This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. (August 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this message) This article's lead section may be too short to adequately summarize the key points. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this message)

Women in Iran
General Statistics
Maternal mortality (per 100,000)21 (2010)
Women in parliament6% (2016)
Women over 25 with secondary education62.1% (2010)
Women in labour force49% (2011)
Gender Inequality Index[1]
Value0.459 (2021)
Rank115th out of 191
Global Gender Gap Index[2]
Value0.576 (2022)
Rank143rd out of 146

Throughout history, women in Iran have played numerous roles, and contributed in many ways, to Iranian society. Historically, tradition maintained that women be confined to their homes to manage the household and raise children.[citation needed] During the Pahlavi era, there was a drastic social change towards women's desegregation such as ban of the veil, right to vote, right to education, equal salaries for men and women, and the right to hold public office. Women were active participants in the Islamic Revolution. Iran's constitution, adopted after the Islamic Revolution in 1979, proclaims equality for men and women under Article 20,[3] while mandating legal code adhering to Sharia law. Article 21 of the constitution as well as a few parliament-passed laws give women rights such as being allowed to drive, hold public office, and attend university but not wearing a veil in public can be punished by law;[4] and when in public, all hair and skin except the face and hands must be covered.[5] However, this is often not enforced; notably in recent years, Iranian women have started a number of groups to rebel against the government's oppressive policies and reclaim their independence and rights.[6]


Ancient Iran

See also: Women in the Achaemenid Empire, Women in the Parthian Empire, and Women in the Sasanian Empire

linear-Elamite women inscription. Late 3rd Millennium BC silver cup, Marvdasht.

Archaeological excavations at Shahr-e Sukhteh ("Burnt City"), a prehistoric settlement in the Sistan-Baluchistan province of southeastern Iran, have revealed that women in the region during the 4th to 3rd millennium BC possessed high status. Of the seals discovered in graves there, 90% were in possession of women,[7] who made up over 60% of the population.[8] The distribution of these seals – instruments of trade and government which represented economic and administrative control – revealed these women to have been a powerful group in their prehistoric society.[7]

The early Achaemenid-era Persepolis fortification and treasury tablets refers to women in three different terms: mutu, irti and duksis.[9] The first refers to ordinary (non-royal) women; the second to unmarried members of the royal family; and the last duksis to married women of royalty. Such differentiated terminology shows the significance of marital status and of a woman's relationship to the king. The tablets also reveal that women of the royal household traveled extensively and often personally administered their own estates.[9] The queen consort and her ladies-in-waiting are known to have played polo against the emperor and his courtiers.[10] The only limits on the extent of the authority exercised by the king's mother were set by the monarch himself.[11]

In the tablets, "non-royals and the ordinary workers are mentioned by their rank in the specific workgroup or workshops they were employed. The rations they received are based on skill and the level of responsibility they assumed in the workplace. The professions are divided by gender and listed according to the amount of ration. Records indicate that some professions were undertaken by both sexes while others were restricted to either male or female workers. There are male and female supervisors at the mixed workshops as evident by the higher rations they have received with little difference in the number of rations between the two sexes. There are also occasions where women listed in the same category as men received fewer rations and vice versa. Female managers have different titles presumably reflecting their level of skill and rank. The highest-ranking female workers in the texts are called arashshara (great chief). They appear repeatedly in the texts, were employed at different locations, and managed large groups of women, children, and sometimes men working in their units. They usually receive high rations of wine and grains exceeding all the other workers in the unit including the males."[9] Pregnant women also received higher rations than others. Women with newborn children also received extra rations for one month.

A few experts say that it was Cyrus the Great who, twelve centuries before Islam, established the custom of covering women to protect their chastity. According to their theory, the veil passed from the Achaemenids to the Hellenistic Seleucids. They, in turn, handed it to the Byzantines, from whom the Arab conquerors turned it into the hijab, transmitting it over the vast reaches of the Muslim world.[12]

The Sassanid princess Purandokht, daughter of Khosrau II, ruled the Persian empire for almost two years before resigning. During the Sassanian dynasty, many of the Iranian soldiers who were captured by Romans were women who were fighting along with the men.[13]

Persian women are depicted in many masterpieces of Persian miniatures.[14] These are often used as sources to "trace through the sequence of women's fashion from earlier periods".[15]

At the Battle of Ctesiphon (363) the victorious Roman soldiers prized young Persian women, seizing them as war booty.[16]

Islamic periods

Qajar Dynasty

During the Qajar period, women played the role of reserve labor, which was important in the economy. Their work always benefited the family, businesses owner, and the state. Rural and lower-class women were mostly involved in carpet weaving, embroidery, and the production of clothing, textile, butter, fruits, and tea. They also worked in silk and cotton manufacturing as well as other handicrafts. Women were also employed at mortuaries, public bathhouses, and in more affluent houses as maids, wet nurses, and nannies.[17]  In more populous cities women worked as entertainers, dancers, or prostitutes. Although many work opportunities were open for women their wages were lower. Women that worked in textiles during this time period earned an average of one-third of what men did.[18] Even though women were given the ability to earn a wage, they still did not have many rights, it was still possible for rural girls to be sold by the head of their families.

This time period, especially between 1905 and 1911, was the start of women's 'awakening'[19] in Persia. It can be suggested that this awakening can be defined as a women's movement and feminism. Women began to become more involved with the public sphere, and Nasir al-Din Shah's harem participated in the 1891 tobacco revolt. However, it was not just wealthy women who were involved but also the common women. Washerwomen donated savings, along with wealthy women's jewelry contributions, to help sponsor a national bank. The storming[19] of Majilis (parliament) in 1911 by women showed an unprecedented political awareness of women as well as a public action. Generally, there were precedents that restricted women's actions, where they were often portrayed as prisoners because of their gender inferiority.

Often there is an orientalist view of Qajar women before the revolution. Badr al-Moluk Bamdad, wife of Ahmad Shah Qajar classic work, From Darkness to Light, published two years before the Islamic Revolution (1968-1969) refers to Persian history before the tobacco revolt as "a century of darkness",[20] in which women are "poor creatures"[20] and "powerless dolls"[20] who are secluded from society while being concealed "under thick coverings and dependent like parasites".[20] Bamdad also claimed that women were "prisoners, confined in the home or under the veil and the cloak"[20]"

Sima Bahar in an article titled, A Historical Background to the Women's Movement in Iran identified that the constitutional revolution period was the first occasion women participated with men in public action. She considers that during the Qajar period "women's activities were solely limited to the household; if they were active in production at all such as in villages, the production was for the household. Women of the upper class lead an even more secluded life... they were only allowed to go out accompanied by men."[21]

During the Qajar dynasty (1789–1925), Malek Jahan Khanom as queen mother exerted serious political influence during the reign of her son, from 1848 until her death in 1873.

"Malek Jahan Khanom, Mahd-e Olia", wife and mother of Qajar rulers

Pahlavi Dynasty

Female Iranian PhDs in front of Tehran University's reactor, 1968. Text: "A quarter of Iran's Nuclear Energy scientists are women".

The Pahlavi Shahs were the rulers of Iran between 1925 and 1979 and they introduced many reforms concerning women's rights. An example of an early reform introduced by Reza Shah was the Kashf-e hijab, the "forced unveiling of women by a special decree on January 8, 1936, which, as the name suggests, involved the police force pulling the hijab away even from religious women, by force."[22] Women's involvement in society in general increased. Iranian women increasingly participated in the economy, the education sector, and in the workforce. Levels of literacy were also improved. Examples of women's involvement: women acquired high official positions, such as ministers, artists, judges, scientists, athletes, etc.

Under Reza Shah's successor Mohammad Reza Shah many more significant reforms were introduced. For example, in 1963, the Shah granted female suffrage, and soon after women were elected to the Majlis (the parliament) and the upper house, and appointed as judges and ministers in the cabinet.[22] In 1967 Iranian family law was also reformed which improved the position of women in Iranian society. It was included in the civil code and was designed to protect wives, children and female divorcees. The general thrust of the reforms was to promote equality between men and women in society.

