lifestyle.

In the case of nudity in front of those who do not normally occupy the same private space, that will usually depend on whether the outsider is comfortable with the nudity and whether the nudity is reciprocated, as in the case of social nudism. Social nudism may take place in any private social context, such as at one's home with friends or with acquaintances at a nudist facility or event, such as a naturist club, community center, resort or other facility. Some social gatherings may organise party games, which may involve some level of nudity, such as strip games. Strip games can be played by single-sex groups or by mixed groups and may be intended to generate an atmosphere of fun and lighten the social atmosphere, or to heighten the sexual atmosphere.

Sexual nudity

Main article: Nudity and sexuality

A nude couple in bed

Nudity in front of a sexual partner is widely accepted, but not in all cases. For example, some partners insist on nudity only at the time and place of sex, or with subdued lighting; during bathing with the partner or afterward; covered by a sheet or blanket, or while sleeping.


A naturist family at Senftenberg lake in 1980s.

There are differences of opinion as to whether, and if so to what extent, parents should appear naked in front of their children. Gordon and Schroeder report that parental nudity varies considerably from family to family.[8] They say that "there is nothing inherently wrong with bathing with children or otherwise appearing naked in front of them", noting that doing so may provide an opportunity for parents to provide important information. They note that by ages five to six, children begin to develop a sense of modesty, and recommend to parents who wish to be sensitive to their children's wishes that they limit such activities from that age onwards.

Bonner recommends against nudity in the home if children exhibit sexual play of a type that is considered problematic.[9]

A U.S. study by Alfred Kinsey found that 75% of the participants stated that there was never nudity in the home when they were growing up, 5% of the participants said that there was "seldom" nudity in the home, 3% said "often", and 17% said that it was "usual". The study found that there was no significant difference between what was reported by men and by women with respect to frequency of nudity in the home.[10]

In a 1995 review of the literature, Paul Okami concluded that there was no reliable evidence linking exposure to parental nudity to any negative effect.[11] Three years later, his team finished an 18-year longitudinal study that showed that, if anything, such exposure was associated with slight beneficial effects, particularly for boys.[12]

Children seeing nudity

Two children bathing in a small metal bathtub

Attitudes toward children seeing nude people vary substantially, depending on the child's culture, age and the context of the nudity (see also the section Home above).

Television and radio regulations in many countries require broadcasters to avoid transmitting images or language considered inappropriate for children from 5:30 am to 9 pm (the so-called "watershed"). In the United Kingdom, the Broadcasting Code states, "Nudity before the watershed must be justified by the context."[13] In the U.S., the safe harbor rule forbids depictions of nudity between the hours of 6 am and 10 pm. Violators may be subject to civil legal action and sanctions if the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) determines the broadcaster did not meet its standards of "decency". "Material is indecent if, in context, it depicts or describes sexual or excretory organs or activities in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards for the broadcast medium."[14]

Attitudes to nudity vary substantially throughout Europe. Male and female nudity in Scandinavia is not uncommon. The region has a very open attitude about nudity, although it strictly prohibits children's access to pornography.[15]

Communal showering

Main article: Communal shower

Another issue has been the nudity of children in front of other children.

In continental Europe, students tend to shower communally after physical education classes, separated by gender. Fathers taking their young daughters or mothers taking their young sons into the gender-separated changing rooms is mostly viewed as non-controversial, although some public baths have introduced family changing rooms. Some private gymnasiums have instituted rules specifically banning family members of opposite genders taking their children into single-sex locker rooms.[citation needed]

In the U.S. and some of the English-speaking majority of Canada, students at public schools have historically been required to shower communally with classmates of the same sex after physical education classes. In the U.S., public objections and the threat of lawsuits have resulted in a number of school districts in recent years changing policy to make showers optional. Private boarding schools and military academies in the U.S. often have communal showers, since the focus there is on 24-hours-a-day education and rooming, rather than just acting as day schools. Students in these establishments need places to clean themselves daily.[16] A court case in Colorado noted that students have a reduced expectation of personal privacy in regards to "communal undress" while showering after physical education classes.[17] According to an interview with a middle school principal, most objections to showering at school that he had heard were actually from the students' parents rather than from the students.[18]

Children and naturism

Children who are within a naturist home will usually also be naked, together with their family, and may see non-family members in the nude.

