A corporal punishment or a physical punishment is a punishment which is intended to cause physical pain to a person. When it is inflicted on minors, especially in home and school settings, its methods may include spanking or paddling. When it is inflicted on adults, it may be inflicted on prisoners and slaves.

Physical punishments for crimes or injuries, including floggings, brandings and even mutilations, were practised in most civilizations since ancient times. With the growth of humanitarian ideals since the Enlightenment, such punishments are increasingly viewed as inhumane in Western society. By the late 20th century, corporal punishment had been eliminated from the legal systems of most developed countries.[1]

In the twenty-first century, the legality of corporal punishment in various settings differs by jurisdiction. Internationally, the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries saw the application of human rights law to the question of corporal punishment in a number of contexts:

In many Western countries, medical and human rights organizations oppose the corporal punishment of children. Campaigns against corporal punishment have aimed to bring about legal reforms in order to ban the use of corporal punishment against minors in homes and schools.



Author Jared Diamond writes that hunter-gatherer societies have tended to use little corporal punishment whereas agricultural and industrial societies tend to use progressively more of it. Diamond suggests this may be because hunter-gatherers tend to have few valuable physical possessions, and misbehavior of the child would not cause harm to others' property.[4]

Researchers who have lived among the Parakanã and Ju/'hoansi people, as well as some Aboriginal Australians, have written about the absence of the physical punishment of children in those cultures.[5]

Wilson writes:

Probably the only generalization that can be made about the use of physical punishment among primitive tribes is that there was no common procedure [...] Pettit concludes that among primitive societies corporal punishment is rare, not because of the innate kindliness of these people but because it is contrary to developing the type of individual personality they set up as their ideal [...] An important point to be made here is that we cannot state that physical punishment as a motivational or corrective device is 'innate' to man.[6]


Birching, Germany, 17th century
Depiction of a flogging at Oregon State Penitentiary, 1908

In the Western world, the corporal punishment of children has traditionally been used by adults in authority roles.[7] Beating one's son as a form of punishment is even recommended in the book of Proverbs:

He that spareth the rod, hateth his son; but he that loveth him, chasteneth him betimes. (Proverbs 13:24)

A fool's lips enter into contention, and his mouth calleth for strokes. (Proverbs 18:6)

Chasten thy son while there is hope, and let not thy soul spare for his crying. (Proverbs 19:18)

Foolishness is bound in the heart of a child; but the rod of correction shall drive it from him. (Proverbs 22:15)

Withhold not correction from the child; for if thou beatest him with a rod, thou shalt deliver his soul from hell. (Proverbs 23:13–14)[8]

(Note: it has been debated among scholars as to whether what is encouraged here is the corporeal punishment of a "child" or a "young man". The word translated "child" in most cases in the Bible refers to a young man rather than a child.)[9]

Robert McCole Wilson argues that, "Probably this attitude comes, at least in part, from the desire in the patriarchal society for the elder to maintain his authority, where that authority was the main agent for social stability. But these are the words that not only justified the use of physical punishment on children for over a thousand years in Christian communities, but ordered it to be used. The words were accepted with but few exceptions; it is only in the last two hundred years that there has been a growing body of opinion that differed. Curiously, the gentleness of Christ towards children (Mark, X) was usually ignored".[10]

Foot whipping an offender, Persia, 1910s

Corporal punishment was practiced in Egypt, China, Greece, and Rome in order to maintain judicial and educational discipline.[11] Disfigured Egyptian criminals were exiled to Tjaru and Rhinocorura on the Sinai border, a region whose name meant "cut-off noses." Corporal punishment was prescribed in ancient Israel, but it was limited to 40 lashes.[12] In China, some criminals were also disfigured but other criminals were tattooed. Some states gained a reputation for their cruel use of such punishments; Sparta, in particular, used them as part of a disciplinary regime which was designed to increase willpower and physical strength.[13] Although the Spartan example was extreme, corporal punishment was possibly the most frequent type of punishment. In the Roman Empire, the maximum penalty which a Roman citizen could receive under the law was 40 "lashes" or 40 "strokes" with a whip which was applied to the back and shoulders, or 40 lashes or strokes with the "fasces" (similar to a birch rod, but consisting of 8–10 lengths of willow rather than birch) which were applied to the buttocks. Such punishments could draw blood, and they were frequently inflicted in public.