The Family Protection Laws of 1967 and 1973 required a husband to go to court to divorce rather than the proclamation of the triple talaq, "I divorce thee" three times, as stipulated by traditional sharia law. It allowed a wife to initiate divorce and required the first wife's permission for a husband to take a second wife. Child custody was left to new family protection courts rather than automatically granted to the father. The minimum age at which a female could marry was raised from 13 to 15 in 1967 and to 18 in 1975.[23]

Throughout the Pahlavi period, female advancements in education and labor were significant. From 1965 to 1966, the percentage of illiterate women dropped by 11%. However, this decrease in illiteracy had mainly taken place in the urban areas, which saw a decrease of 20% in illiteracy, while rural areas, by contrast, saw a decrease of 3%. This is most likely due to the increase of educational centers and universities across Iranian cities, mainly in Tehran and Abadan, during this time period.[24] The increase in education among females led to an increase in female participation in various labor fields throughout the 1956–1966 period. Women began entering fields such as biology, agricultural studies, medicine, teaching, law, and economics among other fields, giving them more significant political power. In urban centers, the employment of women in Abadan, Tabriz, and Esfahan increased, with the latter two seeing significant increases in female labor. Interestingly during this period, female employment in Tehran dropped slightly.[24]

Islamic Republic of Iran

Decreasing fertility rate shows Iranian women are comparatively less eager to give birth.

Following the 1979 Iranian Revolution Iran became an Islamic republic. During the era of the post-Revolution rule, Iranian women had more opportunities in some areas and more restrictions in others. One of the striking features of the revolution was the large-scale participation of women from traditional backgrounds in demonstrations leading up to the overthrow of the monarchy. The Iranian women who had gained confidence and higher education under the Pahlavi era participated in demonstrations against the Shah to topple the monarchy. The culture of education for women was established by the time of the revolution so that even after the revolution, large numbers of women entered civil service and higher education,[25] and, in 1996, 14 women were elected to the Islamic Consultative Assembly.

The leadership of Ayatollah Khomeini led to many paradoxical issues for women. Women gained much influence in certain areas, but still faced many political obstacles to equality with men. For example, women were allowed to serve in the military, often in paramilitary groups, but were restricted in many fields of study in school. After the breakout of the Iran–Iraq War, women continued to gain political power. Women were mobilized both on the front lines and at home in the workplace. They participated in basic infantry roles, but also in intelligence programs and political campaigning. During the height of the Iran-Iraq War, women made up a large portion of the domestic workforce, replacing men who were fighting, injured, or dead.[26]

Khomeini often expressed appreciation for women's issues after he took power. In May 1979, Khomeini addressed his audience and spoke about Fatimah: "After the death of her father, Fatimah (peace be upon her), lived for seventy-five days. She was in this world, overcome with sadness and grief. Gabriel, the Trusted Spirit, came to visit and console her and tell her of future events." So, according to this tradition, in these seventy-five days that she had contact with Gabriel, he came and went many times. I do not believe that anyone else except the great prophets has had such an experience, in which for seventy-five days Gabriel, the Trusted Spirit, came and went and spoke of things that would take place in the future, that would happen to her ancestors in the future."[27] The Ayatollah spoke fondly of Fatimah as a role model for women. He said that even though she was visited by the Angel Gabriel, this is not what made her special. To him, her admirable qualities were twofold and supposedly represented by the visits from Gabriel: her special spiritual status and her excellent moral character. He continued to explain that Fatimah could have been born with this spiritual status or Fatimah could have gone through a kind of unique mystical experience. This is why the Ayatollah believed she represented the ideal female role model. Fatimah's moral excellence is observed in three interconnected activities: struggle, inspiring men, and suffering.[28] Fatimah inspired her husband as a devout Muslim. Khomeini draws parallels to this inspiration with women of Iran and how they should strive to follow their religious calling like Fatimah.

While during the revolution, the veil was worn and seen as a symbol of protest many women were alarmed when talk of the hijab being compulsory was discussed. This resulted in the International Women's Day Protests in Tehran, 1979 against compulsory hijab. The topic was inflated when Ayatollah Khomeini was quoted to say that he preferred to see women in modest Islamic clothing.[29] In 1981 veiling was made compulsory and cosmetics were banned, harsh punishments were also introduced by the morality police such as the removal of lipstick by a razor blade.[29] In the early 1980s women were banned from acting as judges and were discouraged from becoming lawyers. The Islamic government repealed the Family Protection Laws of 1967 and 1973, which restricted polygamy, allowed women the right to divorce, and raised the minimum age for marriage. The regime banned contraception and lowered the marriage age of girls from 15 to 9. They also banned women from various fields of study and professions.

After the death of Ayatollah Khomeini, many of the restrictions on women were lifted. The government tried to stabilize population growth by distributing contraceptives often for free of charge. This caused the fertility rate to decline from 3.2 to 2.3 children per woman, which was one of the lowest rates in the Middle East.[29]  In 1992, the High Council of the Integration Revolution adopted a set of Employment Policies for women, that encouraged the integration of women into the labor force while still emphasizing the importance of family roles for women.  Women were encouraged to enter gynecology, pharmacology, midwifery, and laboratory work. Although they continued to be prevented by certain professors as 'Islamically inappropriate'. In 1990 the field of law was open to women and they were permitted in the Special Civic Courts, although they cannot serve as judges.[30]

After the death of Khomeini, more practical reforms under President Rafsanjani for women began. Rafsanjani asserted that in Islam, "There are no barriers to the education of women in any field." The three major fields which Rafsanjani focused on were education, family planning, health, and marriage. Statistics from the 1986/87 years show that female admissions into schools of dentistry, audiology, statistics, optometry, radiology, and radiotherapy were on par with men. According to the religious-political leaders, it is believed that a woman in Iran can be both traditional and modern at the same time, this is instilled in the education they receive. Meaning that a woman's central role is in the home, taking care of children, their family and house duties, while also being able to go out into the social world and create a public life but not deteriorating any social standing of her family. The restriction of the home creates a traditional private realm for the woman while the freedom of going out creates a modern social presence. The Islamic Republic had never intended to purposely bind a woman to her home and have her fulfill wifely and motherly duties, however, it is in the religious aspect of the republic that this was done. Islam does not prohibit women from public life however it is the political and cultural climate of Iran that encourages women to practice a private domestic life. Many schools are now inspiring young girls to prepare for tomorrow, as a mother and a wife and as active figures in the involvement of social and political affairs. However, it is evident that the Education Plan of the Islamic Republic has a clear divide between the education taught to boys and girls. This includes introducing the role of responsibility for a family as well as the roles of males and females in marital life. But girls are given the confidence to put themselves out into the education fields that they desire to be in while keeping a personal family life in mind.[31] Aside from education, Rafsanjani greatly focused on family planning and health across Iran, with women playing the central role. Iran's population throughout the 1980s soared despite the Iran–Iraq War, with the birthrate reaching 3.9 in 1983, double the world average. Health clinics for women were established nation-wide; by 1994, there were more than 10,000 health centers in Iran, and once-banned contraceptives were made available to women.[32] In 1986, the Majlis voted to introduce a 12-article law which allowed many marriage rights to women. These rights included prenuptial agreements, a divorced woman's right to a share of the property, and increased alimony rights. In 1992, the Council of Expediency passed a law allowing women who were "unjustly and unfairly" divorced to collect payment from the former husband for services she had performed during the course of the marriage.[33]

Iran Late 1970s Comparison Iran Early 2010s
42.33% Literacy (15-24)[34] 97.70%
24.42% Literacy (>15)[34] 79.23%
48,845 Students[35] 2,191,409
122,753 Graduates[36] 5,023,992
2.4% Graduates (%)[36] 18.4%
19.7 Age at 1st marriage[37] 23.4

By 1999, Iran had 140 female publishers, enough to hold an exhibition of books and magazines published by women.[38] As of 2005, 65 percent of Iran's university students and 43 percent of its salaried workers were women.[39] As of early 2007, nearly 70 percent of Iran's science and engineering students are women.[40]

27.1% female ministers in government put Iran among first 23 countries in early 2000s,[41] 2.8–4.9% female parliamentarians in past 15 years put it among least 25 countries.[42] In 2009 Fatemeh Bodaghi became vice president for Legal Affairs and a top advisor to President Mahmoud Ahmedinejad.[43] Maryam Mojtahidzadeh who runs the women's ministry was also selected as an advisor to the president.[44]

At least one observer (Robert D. Kaplan) has commented on the less traditional attitude of many women in Iran compared to other Middle Eastern countries. "In Iran, you could point a camera at a woman... and she would smile" in contrast to other more conservative places where women may mind this.[45]

There are also women in the Iranian police who deal with crimes committed by women and children.[46][47] According to opinion of Supreme Leader of Iran, Ali Khamenei, giving opportunity for develop woman's talents in the family and society is respecting to the woman.[48]

On May 14, 2019, the Iranian Islamic Consultative Assembly approved an amendment to their nationality law, in which women married to men with a foreign nationality should request to confer nationality on children under age 18, while children and spouses of Iranian men are granted nationality automatically. However, the Guardian Council should approve the amendment.[49] On October 2, 2019, the Guardian Council agreed to sign the bill into a law,[50] taking into account the background checks on foreign fathers.[51]

