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Black supremacy or black supremacism is a racial supremacist belief which maintains that black people are inherently superior to people of other races.
Black supremacy was advocated by Jamaican preacher Leonard Howell in the 1935 Rastafari movement tract The Promised Key. Howell's use of "Black Supremacy" had both religious and political implications. Politically, as a direct counterpoint to white supremacy, and the failure of white governments to protect black people, he advocated the destruction of white governments. Howell had drawn upon as an influence the work of the earlier proto-Rastafari preacher Fitz Balintine Pettersburg, in particular the latter's book The Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy.
The Associated Press described the teachings of the Nation of Islam (NOI) as having been black supremacist until 1975, when W. Deen Mohammed succeeded Elijah Muhammad (his father) as its leader. Elijah Muhammad's black-supremacist doctrine acted as a counter to the supremacist paradigm established and controlled by white supremacy. The SPLC described the group as having a "theology of innate black superiority over whites – a belief system vehemently and consistently rejected by mainstream Muslims".
The term Black Supremacy has been used by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), an American civil rights advocacy group, to describe several groups in the United States. However, in October 2020, the SPLC announced that they would no longer use the category of "Black Supremacy" because:
SPLC states that it will continue to track some of the groups previously in their "Black supremacist" category, but only for antisemitic, anti-LGBTQ and male supremacist views, but not for anti-White views.
Several fringe groups have been described as either holding or promoting black supremacist beliefs. A source described by historian David Mark Chalmers as being "the most extensive source on right-wing extremism" is the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), an American nonprofit organization that monitors hate groups and extremists in the United States. Authors of the SPLC's quarterly Intelligence Reports have described the following groups as holding black supremacist views:
During speeches given at the Freedom Rally in Cobo Hall on June 23, 1963, at Oberlin College in June 1965, and at the Southern Methodist University on March 17, 1966, Martin Luther King Jr. said:
A doctrine of black supremacy is as dangerous as a doctrine of white supremacy. God is not interested in the freedom of black men or brown men or yellow men. God is interested in the freedom of the whole human race, the creation of a society where every man will respect the dignity and worth of personality.— Martin Luther King Jr., Speech at the Southern Methodist University, March 17, 1966.
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