Quintilian (c. 35 – c. 100) voiced some opposition to the use of corporal punishment. According to Wilson, "probably no more lucid indictment of it has been made in the succeeding two thousand years".[13]

By that boys should suffer corporal punishment, though it is received by custom, and Chrysippus makes no objection to it, I by no means approve; first, because it is a disgrace, and a punishment fit for slaves, and in reality (as will be evident if you imagine the age change) an affront; secondly, because, if a boy's disposition be so abject as not to be amended by reproof, he will be hardened, like the worst of slaves, even to stripes; and lastly, because, if one who regularly exacts his tasks be with him, there will not be the need of any chastisement (Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 1856 edition, I, III).[13]

Plutarch, also in the first century, writes:

This also I assert, that children ought to be led to honourable practices by means of encouragement and reasoning, and most certainly not by blows or ill-treatment, for it surely is agreed that these are fitting rather for slaves than for the free-born; for so they grow numb and shudder at their tasks, partly from the pain of the blows, partly from the degradation.[14]

Birching on the buttocks

Middle Ages

In Medieval Europe, the Byzantine Empire blinded and denosed some criminals and rival emperors. Their belief that the emperor should be physically ideal meant that such disfigurement notionally disqualified the recipient from office. (The second reign of Justinian the Slit-nosed was the notable exception.) Elsewhere, corporal punishment was encouraged by the attitudes of the Catholic church towards the human body, flagellation being a common means of self-discipline. This had an influence on the use of corporal punishment in schools, as educational establishments were closely attached to the church during this period. Nevertheless, corporal punishment was not used uncritically; as early as the 11th century Saint Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury was speaking out against what he saw as the excessive use of corporal punishment in the treatment of children.[15]


From the 16th century onwards, new trends were seen in corporal punishment. Judicial punishments were increasingly turned into public spectacles, with public beatings of criminals intended as a deterrent to other would-be offenders. Meanwhile, early writers on education, such as Roger Ascham, complained of the arbitrary manner in which children were punished.[16]

Peter Newell writes that perhaps the most influential writer on the subject was the English philosopher John Locke, whose Some Thoughts Concerning Education explicitly criticised the central role of corporal punishment in education. Locke's work was highly influential, and may have helped influence Polish legislators to ban corporal punishment from Poland's schools in 1783, the first country in the world to do so.[17]

Corporal punishment in a women's prison in the United States (ca. 1890)
Batog, corporal punishment in the Russian Empire
Husaga (the right of the master of the household to corporally punish his servants) was outlawed in Sweden for adults in 1858.

A consequence of this mode of thinking was a reduction in the use of corporal punishment in the 19th century in Europe and North America. In some countries this was encouraged by scandals involving individuals seriously hurt during acts of corporal punishment. For instance, in Britain, popular opposition to punishment was encouraged by two significant cases, the death of Private Frederick John White, who died after a military flogging in 1846,[18] and the death of Reginald Cancellor, killed by his schoolmaster in 1860.[19] Events such as these mobilised public opinion and, by the late nineteenth century, the extent of corporal punishment's use in state schools was unpopular with many parents in England.[20] Authorities in Britain and some other countries introduced more detailed rules for the infliction of corporal punishment in government institutions such as schools, prisons and reformatories. By the First World War, parents' complaints about disciplinary excesses in England had died down, and corporal punishment was established as an expected form of school discipline.[20]

In the 1870s, courts in the United States overruled the common-law principle that a husband had the right to "physically chastise an errant wife".[21] In the UK, the traditional right of a husband to inflict moderate corporal punishment on his wife in order to keep her "within the bounds of duty" was similarly removed in 1891.[22][23] See Domestic violence for more information.

In the United Kingdom, the use of judicial corporal punishment declined during the first half of the twentieth century and it was abolished altogether in the Criminal Justice Act, 1948 (zi & z2 GEo. 6. CH. 58.), whereby whipping and flogging were outlawed except for use in very serious internal prison discipline cases,[24] while most other European countries had abolished it earlier. Meanwhile, in many schools, the use of the cane, paddle or tawse remained commonplace in the UK and the United States until the 1980s. In rural areas of the Southern United States, and in several other countries, it still is: see School corporal punishment.