In August 2019, the FFIRI lifted the ban on Iranian women's entry to football stadiums for the first time in 40 years.[52] On September 8, 2019, Sahar Khodayari self-immolated after being arrested for trying to enter a stadium. Following that incident, FIFA assured that Iranian women are able to attend stadiums starting from October 2019.[53] On October 10, 2019, more than 3,500 women attended the Azadi Stadium for a World Cup qualifier against Cambodia.[54]

Women and Iran's anti-government protests

The human rights organization Amnesty International has reported that it has received reports of several cases of rape of women and men detainees in Iran's prisons. On January 17, 2020, Raha Bahreini, Amnesty International's special reporter on Iran, revealed a case of sexual assault on an Iranian woman who had been detained in Tehran during the protests that erupted after the downing of a Ukrainian passenger plane.[55]


See also: Women's fraction, Vice Presidency for Women and Family Affairs, List of female members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly, and List of female members of the Cabinet of Iran

Current women's representation
Body Seats
Assembly of Experts
Guardian Council
Expediency Council
City Councils

Women in Iran were granted the right to vote in 1963.[56] They were first admitted to Iranian universities in 1937.[57] Since then, several women have held high-ranking posts in the government or parliament. Before and after the 1979 revolution, several women were appointed ministers or ambassadors. Farrokhroo Parsa was the first woman to be appointed Minister of Education in 1968 and Mahnaz Afkhami was appointed Minister for Women's Affairs in 1976.

Some, such as Tahereh Saffarzadeh, Masumeh Ebtekar, Azam Taleghani, Fatemeh Haghighatjou, Elaheh Koulaei, Fatemeh Javadi, Marzieh Dabbaq and Zahra Rahnavard came after the revolution. Other Iranian women, such as Goli Ameri and Farah Karimi, hold positions in Western countries.

There are currently 17 women in parliament, of a total of 290 parliamentarians.[58] This was up from nine in the previous elections.

Currently, there are several all-female political organizations active in Iran, including:

Party Secretary-General Camp
Zeynab Society Azam Haji-Abbasi[59] Principlist
Association of the Women of the Islamic Revolution Sedigheh Hejazi[60] Principlist
Islamic Assembly of Ladies Fatemeh Karroubi Reformist
Association of the Women of the Islamic Republic Zahra Mostafavi Khomeini Reformist
Women Journalists Association Jaleh Faramarzian[61] Reformist
Reformist Women's Party Zahra Shojaei[62] Reformist
Society of Progressive Muslim Women Fatemeh Rakeei[63] Reformist
Women's Society of the Islamic Revolution Azam Taleghani[64] Reformist
Society for Support of Women's Rights Shahindokht Molaverdi[65] Reformist


Main article: Women's education in Iran

Female alumnae of Isfahan University of Technology. According to UNESCO data from 2012, Iran has more female students in engineering fields than any other country in the world.[66]

The importance of education for Iranian Women is characterized by the main role of what the education can provide directly or indirectly helping them to gain consciousness and skills to fill the gap of gender inequality. It can also be useful to understand the reasons of their injustice and how women can make better their marginal social positions.[67]

Education held an important role in Iranian society, especially as the nation began a period of modernization under the authority of Reza Shah Pahlavi in the early 20th century when the number of women's schools began to grow. Formal education for women in Iran began in 1907 with the establishment of the first primary school for girls.[68] By mid-century, legal reforms granting women the right to vote and raising the minimum age for marriage offered more opportunities for women to pursue education outside the home.[68] After periods of imposed restrictions, women's educational attainment continued its rise through the Islamification of education following the Iranian Revolution of 1979, peaking in the years following radical changes such as correcting contradictions[67] that have marked its educational system, like the curriculum and composition of classrooms.[69] By 1989, women dominated the entrance examinations for college attendance.[70]

Women's participation in education has not slowed despite efforts to impose restrictions on the increasingly female-dominated educational sphere. The changes in women's education have split into increased usage and dominance of the opportunities available to women, and the imposition of strict requirements governing their role in education, including gender-segregated classes, Islamic dress, and the channeling of women into "feminine" majors that prevent the pursuit of certain careers.[69]

Illiteracy among women has been on a decrease since 1970, when it was 54 percent, to the year 2000 when it was 17.30 percent.[71] Iranian female education went from a 46 percent literacy rate, to 83 percent.[71] Iran ranked 10th in terms of female literacy in the 1970s, and still holds this position.[72]

According to a UNESCO world survey, at the primary level of enrollment, Iran has the highest female-to-male ratio in the world among sovereign nations, with a girl-to-boy ratio of 1.22: 1.00.[73] According to UNESCO data from 2012, Iran has more female students in engineering fields than any other country in the world.[66]

The first university Iranian girls could attend was the University of Tehran in 1932.When the universities re-opened in 1982, the Government made a structural revolution of the courses, eliminating those considered unnecessary, like music and counselling, and limiting the women's access to other subjects. However, girl's attendance in school only occurred after the Islamic revolution in 1979. In 2005, there were 62% university entrees. Furthermore, the first exam took place after the Cultural Revolution in 1984, 42% of females accepted examinees, and 32% of male applicants and 68% were accepted into the program. In addition, there was an 8% chance for girls to be accepted, and 12.2% for males in 1984. Between 1984 and 2003 the demand for women's higher education was greater than men's, and the percentage of entrees shifted upward. In 2001, the "National Report on Women's Status in the Islamic Republic of Iran" included educational matters for women, like curriculum issues, management positions and academic quotas; in 2002 - 2003 women had the regular access to all courses except engineering.[67] In 2002, the percentage of female students compared to male students in the tertiary education increased from 37.4% to 100.5% and in the same year almost the majority of women in academies (from 26.8% to 49%) were hired as assistant professors.[67]

Moreover, the advantage of women's higher education decrease underdevelopment, backwardness, and compensation. The other factors that motivate women to obtain higher education are justice and equality in society, increase girl knowledge, participation in the social culture and politics, and change the traditional attitudes. Due to higher education, women were involved in decision-making because of their knowledge. Lastly, the general purpose of girls obtaining higher education is for social status, and before the Islamic revolution, higher education was basically for wealthy women and women from royal families. On the other hand, education was the only factor to upgrade women's social status because they wanted to further themselves and be involved in economics and politics after the Islamic revolution and anti-shah rallies. Another factor that motivates girls' education is the increase in the age of marriage. Thus, women's education has a greater demand, then they could get involved in private and public investment findings jobs. As women progress in higher education, they get more involved in the labor market argued by Kelli. However, the percentage of women in the labor market is very low, and organizations, governmental and nongovernmental prioritize men. Even though there was changes in economic, social, cultural, and political there still is gender stereotyping. In addition, the number of educated women increased, but there still remains a problem with unemployment in the labor market for women. Finally, when it comes to education and employment, there is no relationship between girls' education and employment, and 50% of graduated students have jobs, which unrelated to their studies.

In economy

See also: Economy of Iran § Labor force

Since the 1970s, Iran has experienced significant economic and social changes. Women's workforce participation rate went from 9.1 percent in 1996 to 14 percent in 2004 to 31.9 in 2009.[74][75] That is a 22.8 percent increase in 13 years. Women make up over half of the Iranian population, yet they only make up a small percentage of the workforce. Official statistics reported by the Census Bureau suggest that women's labor force participation remains quite low.[72] Despite this, while women make up almost 30 percent of the Iranian labor force, and the percentage of all Iranian women who are economically active has more than doubled from 6.1 percent in 1986 to 13.7 percent in 2000.[76][77] In 2004, there were 18 million people employed in Iran, Women made up only 12.9 percent (or roughly 2,160,000) of the employed population. Men, on the other hand, made up 64 percent, or roughly 11,520,000.[78] The ILO data, however, suggest that female unemployment has been consistently higher than men's in recent years (Olmsted). Women are concentrated in the typically female jobs of teaching and caring. 82.7 percent of female civil servants work in teaching and education followed by administrative, financial, clerical, health, and medical professions.[74] However, according to the International Labour Organization, the top three areas of female employment are agriculture, manufacturing, and education. One factor in the increase in women's employment is an increase in their literacy rates. The illiteracy among women has been a decrease from 1970 when it was 54 percent to the year 2000 when it was 17.30 percent.[71] Iranian female education went from a 46 percent literacy rate to 83 percent.[71] Iran ranked 10th in terms of female literacy in the 1970s, and still holds this position today.[72] Women's labor force participation rate and literacy rate have been on the rise. Yet the unemployment rate for women compared to that of men is still considerably higher. Take, for example, that in 1996, the unemployment rate for women was 13.4 percent whereas, for men, the unemployment rate was 8.4 percent.[71] The unemployment rate for both men and women has increased since 1996, with the gender gap in unemployment still present. In 2008 for example, male unemployment was 9.1 percent and female was 16.7 percent[79]

Iranian surgical technologists

Studies concerning female labor force participation vary. One factor to this is the difference between measurements. The Iranian Census provides one measurement for labor force participation, and the Labor Force survey provides another.[72] The Iranian census for example, used different ages for the cut off age, 10 for the 1976 census, and used 6 for the 1986 census (Olmsted) While the International Labour Organization uses 15.[72] The World Bank and International Labour Organization have different data on recent female employment; the ILO reports an employment rate of 17.1 percent which is considerably higher than that of the World Bank.[72] Overall, there seems to be a common upward trend in employment over time.

