Iranian folklore encompasses the folk traditions that have evolved in Greater Iran.

Oral legends

A storytelling performance of the stories of Šāhnāme, the Iranian national epic, in Qazvin, Iran.

Folktales

Storytelling has an important presence in Iranian culture.[1] In classical Iran, minstrels performed for their audiences at royal courts[1] and in public theaters.[2] A minstrel was referred to by the Parthians as gōsān in Parthian, and by the Sasanians as huniyāgar in Middle Persian.[2] Since the time of the Safavid dynasty, storytellers and poetry readers appeared at coffeehouses.[3]

The following are a number of folktales known to the people of Iran:[4]

Below are a number of historical tale books that contain Iranian folktales.

Heroes

The statue of Arash the Archer at Saadabad, Tehran.

Heroes in Šāhnāme

Other heroes

Characters in jokes

Creatures

A Šāhnāme miniature painting, depicting a demon (div) throwing Rostam into the sea.
Griffin-like column capital statuary, from about 500 BC Persepolis, Iran. In local popular interpretation, the figures on these columns are perceived as representations of the Huma bird

Locations

Social beliefs and practices

A stone depicting an eye that is made to protect one from an evil eye.

Ceremonies

Main article: Iranian festivals

Jumping over bonfires on the occasion of Čāršanbe Suri.

Folk-games

See also

Iranian folktales:

References

  1. ^ a b "DĀSTĀN-SARĀʾĪ". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. VII. November 18, 2011. pp. 102–103.
  2. ^ a b "GŌSĀN". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. Xi. February 17, 2012. pp. 167–170.
  3. ^ "COFFEEHOUSE". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. VI. October 26, 2011. pp. 1–4.
  4. ^ Gaffary, Farrokh (1994). "Iranien (folklore)". Dictionnaire universel des litteratures (in French). Vol. 2: G-O. Paris: Presses universitaires de France. p. 1703. Parmi les contes les plus célèbres [de Iran], citons: ... «La Citrouille qui roule» (Kaduy-e qelqelehzan), «Tante Scarabée» (Khâleh suskeh), ... «Orange amère et bigarade» (Nârendj va torandj) ... «Fronte de lune» (Mâh-pishâni) ...
  5. ^ McDonald, Margaret Read (1994). "The Old Woman in a Pumpkin Shell". Celebrate the World. New York: H.W. Wilson. pp. 61–70. ISBN 9780824208622.
  6. ^ Zipes, J. (2016). The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World 2e. Springer. p. 190. ISBN 9781137098733.
  7. ^ Heidari, Morteza (2017). "Explanation and Analysis of Mythical Themes in the Structure of the Tale of "MahPishani"". University of Isfahan. 9 (1). doi:10.22108/LIAR.2017.21405.
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  11. ^ "New films to hit Iranian silver screens". Mehr News Agency. December 18, 2010. (...) the story of Auntie Cockroach, as narrated by grandmas and published in storybooks over the years (...)
  12. ^ Bashi, Golbarg (October 28, 2014). "The best children's books on Iran". The Guardian.
  13. ^ van Zutphen, Marjolijn (2014). Farāmarz, the Sistāni Hero: Texts and Traditions of the Farāmarznāme and the Persian Epic Cycle. BRILL. p. 70. ISBN 9789004268289.
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  20. ^ Hägg, Tomas; Utas, Bo (2003). The Virgin and Her Lover: Fragments of an Ancient Greek Novel and a Persian Epic Poem. Leiden: Brill Publishers. ISBN 9789004132603.
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  29. ^ Nile, Green (2006), "Ostrich Eggs and Peacock Feathers: Sacred Objects as Cultural Exchange between Christianity and Islam", Al Masaq: Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean, 18 (1): 27–78, doi:10.1080/09503110500222328, S2CID 154129150.
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  31. ^ Omidsalar, Mahmoud; Omidsalar, Teresa P. (February 24, 2012). "ḠUL". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. XI. pp. 393–395.
  32. ^ "GENIE". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. X. February 7, 2012. pp. 418–422.
  33. ^ Karimi-Hakkak, Ahmad; Talattof, Kamran (2004). Essays On Nima Yushij: Animating Modernism In Persian Poetry. Brill Publishers. p. 128. ISBN 9004138099. ...reflexivity defines the amen bird's mythic role: the bird verbalizes the people's wish and they respond with "Amen" ("So shall it be"), thereby echoing the bird's name and making the wish come true...
  34. ^ Karimi-Hakkak, Ahmad (1995). Recasting Persian Poetry: Scenarios of Poetic Modernity in Iran. The University of Utah Press. p. 268. ISBN 0874804922. He does so initially by setting up a series of connections between the amen bird and other mythical birds known or imaginable to the poem's readers.
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  36. ^ Saadat, Mostafa; Khosrawy, Ahmad Reza (22 August 2020). "Clustering of narratives of the 'Sang-e Saboor' folktale". Journal of Iranian Studies. 19 (37): 163–184. doi:10.22103/jis.2020.13108.1891 (inactive 31 January 2024).((cite journal)): CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2024 (link)
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  48. ^ "Call for Safe Yearend Celebration". Financial Tribune. March 12, 2017. The ancient tradition has transformed over time from a simple bonfire to the use of firecrackers...
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Further reading