International treaties

Human rights

Key developments related to corporal punishment occurred in the late 20th century. Years with particular significance to the prohibition of corporal punishment are emphasised.

Children's rights

The notion of children's rights in the Western world developed in the 20th century, but the issue of corporal punishment was not addressed generally before mid-century. Years with particular significance to the prohibition of corporal punishment of children are emphasised.

Modern use

Main articles: School corporal punishment, Judicial corporal punishment, and Corporal punishment in the home

Laws on corporal punishments in the world
  Prohibited altogether
  Prohibited in schools
  Not prohibited in schools nor in a home, but prohibited in at least one setting
  Not prohibited at any setting
  Depends on state (USA)
School corporal punishment in the United States

Corporal punishment of minors in the United States

  Corporal punishment prohibited in public schools
  Corporal punishment not prohibited in public schools
Legality of corporal punishment of minors in Europe
  Corporal punishment banned altogether
  Corporal punishment banned in schools only
  Corporal punishment not prohibited in schools or in the home

Legal status

See also: Child corporal punishment laws

66 countries, most of them in Europe and Latin America, have prohibited any corporal punishment of children.

The earliest recorded attempt to prohibit corporal punishment of children by a state dates back to Poland in 1783.[39]: 31–2  However, its prohibition in all spheres of life – in homes, schools, the penal system and alternative care settings – occurred first in 1966 in Sweden. The 1979 Swedish Parental Code reads: "Children are entitled to care, security and a good upbringing. Children are to be treated with respect for their person and individuality and may not be subjected to corporal punishment or any other humiliating treatment."[39]: 32 

As of 2021, corporal punishment of children by parents (or other adults) is outlawed altogether in 63 nations (including the partially recognized Republic of Kosovo) and 3 constituent nations.[2]

Countries that have completely prohibited corporal punishment of children:[2]
Country Year
 Sweden 1979
 Finland 1983
 Norway 1987
 Austria 1989
 Cyprus 1994
 Denmark 1997
 Poland 1997
 Latvia 1998
 Germany 1998
 Croatia 1999
 Bulgaria 2000
 Israel 2000
 Turkmenistan 2002
 Iceland 2003
 Ukraine 2004
 Romania 2004
 Hungary 2005
 Greece 2006
 New Zealand 2007
 Netherlands 2007
 Portugal 2007
 Uruguay 2007
 Venezuela 2007
 Spain 2007
 Togo 2007
 Costa Rica 2008
 Moldova 2008
 Luxembourg 2008
 Liechtenstein 2008
 India 2009
 Tunisia 2010
 Kenya 2010
 Congo, Republic of 2010
 Albania 2010
 South Sudan 2011
 North Macedonia 2013
 Cabo Verde 2013
 Honduras 2013
 Malta 2014
 Brazil 2014
 Bolivia 2014
 Argentina 2014
 San Marino 2014
 Nicaragua 2014
 Estonia 2014
 Andorra 2014
 Benin 2015
 Ireland 2015
 Peru 2015
 Mongolia 2016
 Montenegro 2016
 Paraguay 2016
 Aruba 2016[40]
 Slovenia 2016
 Lithuania 2017
   Nepal 2018
 Kosovo 2019
 France 2019
 South Africa 2019
 Jersey 2019
 Georgia 2020
 Japan 2020
 Seychelles 2020
 Scotland 2020
 Guinea 2021
 Colombia 2021
 South Korea 2021
 Wales 2022
 Zambia 2022
 Mauritius 2022

For a more detailed overview of the global use and prohibition of the corporal punishment of children, see the following table.

Summary of the number of countries prohibiting corporal punishment of children[2]
Home Schools Penal system Alternative care settings
As sentence for crime As disciplinary measure
Prohibited 67 130 156 117 39
Not prohibited 131 68 41 77 159
Legality unknown 1 4

Corporal punishment in the home

Main article: Corporal punishment in the home

An overview of the Abolition of Defence of Reasonable Punishment Act 2020, which ends the physical punishment of children everywhere in Wales, including the home

Domestic corporal punishment (i.e. the punishment of children by their parents) is often referred to colloquially as "spanking", "smacking", or "slapping".

It has been outlawed in an increasing number of countries, starting with Sweden in 1979.[41][2] In some other countries, corporal punishment is legal, but restricted (e.g. blows to the head are outlawed, implements may not be used, only children within a certain age range may be spanked).