Women in Iran had previously been restricted to the private sphere, which includes the care of the home and the children, they have been restricted from mobility, and they needed their husband's permission in order to obtain a job.[80] Employers depict women as less reliable in the workforce as opposed to men.[81] However, the Islamic Revolution had some influence in changing this perception.[82] Secular feminists and the elite were not happy with the revolution, while other feminists such as Roksana Bahramitash argue that the revolution did bring women into the public sphere.[82] The 1979 Revolution had gained widespread support from women who were eager to earn rights for themselves. A woman's responsibility and obligation was in the home, which was the underlying basis of the Islamic Republic.[74] Olmsted adds to this by stating that women have this "double burden".[72] In addition, men had the right to inhibit their wives from entering the labor force. Ali Akbar Mahdi is in agreement with Parvin Ghorayshi in that through the domestication of women and confinement to the private sphere, they were being exploited in non-wage activities.[83] In Karimi's viewpoint, after the revolution, even though it had been accepted on paper that women had an equal right to employment, she believed that this did not show in practice.[84] Comparing the pre-revolution and post-revolution era, between 1976 and 1986, the labor force participation of women had declined immensely from 12.9 percent down to 8.2 percent.[72] In addition, during the 1990s, women were being compensated for their housework due to the domestic wage law which allowed women to demand compensation from their husbands for their housework in the event of a divorce.[82]

Female firefighters in Mashhad

In 1979 the United States imposed an economic boycott on Iran, which has affected many of their economic sectors.[84] In particular, the boycott affected the carpet industry. As a result, the boycott influenced women's participation in the labor force.[72] Weaving is a common occupation for women, as it can be done inside the family home.[84] If the market is volatile, merchants can simply remove or add looms to the worker's home in response to demand. Therefore, women who have children to take care of can be inside the home while tending to their work.[84] Carpet weaving was very common among women from rural areas. Thus, carpet weaving was a valuable method of increasing the economic involvement of women in rural neighborhoods.[85] In 1996, over 91 percent of the female industrial employees were in the textile industry which consisted largely of carpet weaving.[84] Nonetheless, this all changed due to sanctions. Before the Islamic Revolution, Iranian firms were combined with firms in the United States where Iranians produced rugs for the United States market. However, due to the United States inflicting sanctions on Iran, Iranian imports were banned from the country. The demand for Iranian carpets was still high. In response, Americans bought carpets with Iranian designs from other countries that produced the same carpets, such as China and India.[84] From 1994 to 2005 the export of carpets had declined drastically. In 1994 Iran sold over $2 million worth of carpets, but by 2005 it went to under $500 in carpet exports. In other words, the total share of carpet in non-oil exports had declined from 44.2 percent to 4.2 percent; a drastic decrease.[72] Olmsted concurs with Moghadam this would drastically affect women in the labor market, since the majority of carpet weavers consisted of less-educated women.[72][80]


See also: Venture capital in Iran and Technology start-ups in Iran

According to the 2012 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor report, the rate of entrepreneurship in Iran for women between the ages 18 to 64 fluctuated from 4 to 6 percent between 2008 and 2012 while their overall economic participation makes up only 13 percent of the entire economy.[86][87]

Prostitution and sex industry

Main article: Prostitution in Iran

Iranian female prostitutes sometimes go to neighboring countries to work. From the 1990s, Dubai became famous in the United Arab Emirates as a place for the sex trade of Iranian women, but it was from the late 2000s that other countries neighboring Iran, including Turkey, Georgia, and Iraqi Kurdistan, had a high number of Iranian female prostitutes hosted. After this, Iranian women quickly became more popular throughout the region for prostitution. The income of Iranian female prostitutes in neighboring countries is considered high but risky.[88]

The exact number of prostitutes working in Iran is unknown, but in 2017 it was estimated that there were 228,700 female prostitutes in Iran and that the number was on the rise.[89]

Leather boots are widely used by Iranian prostitutes for findom and better control over men. Iranian men have accepted boots as a symbol of women's power. A report in 2020 showed a high number of men donated a large portion of their income to Iranian girls wearing boots.[90][91][92]

Another report in 2021, said prostitution in Iran became more widespread using the Internet and some websites listed millions of women from all over Iran.[93][94]

Iranian women's movement

Main articles: Iranian women's movement and Women's rights in Iran

The movement for women's rights in Iran is particularly complex within the scope of the political history of the country. Women have consistently pushed the boundaries of societal norms and were continually gaining more political and economic rights. Women heavily participated at every level of the revolution. Within months of the formation of the Islamic republic by Ruhollah Khomeini many important rights were repealed,[95] but in mid-1980s replaced by a far more protective laws.[96]

After the constitutional Revolution (1905-1906), the fall of the Qajar dynasty and the ascension to the throne of the Pahlavi dynasty, Iranian women decided to experiment with state-feminism. The new sovereign decided that he would have followed the same principles as the Turkish president Atatürk; forcefully eliminating the obligation to wear the veil and opening the access to universities for women.[97]

During Reza Shah Pahlavi's reign the feminist movement grew stronger. Though they never achieved their main goal, universal suffrage.[97]

During Reza Shah Pahlavi's son, Mohammad Shah, reign Iranian women managed to gain access to the newborn Communist party Tudeh and some of these activists founded parallel alloys still fighting for the right to vote that they managed to obtain in 1962.[97]

After a short attempt made by the prime minister Mossadegh to overthrow him he regained his place as leader and decided to review some articles in family law: in 1967 divorce became a legal procedure that had to be carried out only in court and the minimum age for marriage became 18.[97]

In 1978/1978 the regime was overthrown by the people and women played an important part in the accomplishment of the Revolution.[97]

After this the already modified family law was modified again reinstating the minimum age for marriage at 13.[97]

Under the presidency of Mohammad Khatami (1997-2005) feminist movements are on the rise. The president was in fact elected thanks to their support.[97]

Shirin Ebadi, an Iranian woman rights activist

In 2003, Shirin Ebadi, Iran's first female judge in the Pahlavi era, won the Nobel Peace Prize for her efforts in promoting human rights.[98]

In 2005 president Khatami was replaced by the conservative Mahmud Ahmadinejad.[97]

In 2009 before the spring elections numerous organisations for example Madraseh-ye Feminist decided to team up to present a united front to the 4 candidates to ask for a betterment in women's conditions.[97]

In the same year the Green Movement was founded, the principal original and important element is the feminist leadership. This movement started off as a pro-democracy revolt guided mainly by women who were part of the urban middle class.[99]

The president was re-elected and this meant that women's conditions were going to be overlooked. The day of the result of the elections women protested and in particular one of these became the symbol of women's right movement; this woman was Neda Agha-Soltan.[97]

During the last few decades, Iranian women have had a significant presence in Iran's scientific movement, art movement, literary new wave and the new wave of Iranian cinema. According to the research ministry of Iran, about 6 percent of full professors, 8 percent of associate professors, and 14 percent of assistant professors were women in the 1998–99 academic year. However, women accounted for 56 percent of all students in the natural sciences, including one in five Ph.D. students.[100] In total 49.8 percent of the university students in Iran are women.[101]

With the 2005 election of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Western media said that women's rights declined.[102][103][104] After Ahmadinejad's re-election in 2009, the first female minister was appointed.[105]

In 2022 the Green Movement became fully political and achieved a frontal position creating a new symbology able to help comprehend important definitions.[99]

Fashion and clothing

See also: Fashion in Iran

An Iranian woman wearing boots in Tehran (2018)

Iranian female fashion models usually receive a high salary in Tehran, the capital of the country, and fashion in Tehran has usually been the pioneer of Iranian women's fashion.