Visual nudity

Nudity in film

Main article: Nudity in film

Nudity in film has since the development of the medium been controversial, and most nude scenes in films have had to be justified as being part of the story, in the concept of "artistically justifiable nudity". In some cases nudity is itself the object of a film or is used in the development of the character of the subject. In some cases, nudity has been criticized as "superfluous" or "gratuitous" to the plot, and some film producers have been accused of including nudity in a film to appeal to certain audiences. Many actors and actresses have appeared nude, or exposing parts of their bodies or dressed in ways considered provocative by contemporary standards at some point in their careers.

Erotic films usually contain nudity, and nudity in a sexual context is common in pornographic films. A film on naturism or about people for whom nudity is common may contain non-sexual nudity, and some other non-pornographic films may contain very brief nude scenes. The vast majority of nudity in film is found in pornographic films.

Visual media

Nude model posing on a street in Budapest.

Mainstream art generally reflects – with some exceptions – social standards of aesthetics and morality of a society at various periods of time. Beyond mainstream standards, artistic expression may be merely tolerated, or be considered as fringe. Since prehistoric time, humans, both male and female, have been depicted in all states of dress, including all states of undress. Nudity in all styles has been and continues to be found in art. Nudity is also a subject of many literary works and in film. All professionally-produced works of art use stylised compositions to depict the nude body. This also applies to cinema, where even nude scenes are staged and rehearsed.

The erotic aspect of nudity in the arts has been an important factor in its attraction, and has come to be associated with certain states and emotions, such as innocence, playfulness, vulnerability, etc. Pornography does not necessarily involve a naked person, but it involves sexualized scenes, and usually it does not claim to have any artistic merit.

The visual arts were at times the only means available to the general public to view a nude body. Today, the opportunities available for the viewing of the nude body are very wide, and these include magazines, television, films, and the Internet.

Depictions of child nudity

Carlo Cignani's Triumph of Cupid

Main article: Depictions of nudity

Depictions of child nudity or children with nude adults appear in works of art in various cultures and historical periods. These attitudes have changed over time and have become increasingly frowned upon particularly in recent years,[19] especially in the case of photography. In recent years, there have been a few incidents in which snapshots taken by parents of their infant or toddler children bathing or otherwise naked were challenged as child pornography.[20]

In May 2008, police in Sydney, Australia, raided an exhibition by the photographer Bill Henson featuring images of naked children on allegations of child pornography.[21][22] Comparable artworks by Henson had been exhibited without incident since 1975, perhaps indicating that this sensitivity has heightened in recent years.

In June 2008, it was reported in The Age that police would have no basis to prosecute Henson over his photographs of naked teenagers, after they were declared "mild and justified" and given a PG rating[23] by the Australian Classification Board, suggesting viewing by children under the age of 16 is suitable with parental guidance.[24] Out of protest, the Art Monthly Australia magazine published an image of the 6-year-old Olympia Nelson taken by her mother, Polixeni Papapetrou. According to the then-11-year-old Olympia, she did not believe the photograph amounted to abuse and was upset with Prime Minister Kevin Rudd's remark that he hated it. Olympia's father, art critic Professor Robert Nelson, defended it, saying: "It has nothing to do with pedophilia. The connection between artistic pictures and pedophilia cannot be made and there is no evidence for it."[25][26]

Personal privacy issues

Unlike arts in general, which traditionally relied on composed works and professional artists, the invention of photography and then the video camera has opened the art of capturing images of people and of scenes at a relatively low cost to the true amateur. Furthermore, a person could now capture images in both public and private situations. A feature of most of these private photographs and videos is that they are not intended for viewing outside of a very limited range of people, and seldom if ever by the general public.

Vernacular photography, which included nude photography and which previously has been produced for personal enjoyment, is increasingly being more widely disseminated by the medium of the Internet, at times without the knowledge and consent of the subject of the photograph, and to their subsequent embarrassment. Also, the use of secret photography to capture images of an unsuspecting person (undressed or not, and whether for personal use, or intended for posting on the Internet) creates additional personal privacy issues.

Full body scanner

Main article: Full body scanner

A full-body scanner is a device that creates an image of a person's nude body through their clothing to look for hidden objects without physically removing their clothes or making physical contact. They are increasingly being deployed at airports and train stations in many countries.

One technology used under the name "full-body scanner" is the millimeter wave scanner, the active form of which reflects extremely high frequency radio waves off the body to make an image on which one can see some types of objects hidden under the clothes. Passive millimeter wave screening devices rely on only the raw energy that is naturally emitted from the human body or objects concealed on the body; passive devices do not transmit millimeter waves.[27][28] Another technology in use is the backscatter X-ray.

Western culture

Functional nudity

Functional nudity for a short time, such as when changing clothes on a beach, is sometimes acceptable, while staying nude on the beach generally is not. On nude beaches it is acceptable to be nude.