In all states of the United States and most African and Asian nations, corporal punishment by parents is legal. It is also legal to use certain implements (e.g. a belt or a paddle).

In Canada, spanking by parents or legal guardians (but nobody else) is legal, with certain restrictions: the child must be between the ages of 2–12, and no implement other than an open, bare hand may be used (belts, paddles, etc. are prohibited). It is also illegal to strike the head when disciplining a child.[42][43]

In the UK (except Scotland and Wales), spanking or smacking is legal, but it must not cause an injury amounting to actual bodily harm (any injury such as visible bruising, breaking of the whole skin, etc.). In addition, in Scotland, since October 2003, it has been illegal to use any implements or to strike the head when disciplining a child, and it is also prohibited to use corporal punishment towards children under the age of 3 years. In 2019, Scotland enacted a ban on corporal punishment, which went into effect in 2020. Wales also enacted a ban in 2020, which has gone into effect in 2022.[44]

In Pakistan, Section 89 of Pakistan Penal Code allows corporal punishment.[45]

Corporal punishment in schools

Main article: School corporal punishment

Corporal punishment in schools has been outlawed in many countries. It often involves striking the student on the buttocks or the palm of the hand with an implement (e.g. a rattan cane or a spanking paddle).

In countries where corporal punishment is still allowed in schools, there may be restrictions; for example, school caning in Singapore and Malaysia is, in theory, permitted for boys only.

In India and many other countries, corporal punishment has technically been abolished by law. However, corporal punishment continues to be practiced on boys and girls in many schools around the world. Cultural perceptions of corporal punishment have rarely been studied and researched. One study carried out discusses how corporal punishment is perceived among parents and students in India.[46]

Medical professionals have urged putting an end to the practice, noting the danger of injury to children's hands especially.[47]

Judicial or quasi-judicial punishment

Main article: Judicial corporal punishment

  Countries with judicial corporal punishment
A member of the Taliban's religious police beating an Afghan woman in Kabul on 26 August 2001

Around 33 countries in the world still retain judicial corporal punishment, including a number of former British territories such as Botswana, Malaysia, Singapore and Tanzania. In Singapore, for certain specified offences, males are routinely sentenced to caning in addition to a prison term. The Singaporean practice of caning became much discussed around the world in 1994 when American teenager Michael P. Fay received four strokes of the cane for vandalism. Judicial caning and whipping are also used in Aceh Province in Indonesia.[48]

A number of other countries with an Islamic legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, UAE, Qatar, Iran, Brunei, Sudan, and some northern states in Nigeria, employ judicial whipping for a range of offences. In April 2020, the Saudi Supreme Court ended the flogging punishment from its court system, and replaced it with jail time or fines.[49] As of 2009, some regions of Pakistan are experiencing a breakdown of law and government, leading to a reintroduction of corporal punishment by ad hoc Islamicist courts.[50] As well as corporal punishment, some Islamic countries such as Saudi Arabia and Iran use other kinds of physical penalties such as amputation or mutilation.[51][52][53] However, the term "corporal punishment" has since the 19th century usually meant caning, flagellation or bastinado rather than those other types of physical penalty.[54][55][56][57][58][59][60]

In some countries, foot whipping (bastinado) is still practiced on prisoners.[61]


According to a study headed by Harvard researchers, corporal punishment like spanking could affect the brain development of children. These effects are similar to the more severe form of violence.[62]


In parts of England, boys were once beaten under the old tradition of "Beating the Bounds" whereby a boy was paraded around the edge of a city or parish and spanked with a switch or cane to mark the boundary.[63] One famous "Beating the Bounds" took place around the boundary of St Giles and the area where Tottenham Court Road now stands in central London. The actual stone that marked the boundary is now underneath the Centre Point office tower.[64]

In the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and some parts of Hungary, a tradition for health and fertility is carried out on Easter Monday. Boys and young men will spank or whip girls and young women on the bottom with braided willow branches. After the man sings the verse, the young woman turns around and the man takes a few whacks at her backside with the whip. [65][66]

In popular culture

The Flagellation, by Piero della Francesca


Film and TV

See: List of films and TV containing corporal punishment scenes.