Iran has an advanced leather industry for women's clothing, including boots and tops.[106]

Ancient Persians used to wear leather high-heeled boots. Both Persian women and men wore varieties of "tall" boots. In modern era, boot became a main and common footwear among Iranian women, and this influenced the Iranian fashion industry. The sale of women's boots in Iran was reported ten times more than men's boots in a report in the 2000s.[107] One of the main features of Iranian women's fashion is wearing high-heeled boots.[107]

Mandatory veiling under Islamic Republic

After the Islamic Revolution, the policy inherited from the Kashf-e hijab was turned around. Instead of being forced to remove their veil, women were now subjected to the reversed ban against unveiling, and the veil were now enforced upon all women.[108] The non-conservative women, who had worn the veil as a symbol of opposition during the revolution, had not expected veiling to become mandatory, and when the veil was first made mandatory in February 1979 it was met with protests and demonstrations by liberal and leftist women,[108] and thousands of women participated in a women's march on International Women's Day, 8 March 1979, in protest against mandatory veiling.[109] The protests resulted in the temporary retraction of mandatory veiling.[108]

When the left and the liberals were eliminated and the conservatives secured solitary control, however, veiling was enforced on all women.[108] This began with the 'Islamification of offices' in July 1980, when unveiled women were refused entry to government offices and public buildings, and banned from appearing unveiled at their work places under the risk of being fired.[110] On the streets, unveiled women were attacked by revolutionaries, and two slogans of the revolution were: "Wear a veil, or we will punch your head" and "Death to the unveiled".[111] In July 1981, an edict of mandatory veiling in public was introduced, which was followed in 1983 by an Islamic Punishment Law, introducing a punishment of 74 lashes on unveiled women.[109]: 67  The law was enforced by members of the Islamic Revolution Committees patrolling the streets, and later by the Guidance Patrols, also called the Morality Police.

Since hijab was legally imposed on all Iranian women in 1984,[112] post revolutionary Iranian women's fashion has seen Iranian women attempt to work within the narrow confines of the Islamic modesty code, with the typical attire gradually evolving from the standard black chador to a rousari (simple headscarf) combined with other colorful elements of clothing.[113][114] In 2010, 531 young females (aged 15–29) from different cities in nine provinces of Iran participated in a study the results of which showed that 77 percent prefer stricter covering, 19 percent loose covering, and only 4 percent do not believe in veiling at all.[115] A tendency towards Western dress correlated with 66 percent of the latest non-compliance with the dress-code.[115] In Tehran, police will no longer arrest any women seen violating modest code but will instead be fined or given classes by the police.[116]

Compulsory hijab protests

See also: Iranian protests against compulsory hijab, Homa Darabi, and Mahsa Amini protests

There have been many changes in Iran's society in the years since the revolution, often referred to as the "generation gap". This gap is overreaching and affects issues such as lifestyle, familial relationships, politics, and religion.[117] For many of the young women one topic gaining popularity is the issue of the veil. After the 1979 revolution, the Hijab became compulsory as well as modesty requirements; loose-fitting clothing as well as a Rusari (headscarf) that covers all the hair.[118] There has also been a rise in baddhi-jab, or girls who wear the legal requirements but not to the letter of the law, often having the majority of their hair showing. Many young urban Iranian women claimed that they are becoming less traditional. Many view their clothing style as a personal choice include the choice to veil. Issues and protests against the veil became symbolic as resistance against the Islamic regime.

Masih Alinejad in 2015 launched My Stealthy Freedom, which encouraged Iranian women to post pictures without their hijab. After December more than 35 protesters were arrested in just Tehran.[119] The reaction from the government has been severe; police have stated that any women that participate in demonstrations against compulsory hijab could face up to 10 years in prison. The situation had become more tense in April after a video was shared showing a woman being slapped by a female member of Gast-e-Ersade (morality police) for wearing a loose headscarf. This incident also drew international attention to the issues Iranian women were facing.

The Gasht-E-Ershaad (also known as the Guidance Patrol) is a part of Iranian Islamic religious police, which is tasked with enforcing Iran's headscarf and dress code laws. They have the authority to chastise and even arrest women who do not conform to dress "modesty tests".[120] Women who are arrested for demonstrating against compulsory hijab claim that they are held in solitary confinement and subjected to torture and beatings.[121] Protests against compulsory hijab continued with the response becoming larger. In December 2017 and January 2018, several women took off their headscarves to protest. These women became known as "the Girls of Revolution Street". One of "the Girls of Revolution Street",[122] Vida Movahedi, was arrested for crimes against public morals, encouraging corruption and prostitution, and was sentenced to a year in prison. Punishment is given out to not only those who protest but also those who defend them; Nasrin Sotoudeh,[123] an Iranian human rights lawyer who defended women who were being prosecuted for protesting compulsory hijab, was sentenced to 38 years in prison and 148 lashes. She was tried on the charges of assembly and collusion against national security, propaganda against the state, membership in various human rights groups, encouraging corruption and prostitution, appearing at the judiciary without Islamic hijab, disturbing public peace and order, and publishing falsehoods with the intent to disturb public opinion. Protests have continued to occur where on May 13, 2019, there was a vast peaceful protest of both male and female students on the campus of Tehran University, but they were assaulted by other protesters who were chanting "Students may die, but we will not tolerate indignity".[124] This protest was created to bring together Iranians in order to show their frustration with the government and an effort to receive change that has been sought for a long time. The protest turned violent when Iranian officers became involved.[125]

In June 2018, Iranian human rights lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh, who represented women arrested for removing their headscarves, was arrested and sentenced to 38 years in prison and 148 lashes for national security-related offenses. She is one of the seven human rights lawyers arrested in Iran in 2018.[126]

protests all around the world in response of the Death of Mahsa Amini.

On 16 September 2022, a 22-year-old Iranian woman named Mahsa Amini was arrested for alleged wearing her Hijab improperly and later died after according to eyewitnesses, she had been severely beaten by religious morality police officers. Amini's death received global attention and became a symbol of violence against women under the Islamic Republic of Iran, sparking a series of anti-compulsory hijab protests across the world.[127] At least 481 protesters including 64 minors killed (Iran Human Rights) as of January 9, 2023.[128] The protests have been "nationwide, spread across social classes, universities, the streets [and] schools", and called the "biggest challenge" to the government of Iran since the Islamic Revolution in 1979.[129] The protests soon shaped the "Women, Life, Freedom" movement, with notable protesters such as Nika Shakarami, Sarina Esmailzadeh, Hadis Najafi, Khodanur Lojei and Kian Pirfalak being the well-known faces of the movement.

In culture

Persian literature

See also: Persian literature

Over the past two centuries, women have played a prominent role in Persian literature, however, it mostly remained predominantly male-focused. The literary work of women was repressed for many years and even denied to them.[130] Contemporary Iranian poets such as Simin Behbahani, Forough Farrokhzad, Parvin Etesami and Mina Assadi have helped in the inclusion of woman literature in Iran. Simin Behbahani has written passionate love poems as well as narrative poetry enriched by a motherly affection for all humans.[131] She has been an advocate for individual rights regardless of anyone's gender, class or religion.[132] In addition, Behbani does not compete in her literature but instead writes and empowers both man and woman. Behbahani is president of The Iranian Writers' Association and was nominated for the Nobel Prize in literature in 1997.

Contemporary authors include Simin Daneshvar, Mahshid Amirshahi, Shahrnush Pârsipur, Moniru Ravânipur and Zoya Pirzad to name a few. Daneshvar's work spans pre-Revolutionary and post-Revolutionary Iranian literature. Her first collection of short stories, Âtash-e khâmush (Fire Quenched), was published in 1948. It was the first collection of short stories published by a woman in Iran. In 1969, she published Savushun (Mourners of Siyâvash), a novel that reflected the Iranian experience of modernity during the 20th century. It was the first novel published by a woman in Iran. Daneshvar was the first president of the Iranian Writers' Association. Shahrnush Pârsipur became popular in the 1980s following the publication of her short stories. Her 1990 novel, Zanân bedûn-e Mardân (Women Without Men), addressed issues of sexuality and identity. Many people criticized her work for being too outspoken and because she challenged many traditional views such as sexual oppression, virginity, and sexuality.[133] As a result, it was ultimately banned by the Islamic Republic. Moniru Ravânipur's work includes a collection of short stories, Kanizu (The Female Slave), and her novel Ahl-e gharq (The People of Gharq). Ravânipur is known for her focus on rituals, customs, and traditions of coastal life.[134]

Iranian music

See also: Persian women musicians and Iranian women and Persian music

Sahar, known for her contributions to Persian pop music
Googoosh, One of the most popular and prolific entertainers in Iran[135]

Perhaps Qamar ol-Molouk Vaziri was the first female master of Persian music who introduced a new style of music and was praised by other masters of Persian music of the time.[citation needed] Several years later, Mahmoud Karimi trained women students—Arfa Atrai, Soosan Matloobi, Fatemeh Vaezi, Masoomeh Mehr-Ali, and Soosan Aslani—who later became masters of Persian traditional music. Soodabeh Salem and Sima Bina developed Iranian children's music and Iranian folk music respectively.