Breastfeeding in public is forbidden in some jurisdictions, not legislated for in others, and a legal right in public and the workplace in yet others. Where it is a legal right, some mothers may be reluctant to breastfeed,[29][30] and some people may object to the practice.[31]

Toplessness and "topfreedom"

Main articles: Toplessness and Topfreedom

A woman sunbathing topless

In some cultures, toplessness is regarded as partial nudity, and the exposure of breasts or nipples may be regarded as indecent exposure. However, in many western societies and in appropriate settings, such as while suntanning, toplessness is not, of itself, normally regarded as indecent. In the United States, however, exposure of female nipples is a criminal offense in many states and not usually allowed in public (see Public indecency), while in the United Kingdom, nudity may not be used to "harass, alarm or distress" according to the Public Order Act of 1986.[32] Different standards apply to art, with one example being the dome of the US Capitol featuring a fresco depicting goddesses with their breasts exposed.

Prosecutions of cases has given raise to a movement advocating "topfreedom", promoting equal rights for women to have no clothing above the waist, on the same basis that would apply to men in the same circumstances. The term "topfree" rather than "topless" is advocated to avoid the latter term's perceived sexual connotations.


Main article: Naturism

Naturism (or nudism) is a cultural and political movement practising, advocating and defending private and public nudity. It is also a lifestyle based on personal, family and/or social preference.[33][34]

Naturists reject contemporary standards of modesty which discourage personal, family and social nudity, and seek to create a social environment where people feel comfortable in the company of nude people, and being seen nude, either just by other naturists, or also by the general public.[33][34]

Nude bathing

Main article: Nude bathing

Nude bathers at Formentera beach

The trend in some European countries (for instance Germany, Finland and the Netherlands) is to allow both genders to bathe together naked. Many German spas allow mixed nude bathing. For example the Friedrichsbad in Baden-Baden has designated times when mixed nude bathing is permitted. There may be some older German bathhouses, such as Bad Burg, which remain segregated by gender, but this is the exception rather than the rule. Most German (not to mention French, Spanish and Greek) beaches and swimming pools offer FKK (clothing-optional) areas. In general, continental Europeans have a more relaxed attitude about nudity than is seen in the British-influenced world. Some have attributed this difference to the influence of Queen Victoria's husband Albert, who was raised in a very restricting religious sect (see Victorian morality).

The sauna, originating from Finland, is attended nude in its source country[35] as well as in most Scandinavian and in the German-speaking countries of Europe. This is true even when a swimsuit must be worn in the swimming pool area of the same complex.[35] Saunas are very common in modern Finland, where there is one sauna for every three people[36] and became very popular in the remainder of Europe in recent decades. Gender segregation is more the exception than the rule in modern European sauna facilities.[citation needed]

In Russia, public banyas are also attended nude, however, they are always segregated by gender, either by having separate sections, or by days of the week. Shared areas (such as swimming pools), if present, can only be attended in bathing suits.

Non-Western attitudes

A woman wearing traditional clothing in southern Ethiopia, where toplessness among women is normal

Attitudes in Western cultures are not all the same as explained above, and likewise attitudes in non-Western cultures are many and variant. In almost all cultures, acceptability of nudity depends on the situation.

Cultural and/or religious traditions usually dictate what is proper and what is not socially acceptable. Many non-Western cultures allow women to breastfeed in public, while some have very strict laws about showing any bare skin.


The curse of nakedness

Main article: Anasyrma

In Africa, woman have used stripping naked on purpose as a curse, both historically, and in modern times. The idea is that women give life and they can take it away. The curse initiates an extreme form of ostracism, which anthropologist Terisa Turner has likened to "social execution". The curse extends to foreign men as well, and is believed to cause impotence, madness or other similar harm.[37] The threat has been used successfully in mass protests against the petroleum industry in Nigeria,[38] by Leymah Gbowee during the Second Liberian Civil War,[39] and against President Laurent Gbagbo of the Ivory Coast.[40]

Clothing and nudity

Different traditions exist among, for example, sub-Saharan Africans, partly persisting in the post-colonial era. Whereas it is the norm among some ethnic and family groups including some Burkinabese and Nilo-Saharan (e.g. Nuba and Surma people) in daily life or on particular occasions not to wear any clothes or without any covering below the waist – for example, at highly-attended stick-fighting tournaments well-exposed young men use the occasion to catch the eye of a prospective bride.


In modern Liberia, soldiers under General "Butt Naked" Joshua Blahyi fought naked in order to terrorize their opponents.[41] Nude except for lace-up leather shoes and a gun, the general led his fierce Butt Naked Battalion into battle on behalf of the warlord Roosevelt Johnson, who hired the unclothed warriors for their fearlessness and fighting skills.