See also


  1. ^ "Corporal punishment". Encyclopædia Britannica. 9 November 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d e "States which have prohibited all corporal punishment". www.endcorporalpunishment.org. Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children.
  3. ^ a b "Progress". Global Partnership to End Violence Against Children. 2021.
  4. ^ Diamond, Jared (2013). The World Until Yesterday. Viking. Ch. 5. ISBN 978-1-101-60600-1.
  5. ^ Gray, Peter (2009). "Play as a Foundation for Hunter-Gatherer Social Existence". American Journal of Play. 1 (4): 476–522. Archived from the original on 14 April 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  6. ^ Wilson (1971), 2.1.
  7. ^ Rich, John M. (December 1989). "The Use of Corporal Punishment". The Clearing House, Vol. 63, No. 4, pp. 149–152.
  8. ^ Wilson, Robert M. (1971). A Study of Attitudes Towards Corporal Punishment as an Educational Procedure From the Earliest Times to the Present (Thesis). University of Victoria. 2.3. OCLC 15767752.
  9. ^ Leeb, Carolyn (2000). Away from the Father's House. 19 Kingfield Road Sheffield S11 9AS England: Sheffield Academic Press Ltd. ISBN 1-84127-105-5.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location (link)
  10. ^ Wilson (1971), 2.3.
  11. ^ Wilson (1971), 2.3–2.6.
  12. ^ Deuteronomy 25:1-3
  13. ^ a b c Wilson (1971), 2.5.
  14. ^ Plutarch, Moralia. The Education of Children, Loeb Classical Library. Harvard University Press, 1927.
  15. ^ Wicksteed, Joseph H. The Challenge of Childhood: An Essay on Nature and Education, Chapman & Hall, London, 1936, pp. 34–35. OCLC 3085780
  16. ^ Ascham, Roger. The scholemaster, John Daye, London, 1571, p. 1. Republished by Constable, London, 1927. OCLC 10463182
  17. ^ Newell, Peter (ed.). A Last Resort? Corporal Punishment in Schools, Penguin, London, 1972, p. 9 ISBN 0140806989
  18. ^ Barretts, C.R.B. The History of The 7th Queen's Own Hussars Vol. II Archived 3 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  19. ^ Middleton, Jacob (2005). "Thomas Hopley and mid-Victorian attitudes to corporal punishment". History of Education.
  20. ^ a b Middleton, Jacob (November 2012). "Spare the Rod". History Today (London).
  21. ^ Calvert, R. "Criminal and civil liability in husband-wife assaults", in Violence in the family (Suzanne K. Steinmetz and Murray A. Straus, eds.), Harper & Row, New York, 1974. ISBN 0-396-06864-2
  22. ^ R. v Jackson Archived 7 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine, [1891] 1 QB 671, abstracted at LawTeacher.net.
  23. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Corporal Punishment" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 189–190.
  24. ^ Criminal Justice Act, 1948 zi & z2 GEo. 6. CH. 58., pp. 54–55.
  25. ^ This applies to the 47 members of the Council of Europe, an entirely separate body from the European Union, which has only 28 member states.
  26. ^ Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children (2012). Retrieved 1 May 2012. "Key Judgements." The ruling concerned the Isle of Man, a UK Crown Dependency.
  27. ^ UN (2012) "4 . International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Archived 1 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine," United Nations Treaty Collection. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
  28. ^ UN Human Rights Committee (1992) "General Comment No. 20". HRI/GEN/1/Rev.4.: p. 108
  29. ^ UN (2012) "9 . Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment Archived 8 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine. United Nations Treaty Collection. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
  30. ^ UN (1996) General Assembly Official Records, Fiftieth Session, A/50/44, 1995: par. 177, and A/51/44, 1996: par. 65(i).
  31. ^ UN (2012). 3. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Archived 17 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine United Nations Treaty Collection. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
  32. ^ UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1999) "General Comment on 'The Right to Education'," HRI/GEN/1/Rev.4: 73.
  33. ^ European Committee of Social Rights 2001. "Conclusions XV – 2," Vol. 1.
  34. ^ UN (2012). 11. Convention on the Rights of the Child Archived 11 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. United Nations Treaty Collection. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
  35. ^ UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (2006) "General Comment No. 8:" par. 3. However, Article 19 of the Convention makes no reference to corporal punishment, and the Committee's interpretation on this point has been explicitly rejected by several States Party to the Convention, including Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom.