Innovations made by Iranian women are not restricted to Persian music. For instance, Lily Afshar is working on a combination of Persian and Western classical music.

Googoosh is one of the most famous Iranian singers. Her legacy dates back to pre-Revolutionary times in Iran, where her fame in Iran reached heights equivalent to Elvis Presley or Barbra Streisand. She became iconic when, after the 1979 Iranian Revolution, she lived unheard of for more than 20 years. In 2000, she emerged from Iran with an international tour.

Modern art

See also: Modern and contemporary art in Iran

Shohreh Aghdashloo, who has received various accolades, including a Primetime Emmy Award and a Satellite Award, in addition to a nomination for an Academy Award.

Iranian women have played an important role in gaining international recognition for Iranian art and in particular Iranian cinema.

Since the rise of the Iranian New Wave of Persian cinema, Iran has produced record numbers of film school graduates; each year more than 20 new directors, many of them women, make their debut films. In the last two decades, the percentage of Iranian film directors who are women has exceeded the percentage of women film directors in most Western countries.[136] The success of the pioneering director Rakhshan Bani-Etemad suggests that many women directors in Iran were working hard on films long before director Samira Makhmalbaf made the headlines. Internationally recognized figures in Persian women's cinema are Tahmineh Milani, Rakhshan Bani-Etemad, Zahra Dowlatabadi, Niki Karimi, Samira Makhmalbaf, Mahin Oskouei, Pari Saberi, Hana Makhmalbaf, Pouran Rakhshandeh, Shirin Neshat, Sepideh Farsi, Maryam Keshavarz, Yassamin Maleknasr, and Sara Rastegar.

Iranian writer-director Rakhshan Bani-Etemad is probably Iran's best known and certainly most prolific female filmmaker. She has established herself as the elder stateswoman of Iranian cinema with documentaries and films about social pathology. One of the best-known female film directors in the country today is Samira Makhmalbaf, who directed her first film, The Apple when she was only 17 years old. Samira Makhmalbaf won the 2000 Cannes Jury Prize for Blackboards, a film about the trials of two traveling teachers in Kurdistan.

In Persian literature one can find references to women as far back as Pre-Islamic times.[137]

And many creators of classical verse and prose were women themselves as well. One can mention Qatran Tabrizi, Rabia Balkhi, Táhirih, Simin Behbahani, Simin Daneshvar, Parvin E'tesami, Forough Farrokhzad, Mahsati and Mina Assadi in this group to name nine of them.