In Brazil, the Yawalapiti, an indigenous Xingu tribe in the Amazon Basin, practice a funeral ritual known as Quarup, to celebrate life, death and rebirth, and also involves the presentation of all young girls who have begun menstruating since the last Quarup and whose time has come to choose a partner.


In Japan, public baths are very common. Bathing nude with family members or friends in public bath houses, saunas, or natural hot springs (Onsen) is popular.

In Korea, public baths (Jjimjilbang) are widespread and communal nude bathing is normal, although nudity is not permitted in unisex areas.

In the south Asian region, public nudity is totally restricted.

Nudity is considered shamelessness in the conservative society of India although nude beaches can be found in Goa.

In many Muslim countries, public nudity is illegal.

Some conservative people with extreme religious views consider bathing in nudity an insult to the water goddess. Hence, nudity in the view of orthodox society is considered a sin.

Imposed nudity

Prisoner abuse at the Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad, including forced nudity and humiliation, was widely condemned

In some situations nudity is imposed on a person. During witch-hunts, the alleged witches were stripped to discover the so-called witches' marks. The discovery of witches' marks was then used as evidence in trials.[42]

Nudity (full or partial) can be part of a corporal punishment or as an imposed humiliation, especially when administered in public. In fact, torture manuals have distinguished between the male and female psychological aversion to self-exposure versus being disrobed.

Nazis used forced nudity to attempt to humiliate inmates in concentration camps. This was depicted in the film Schindler's List.[43]

In 2003, Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad gained international notoriety for accounts of torture and abuses by members of the United States Army Reserve during the post-invasion period. Photographic images were circulated that exposed the posing of prisoners naked, sometimes bound, and being intimidated and otherwise humiliated, resulting in widespread condemnation of the abuse.