  36. ^ UN OHCHR (2012). Committee on the Rights of the Child. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
  37. ^ UN (2006) "Study on Violence against Children presented by Independent Expert for the Secretary-General". United Nations, A/61/299. See further: UN (2012e). Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Violence against Children Archived 8 March 2022 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
  38. ^ UN (2007) United Nations General Assembly, A/RES/62/141. The United States was the only country to vote against. There were no abstentions.
  39. ^ a b Abolishing corporal punishment of children : questions and answers (PDF). Strasbourg: Council of Europe. 2007. ISBN 978-9-287-16310-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 August 2014.
  40. ^ "Aruba has prohibited all corporal punishment of children - Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children". Archived from the original on 6 March 2018. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  41. ^ Durrant, Joan E. (1996). "The Swedish Ban on Corporal Punishment: Its History and Effects". In Frehsee, Detlev; et al. (eds.). Family Violence Against Children: A Challenge for Society. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 19–25. ISBN 3-11-014996-6.
  42. ^ "To spank or not to spank?". CBC News. 31 July 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  43. ^ Barnett, Laura. "The "Spanking" Law: Section 43 of the Criminal Code". Parliament of Canada. Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  44. ^ "Wales introduces ban on smacking and slapping children". The Guardian. London. 21 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  45. ^ Wajeeh, Ul Hassan. "Pakistan Penal Code (Act XLV of 1860)". Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  46. ^ Ghosh, Arijit; Pasupathi, Madhumathi (18 August 2016). "Perceptions of Students and Parents on the Use of Corporal Punishment at Schools in India" (PDF). Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities. 8 (3): 269–280. doi:10.21659/rupkatha.v8n3.28.
  47. ^ "Corporal Punishment to Children's Hands", A Statement by Medical Authorities as to the Risks, January 2002.
  48. ^ McKirdy, Euan (14 July 2018). "Gay men, adulterers publicly flogged in Aceh, Indonesia". CNN. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
  49. ^ "Saudi Arabia to end flogging as form of punishment - document". Reuters. 24 April 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  50. ^ Walsh, Declan. "Video of girl's flogging as Taliban hand out justice", The Guardian, London, 2 April 2009.
  51. ^ Campaign against the Arms Trade, Evidence to the House of Commons Select Committee on Foreign Affairs, London, January 2005.
  52. ^ "Lashing Justice", Editorial, The New York Times, 3 December 2007.
  53. ^ "Saudi Arabia: Court Orders Eye to Be Gouged Out", Human Rights Watch, 8 December 2005.
  54. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition, 1989, "corporal punishment: punishment inflicted on the body; originally including death, mutilation, branding, bodily confinement, irons, the pillory, etc. (as opposed to a fine or punishment in estate or rank). In 19th c. usually confined to flogging or similar infliction of bodily pain."
  55. ^ "Physical punishment such as caning or flogging" – Concise Oxford Dictionary.
  56. ^ "... inflicted on the body, esp. by beating." – Oxford American Dictionary of Current English.
  57. ^ "mostly a euphemism for the enforcement of discipline by applying canes, whips or birches to the buttocks." – Charles Arnold-Baker, The Companion to British History, Routledge, 2001.
  58. ^ "Physical punishment such as beating or caning" – Chambers 21st Century Dictionary.
  59. ^ "Punishment of a physical nature, such as caning, flogging, or beating." – Collins English Dictionary.
  60. ^ "the striking of somebody's body as punishment" – Encarta World English Dictionary, MSN. Archived 31 October 2009.
  61. ^ "Confirming Torture: The Use of Imaging in Victims of Falanga". Forensic Magazine. 6 August 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  62. ^ "Spanking children may impair their brain development". 12 April 2021.
  63. ^ "Mayor may axe child spanking rite", BBC News Online, 21 September 2004.
  64. ^ Ackroyd, Peter. London: The Biography, Chatto & Windus, London, 2000. ISBN 1-85619-716-6
  65. ^ babastudio. "Whipping away infertility at Easter". Bohemian Magic. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
  66. ^ Prucha, Emily (31 March 2012). "What's Easter without a Whipping?". InCultureParent. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
  67. ^ [1]| Reynolda House Museum of American Art

Further reading