See also


  1. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORTS. Retrieved November 28, 2022.
  2. ^ "Global Gender Gap Report 2022" (PDF). World Economic Forum. Retrieved March 7, 2023.
  3. ^ "Iran's Constitution" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 2, 2022. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  4. ^ "Iran: Dozens of women ill-treated and at risk of long jail terms for peacefully protesting compulsory veiling". February 26, 2018.
  5. ^ "Iran jails woman for removing headscarf in public". BBC News. March 8, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  6. ^ "Women in Iran". WomenInIran. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  7. ^ a b CHN Press. "Women Held Power In Burnt City". Retrieved April 11, 2007.
  8. ^ CHN Press. "Female population predominant in 5000-year-old Burnt City". Retrieved April 11, 2007.
  9. ^ a b c Price, Massoume. "Women's Lives in Ancient Persia". Retrieved January 16, 2007.
  10. ^ Harrison, Frances (September 22, 2005). "Polo comes back home to Iran". BBC News.
  11. ^ Cotterell, Arthur (1998). From Aristotle to Zoroaster. New York: Free Press. p. 434. ISBN 978-0-684-85596-7. OCLC 39269485. exercised by the Persian king's mother were set by the monarch himself
  12. ^ Mackey, Sandra & Harrop, Scott (1996). The Iranians: Persia, Islam and the Soul of a Nation. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-452-27563-8. OCLC 38995082.
  13. ^ Dodgeon M. H. & Lieu, S. N. C. (1991). The Roman Eastern Frontiers and the Persian Wars (AD 226–363); A Documentary History. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-10317-6. OCLC 29669928. pp. 24, 67, 184, 197, 307.
  14. ^ Toward an aesthetic of Persian painting. Early Islamic Art, 650–1100. Oleg Grabar. pp. 213–214
  15. ^ Women's Costume of the Near and the Middle East. Jennifer M. Scarce. 2003, p. 134
  16. ^ Robert Browning (1978). The Emperor Julian. University of California Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-520-03731-1. Retrieved October 27, 2010. The young Persian women, renowned for their beauty, were among the choicest items.
  17. ^ Paidar, Women and the Political Process, 41; Bamdad, From Darkness into Light, 14.
  18. ^ Foran, John. Fragile Resistance: Social Transformation in Iran from 1500 to the Revolution. Westview Press, 1993., pp. 382
  19. ^ a b McElrone, Susynne M (2005). "Nineteenth-Century Qajar Women in the Public Sphere: An Alternative Historical and Historiographical Reading of the Roots of Iranian Women's Activism". Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. 25 (2): 297–317. doi:10.1215/1089201X-25-2-297. S2CID 144893480. Project MUSE 186836.
  20. ^ a b c d e Bāmdād Badr-al-Mulūk and Frank Ronald Charles Bagley. From Darkness into Light Women's Emancipation in Iran. Mazda Publ., 2013.
  21. ^ Sima Bahar, "A Historical Background to the Women's Movement in Iran," in Women of Iran, The Conflict with Fundamentalist Islam, ed. Farah Azari (London: Ithaca, 1983), 170–89; quotations from 172–75
  22. ^ a b Pappé, Ilan (2005). The Modern Middle East. Routledge. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-415-21408-7.
  23. ^ Wright, Robin B. (2000). The Last Great Revolution. Alfred A. Knopf. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-375-40639-3.
  24. ^ a b Touba, Jacquiline Rudolph (1972). "The Relationship between Urbanization and the Changing Status of Women in Iran, 1956–1966". Iranian Studies. 5 (1): 25–36. doi:10.1080/00210867208701422. JSTOR 4310102.
  25. ^ "Adult education offers new opportunities and options to Iranian women". March 6, 2006. Archived from the original on October 5, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
  26. ^ Ramazani, Nesta (1993). "Women in Iran: The Revolutionary Ebb and Flow". Middle East Journal. 47 (3): 411. ISSN 0026-3141. JSTOR 4328602.
  27. ^ Bucar, Elizabeth M. Creative Conformity: The Feminist Politics of U.S. Catholic and Iranian Shi'i Women. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2011.p. 35
  28. ^ Bucar, Elizabeth M. Creative Conformity: The Feminist Politics of U.S. Catholic and Iranian Shi'i Women. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2011. p. 37
  29. ^ a b c  Valentine M. Moghadam "Women in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Legal Status, Social Positions, and Collective Action." Iran After 25 years of Revolution: A Retrospective and a Look Ahead November 16, 2004.
  30. ^ Islamic Republic of Iran, Zan va Towse-eh: ahamm-e eqdamat-e anjam-shodeh dar khosus-e banovan pas az pirouzi-ye enqelab-e Eslami (Tehran: Shura-ye Hamhangi-ye Tablighat-e Eslami,  1994), p. 15.
  31. ^ Rezai-Rashti, Goli M. (2019). Women, Islam and Education in Iran. Taylor & Francis Group.
  32. ^ Ramazani, Nesta (1993). "Women in Iran: The Revolutionary Ebb and Flow". Middle East Journal. 47 (3): 417. ISSN 0026-3141. JSTOR 4328602.
  33. ^ Keddie, Nikki R. (2000). "Women in Iran Since 1979". Social Research. 67 (2): 405–438. JSTOR 40971478.
  34. ^ a b "Iran - Literacy rate".
  35. ^ "Iran, Islamic Rep.: Student enrollment, tertiary, female (WORLDBANK) - Data and Charts from Quandl". Archived from the original on October 27, 2014.
  36. ^ a b Statistical Centre of Iran (2011). Selected findings on 2011 Population and Housing Census. Teheran: Iranian ministry of the Interior, p. 35.
  37. ^ Statistical Centre of Iran (2011). Selected findings on 2011 Population and Housing Census. Teheran: Iranian ministry of the Interior, p. 32.
  38. ^ The Last Great Revolution by Robin Wright c. 2000, p. 137
  39. ^ Ebadi, Shirin, Iran Awakening : A Memoir of Revolution and Hope by Shirin Ebadi with Azadeh Moaveni, Random House, 2006 (p. 210)
  40. ^ Masood, Ehsan (November 1, 2006). "An Islamist revolution". Nature. 444 (7115): 22–25. Bibcode:2006Natur.444...22M. doi:10.1038/444022a. PMID 17080057. S2CID 2967719.
  41. ^ "Iranian Democracy statistics - How Iran ranks". NationMaster. March 8, 2002. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
  42. ^ "UNdata - record view - Seats held by women in national parliament, percentage".
  43. ^ "شوراي عالي انقلاب فرهنگي - شورای فرهنگی اجتماعی زنان و خانواده - درباره شورا". Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  44. ^ "In a decree issued by Dr. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Ms. Maryam Mojtahidzadeh has been appointed as the Advisor to the President and President of Center for Women and Family Affairs of IRAN". December 15, 2009. Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
  45. ^ Kaplan, Robert, D. The Ends of the Earth, Random House, 1996, p. 181
  46. ^ "Women Police in Iran". Archived from the original on May 22, 2007.
  47. ^ "Iran's thin black line". Archived from the original on January 5, 2007.
  48. ^ "Leader's Speech in Meeting with Woman Researchers of the Holy Quran". October 20, 2009. Retrieved March 12, 2016.
  49. ^ "Iran: Parliament OKs Nationality Law Reform". Human Rights Watch. May 14, 2019.
  50. ^ "Victory for Iran's Women as Breakthrough Citizenship Law Is Passed". Bloomberg. October 2, 2019.
  51. ^ "Iran women married to foreigners can pass citizenship to children". Al Jazeera. October 2, 2019.
  52. ^ "Iran: Step forward in the fight for women's return to stadiums". August 26, 2018.
  53. ^ "Fifa 'assured' Iranian women will be able to attend football matches". BBC News. September 22, 2019.
  54. ^ "Iran football: Women attend first match in decades". BBC Sport. October 10, 2019.
  55. ^ "Amnesty Says Security Agent Sexually Assaulted A Detained Female Protester In Iran". RFE/RL. January 19, 2020.
  56. ^ "Reuters Foundation Iran". Thomson Reuters Foundation. Archived from the original on November 19, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
  57. ^ Lorentz، J. Historical Dictionary of Iran. 1995. ISBN 0-8108-2994-0
  58. ^ "رکورد جدید حضور زنان در مجلس ایران، پیام بزرگی دارد/ خواستار توسعه روابط با ایران هستیم" (in Persian). IRNA. May 15, 2016. Archived from the original on May 23, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
  59. ^ Will Fulton; Amir Toumaj; Mary Ella Simmons (July 17, 2013), "Iran News Round Up", Critical Threats, retrieved August 25, 2017
  60. ^ Mohammadi, Elnaz (July 27, 2013). "NameBright - Domain Expired" حزب تشكيل دهيد، 50 نماينده در مجلس داشته باشيد. Bahar newspaper (in Persian). Tehran: 11. Archived from the original on October 18, 2013. Retrieved September 29, 2017.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  61. ^ "Need For 'Positive Discrimination'", Financial Tribune, December 14, 2014, retrieved August 25, 2017
  62. ^ "Iran's Rouhani names female VPs as reformists slam all-male ministers", Agence France-Presse, August 10, 2017, retrieved August 25, 2017 – via The Independent
  63. ^ "Iranian women condemn "regressive" articles of family legislation", Radio Zamaneh, August 27, 2010, retrieved August 25, 2017
  64. ^ Vakil, Sanam (2011). Women and Politics in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Action and Reaction. A & C Black. p. 85. ISBN 9781441197344.
  65. ^ Sadr-ol-odabaee, Maryam; Hassan-Miri, Fahimeh (May 1, 2013). "دبیر کل جمعیت حمایت از حقوق بشر زنان: می گویند زنان تجربه مدیریتی ندارند؛ این تجربه باید ازکجا شروع شود؟" (in Persian). Khabar Online. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
  66. ^ a b "Factfish Enrolment, engineering, manufacturing and construction, tertiary, female world statistics and data as Table". Archived from the original on August 5, 2014. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  67. ^ a b c d Goli M. Rezai-Rashti; Valentine M. Moghadam (August 2011). "Women and higher education in Iran: What are the implications for employment and the "marriage market"?". International Review of Education. 57 (3–4): 419–441. Bibcode:2011IREdu..57..419R. doi:10.1007/s11159-011-9217-9. S2CID 143810098.
  68. ^ a b Esfahani, Kouhi (2014). "Iranian Women: One Step Forward, Two Steps Back". Middle Eastern Studies / Ortadogu Etütleri. 5 (2): 36, 38, 39, 40.
  69. ^ a b Mehran, Golnar (August 1, 2003). "The Paradox of Tradition and Modernity in Female Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran". Comparative Education Review. 47 (3): 269–286. doi:10.1086/378248. ISSN 0010-4086. S2CID 145588558.
  70. ^ Shavarini, Mitra K. (January 1, 2005). "The Feminisation of Iranian Higher Education". International Review of Education. 51 (4): 329–347, 331, 333, 334, 335. Bibcode:2005IREdu..51..329S. doi:10.1007/s11159-005-7738-9. JSTOR 25054545. S2CID 145051381.
  71. ^ a b c d e Bahramitash, Roksana (Spring 2004). "Market fundamentalism versus religious fundamentalism: women's employment in Iran". Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies. 13 (1). Taylor & Francis: 33–46. doi:10.1080/1066992042000189706. S2CID 220378330.
  72. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Olmsted, Jennifer C. (2011). "Gender and globalization: the Iranian experience". In Bahramitash, Roksana; Salehi Esfahani, Hadi (eds.). Veiled employment: Islamism and the political economy of women's employment in Iran. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. pp. 25–52. ISBN 9780815632139.