See also


  1. ^ "nudity – Definitions from Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
  2. ^ Get Naked with the Germans - Der Spiegel
  3. ^ The naked truth about San Francisco's nudity ban - The Guardian
  4. ^ San Francisco nudists warn of backlash if anti-naked law passes - The Guardian
  5. ^ State begins citing nudists at beach - North County times
  6. ^ "American Sex Survey" (PDF). abcnews. 2004. p. 26. Retrieved 4 September 2009. Short Analysis here
  7. ^ The Clothes Show Magazine, May 1996, BBC Magazines
  8. ^ Betty N. Gordon and Carolyn S. Schroeder (1995). Sexuality: A Developmental Approach to Problems. Springer. p. 16. ISBN 0-306-45040-2.
  9. ^ Barbara L. Bonner (1999). "When does sexual play suggest a problem?". In Howard Dubowitz and Diane Depanfilis (ed.). Handbook for Child Protection Practice [1]. Sage Publications. p. 211. ISBN 0-7619-1371-8. ((cite book)): External link in |title= (help)
  10. ^ John Bancroft (2003). Sexual Development in Childhood. Indiana University Press. pp. 146–147. ISBN 0-253-34243-0.
  11. ^ Okami. P. (1995) ." Childhood exposure to parental nudity‚ parent-child co-sleeping‚ and 'primal scenes': A review of clinical opinion and empirical evidence," Journal of Sex Research, 32: 51–64.
  12. ^ Okami, P., Olmstead, R., Abramson, P. & Pendleton, L. (1998). “Early childhood exposure to parental nudity and scenes of parental sexuality (‘primal scenes’): An 18-year longitudinal study of outcome,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, 27(4), 361–384.
  13. ^ "The Ofcom Broadcasting Code". Ofcom (Office of Communications, UK). 25 July 2005. Retrieved 1 January 2008.[dead link]
  14. ^ "Frequently asked questions about Obscenity, Indecency and Profanity". Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved 25 March 2010.
  15. ^ Mapes, Terri. "Sexuality in Scandinavia: How Scandinavia Looks at Sexuality". Retrieved 17 October 2007.
  16. ^ ACLU of Washington. "ACLU-WA's Work for Student Rights". Archived from the original on 3 April 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2007.
  17. ^ "TRINIDAD SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 1 v. CARLOS R. LOPEZ". Retrieved 28 April 2007.
  18. ^ "Interview with John Pleacher 2/16/87". Retrieved 28 April 2007.[dead link]
  19. ^ Higonnet, Anne (1998). Pictures of Innocence – The History and Crissi of Ideal Childhood. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28048-7.
  20. ^ Kincaid, James R. "Is this child pornography?". Retrieved 28 April 2007.
  21. ^ Paul Bibby (23 May 2008). "Henson exhibition shut down". The Age. Australia. Retrieved 2 September 2008.
  22. ^ See also Jock Sturges and Julia Somerville.
  23. ^ No charges for Henson. theage.com.au 6 June 2008
  24. ^ 'No charges for Henson Retrieved on 6 June 2008.
  25. ^ AAP (7 July 2008). "Photo girl defends naked cover shot". The Age. Australia.
  26. ^ Photograph of Olympia Nelson depicting Lewis Carroll's Beatrice Hatch before White Cliffs, 2003 from Polixeni Papapetrou's website.
  27. ^ Mitchel Laskey (17 March 2010). "An Assessment of Checkpoint Security: Are Our Airports Keeping Passengers Safe?" (PDF). House Homeland Security Subcommittee on Transportation Security & Infrastructure Protection.[dead link]
  28. ^ Matthew Harwood (3 May 2010). "Companies Seek Full-Body Scans That Ease Health, Privacy Concerns". Security Management.
  29. ^ Wolf, JH (2008). "Got milk? Not in public!". International breastfeeding journal. 3 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1746-4358-3-11. PMC 2518137. PMID 18680578.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: unflagged free DOI (link)
  30. ^ "Breastfeeding Legislation in the United States: A General Overview and Implications for Helping Mothers". LEAVEN. 41 (3): 51–4. 2005.
  31. ^ Jordan, Tim (23 May 2003). Social Change (Sociology and Society). BLACKWELL PUBLISHERS. p. 233. ISBN 9780631233121. ((cite book)): Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  32. ^ "What is the Law Covering Nudity in the UK? Is Nudity Lawful on Unofficial Nude Beaches?". Gouk.about.com. 8 October 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
  33. ^ a b See 2002–2003 World Naturist Handbook, pub International Naturist Federation INF-FNI, Sint Hubertusstraat, B-2600 Berchem(Antwerpen) ISBN 90-5583-833-0 The Agde definition. The INF is made up of representative of the Naturist Organisations in 32 countries, with 7 more having correspondent status. The current edition is * Naturisme, The INF World Handbook (2006) [2][dead link] ISBN 90-5062-080-9
  34. ^ a b "International Naturist Federation". Inf-fni.org. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  35. ^ a b Nakedness and the Finnish Sauna. Corz.org. Retrieved on 7 October 2011.
  36. ^ Weaver, Fran. (2010-10-08) thisisFINLAND – Seeking the real Finnish Sauna. Finland.fi. Retrieved on 7 October 2011.
  37. ^ The Curse of Nakedness. Imow.org. Retrieved on 7 October 2011.
  38. ^ Naked Ploy Is Latest Threat in Oil Wars. Commondreams.org (2002-07-31). Retrieved on 7 October 2011.
  39. ^ Leymah Gbowee and Abigail Disney Shoot for Peace in Liberia. Oprah.com. Retrieved on 7 October 2011.
  40. ^ "The Ivory Coast Effect" (article). The New Yorker. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  41. ^ How to Fight, How to Kill: Child Soldiers in Liberia: Roles and Responsibilities of Child Soldiers. Hrw.org. Retrieved on 7 October 2011.
  42. ^ Never on a Broomstick; Frank Robert Donovan; Stackpole Books, 1971; pp. 134–136
  43. ^ Substantive and Procedural Aspects of International Criminal Law: The Experience of International and National Courts; by Gabrielle Kirk McDonald, Olivia Swaak-Goldman; Published by Brill, 2000; pp. 280–283

Further reading

  • Brandom, Robert, "Critical Notice of Blind and Worried", Theoria 70:2–3, 2005.
  • Etymology OnLine- various lemmate & "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. 1 July 1929. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
  • Rouche, Michel, "Private life conquers state and society," in A History of Private Life vol I, Paul Veyne, editor, Harvard University Press 1987 ISBN 0-674-39974-9
  • Storey, Mark Social Nudity, Sexual Attraction, and Respect Nude & Natural magazine, 24.3 Spring 2005.
  • Storey, Mark Children, Social Nudity and Academic Research Nude & Natural magazine, 23.4 Summer 2004.
  • Dennis Craig Smith, The Naked Child: The Long-Range Effects of Family and Social Nudity Palo Alto: R & E Research Associates (1981) ISBN 978-0-86548-056-8
  • Dennis Craig Smith, Growing Up Without Shame, Elysium Growth Press, book, 1986
  • Smith, Dennis Craig, Naked Fear, Ultraviolet Press, 2010

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