  73. ^ "Girls to boys ratio, primary level enrolment statistics - countries compared". NationMaster. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
  74. ^ a b c Afshar, Haleh (September 1997). "Women And work in Iran". Political Studies. 45 (4). Wiley: 755–767. doi:10.1111/1467-9248.00110. S2CID 144860396.
  75. ^ United Nations Development Programme
  76. ^ "Law and women's agency in post-revolutionary Iran" (PDF). Retrieved May 20, 2013.
  77. ^ "Where are Iran's working women?". Archived from the original on May 1, 2013. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
  78. ^ Mollahosseini, Ali (January 2008). "Gender and employment in Iran". Indian Journal of Gender Studies. 15 (1). SAGE: 159–162. doi:10.1177/097152150701500110. S2CID 144486202.
  79. ^ (International Labour Organization).
  80. ^ a b Moghadam, Valentine M. (2004). "Women in the Islamic Republic of Iran: legal status, social positions, and collective action" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2014. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
  81. ^ Ghorayshi, Parvin (October 1996). "Women, Paid - Work and the Family: In the Islamic Republic of Iran". Journal of Comparative Family Studies. 27 (3): 453–466. doi:10.3138/jcfs.27.3.453. JSTOR 41603457.
  82. ^ a b c Bahramitash, Roksana (2003). "Revolution, Islamization, and women's employment in Iran". Brown Journal of World Affairs. IX (2). Brown University: 229–241. Pdf. Archived May 26, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  83. ^ Ali Akbar, Mahdi (2006), "Iranian women: between Islamicization and globalization", in Mohammadi, Ali (ed.), Iran encountering globalization: problems and prospects (PDF) (2nd ed.), London: Routledge, pp. 47–71, ISBN 9780415391788, archived from the original (PDF) on June 30, 2020, retrieved December 17, 2012.
  84. ^ a b c d e f Karimi, Zahra (Autumn 2008). "International trade and employment in labour-intensive sectors in Iran: the case of carpet-weavers". Iranian Economic Review. 13 (22). EconLit: 41–68.
  85. ^ Moafian, Abdolhamid, comp. Human Development Report of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1999. Rep. no. 185. Trans. Ghodratollah Memarzadeh. N.p.: Plan and Budget Organization, n.d. UNDP. Web. September 20, 2012. Pdf.
  86. ^ Leila Piran (November 11, 2014). "Women and Entrepreneurship in Iran — Iran Startups". Medium.
  87. ^ "Female Entrepreneurs Fuel A Changing Iran". July 22, 2015.
  88. ^ Rostami, Nilofar. "چه‌‌طور می‌توانیم از باندهای قاچاق زنان ایرانی شکایت کنیم؟".
  89. ^ Yoosefi Lebni, J.; Irandoost, S. F.; Ziapour, A.; Mohammadi Gharehghani, M. A.; Ebadi Fard Azar, F.; Soofizad, G.; Khosravi, B.; Solhi, M. (December 2020). "Experiences and challenges of Prostitute Women in Iran: A phenomenological qualitative study". Heliyon. 6 (12): e05649. Bibcode:2020Heliy...605649Y. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05649. PMC 7724161. PMID 33319103.
  90. ^ "درآمد خوب روسپی‌ها مانع حرفه آموزی آنها می‌شود؟ / 30 سال، میانگین سنی کارگران جنسی در ایران". خبرآنلاین (in Persian). October 24, 2016. Retrieved July 8, 2023.
  91. ^ "مروری بر روسپی‌گری در ایران و تبعات آن تحقیق و پژوهش فصل یکم". Azad: 18, 19, 20, 21.
  92. ^ اقتصاد24, پایگاه خبری، تحلیلی. "گردش مالی هنگفت صنعت روسپیگری بر بستر فضای مجازی/ وضعیت هشدارآمیز بحران بیکاری زنان و تاثیر آن بر روسپیگری | اقتصاد24". fa (in Persian). Retrieved July 8, 2023.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  93. ^ اقتصاد24, پایگاه خبری، تحلیلی. "گردش مالی هنگفت صنعت روسپیگری بر بستر فضای مجازی/ وضعیت هشدارآمیز بحران بیکاری زنان و تاثیر آن بر روسپیگری | اقتصاد24". fa (in Persian). Retrieved July 8, 2023.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  94. ^ "افشاگری یک رسانه درباره تن‌فروشی میلیون‌ها زن روسپی در ایران". العربیه فارسی (in Persian). April 13, 2021. Retrieved July 8, 2023.
  95. ^ "Nikki R. Keddie, Social Research via". Summer 2000. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
  96. ^ Hoodfar, Homa (fall 1993). The Veil in Their Minds and On Our Heads: The Persistence of Colonial Images of Muslim Women, Resources for feminist research (RFR) / Documentation sur la recherche féministe (DRF), Vol. 22, n. 3/4, pp. 5–18, Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto (OISE), ISSN 0707-8412
  97. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Anna Vanzan. "Women at work: la lotta delle iraniane e i nuovi femminismi locali". In Pepicelli R.; Vanzan A. (eds.). I movimenti delle donne in Nord Africa e Medio Oriente: percorsi e generazioni "femministe" a confronto.
  98. ^ "Profile: Shirin Ebadi". article. BBC News. November 27, 2009.
  99. ^ a b Rassa Ghaffari. "Donna Vita Libertà. Il timbro femminista di una protesta che sa di rivoluzione" (PDF). Centro per la Riforma dello Stato (in Italian).
  100. ^ Koenig, R. (2000). "IRANIAN SCIENCE: Iranian Women Hear the Call of Science". Science. 290 (5496): 1485. doi:10.1126/science.290.5496.1485. PMID 17771221. S2CID 153275092.
  101. ^ "factfish Enrolement, tertiary, female of total enrolment world statistics and data". Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  102. ^ "UN: Hold Ahmadinejad Accountable for Iran Rights Crisis", Human Rights Watch, September 18, 2008. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
  103. ^ Iranian Dissidents at Forum Speak On Ahmadinejad, Women's Rights, New York Sun, October 17, 2007. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
  104. ^ victory on marriage legislation, Borzou Daragahi, Los Angeles Times, September 3, 2008. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
  105. ^ "BBC: "Iran backs first woman minister", September 3, 2009". BBC News. September 3, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
  106. ^ "صنعت چرم کشور در انتظار توسعه فناوری". ایرنا (in Persian). November 15, 2020. Retrieved August 25, 2022.
  107. ^ a b هشت هزار سال تارىخ پوشاک اقوام ايرانى - نسخه اصلاح و به‌روزشده ۱۴۰۲ - ۴۵ تا ۵۶.
  108. ^ a b c d Foran, John (2003). Theorizing revolutions. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-77921-5.
  109. ^ a b Vakil, Sanam (2011). Women and politics in the Islamic republic of Iran: Action and reaction. New York: Continnuum-3PL. ISBN 978-1441197344.
  110. ^ Justice for Iran (March 2014). Thirty-five Years of Forced Hijab: The Widespread and Systematic Violation of Women's Rights in Iran (PDF) (Report).
  111. ^ "Why Iranian authorities force women to wear a veil". DW. December 21, 2020. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  112. ^ Ramezani, Reza (spring 2007). Hijab dar Iran az Enqelab-e Eslami ta payan Jang-e Tahmili [Hijab in Iran from the Islamic Revolution to the end of the Imposed war] (Persian), Faslnamah-e Takhassusi-ye Banuvan-e Shi'ah [Quarterly Journal of Shiite Women] 11, Qom: Muassasah-e Shi'ah Shinasi, pp. 251-300, ISSN 1735-4730
  113. ^ Heath, Jennifer (2008). The Veil: Women Writers on Its History, Lore, and Politics, Berkeley; Los Angeles: University of California Press, pp. 66, 252–253, 256, 260, ISBN 9780520255180
  114. ^ Beeman, William Orman (2008). The Great Satan vs. the Mad Mullahs: How the United States and Iran Demonize Each Other, 2nd ed, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 108, 152, ISBN 9780226041476
  115. ^ a b Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Bigdeli, Zahra; Moradi, Azadeh; Seyed Esmaili, Fatholah (summer 2010): Rabete-ye e'teqad be hijab va asibpaziri-e fardi, khanvedegi, va ejtema'i [Relation between belief in hijab and individual, familial and social vulnerability] (Persian), Journal of Behavioral Sciences (JBS), Vol. 4, n. 2, pp. 97–102, Tehran: Baghiatallah University of Medical Sciences, ISSN 2008-1324
  116. ^ AP (December 28, 2017). "Women will no longer be arrested for flouting dress code: Tehran police". DAWN.COM. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
  117. ^ Ministry of Islamic Guidance, Data Analysis of Iranians' Values and Attitudes: Generation Gap and Continuity (Tehran: Tarh-haye Melli [National Plans]), AH 1382/2003
  118. ^ Ramezani, Reza (2010). Hijab dar Iran az Enqelab-e Eslami ta payan Jang-e Tahmili [Hijab in Iran from the Islamic Revolution to the end of the Imposed war] (Persian), Faslnamah-e Takhassusi-ye Banuvan-e Shi'ah [Quarterly Journal of Shiite Women], Qom: Muassasah-e Shi'ah Shinasi
  119. ^ Hatam, Nassim (May 19, 2018). "Iranian women threw off the hijab - then what?". BBC News. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  120. ^ Kenyon, Peter. "Springtime In Iran Means The 'Morality Police' Are Out In Force". Retrieved January 29, 2020.
  121. ^ "Iranian women threw off the hijab - what happened next?". BBC News. May 18, 2018.
  122. ^ "Iran: Release Anti-Compulsory Hijab Activists". Human Rights Watch. April 18, 2019. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  123. ^ Board, Editorial. "She Defended Iranian Women Who Removed Their Hijabs. Now She's Been given 38 Years in Prison." The Washington Post, WP Company, 17 March 2019
  124. ^ "Pro-Iran Government Activists Assault Student Protesters in Tehran". VOA. May 13, 2019. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  125. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand (2008). A History of Modern Iran, Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 84, 94–95, ISBN 9780521528917
  126. ^ "Nasrin Sotoudeh: Iran lawyer who defended headscarf protesters jailed". BBC News. March 11, 2019. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  127. ^ "Iranian woman dies 'after being beaten by morality police' over hijab law". the Guardian. September 16, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2023.
  128. ^ "List of 109 Protesters at Risk of Execution, Death Penalty Charges or Sentences; At Least 481 Protesters Killed". Retrieved January 25, 2023.
  129. ^ "Fresh protests erupt in Iran's universities and Kurdish region". the Guardian. Agence France-Presse. November 6, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2023.
  130. ^ Milani, Farzaneh (September 1, 1992). Veils and Words: The Emerging Voices of Iranian Women Writers. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-2557-5.
  131. ^ "The international symposium on Simin Behbahani". Archived from the original on September 30, 2011. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
  132. ^ Milani, Professor Farzaneh (February 1, 2008). "Simin Behbahani: Iran's National Poet". Iranian Studies. 41 (1): 3–17. doi:10.1080/00210860701786546. ISSN 0021-0862. S2CID 154159058.
  133. ^ Golbarg, Bashi (2000). "The "Boom" in Prose Writing by Iranian Women Authors in the 1990s Within the Context of the Situation of Women in Contemporary Iran" (PDF).
  134. ^ Golbarg Bashi (November 25, 2005). "Feminist Ink". Archived from the original on November 11, 2007. Retrieved November 18, 2007.
  135. ^ "Googoosh | Biography, Albums, & Facts | Britannica". Retrieved September 5, 2023.
  136. ^ "Haus der Kulturen der Welt". Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
  137. ^ Brosius, Maria. Women in Ancient Persia, 559–331 B.C. Oxford Classical Monographs. Oxford University Press (UK), 1998.

Further reading