Angel in a Turkic-Uzbek miniature, in the style of Bukhara, 16th century
Angel in a Turkic-Uzbek miniature, in the style of Bukhara, 16th century
Angel Blowing a Woodwind, ink and opaque watercolor painting from Safavid Iran, c. 1500, Honolulu Academy of Arts
Angel Blowing a Woodwind, ink and opaque watercolor painting from Safavid Iran, c. 1500, Honolulu Academy of Arts

In Islam, angels (Arabic: ملاك٬ ملك, romanizedmalāk; plural: ملائِكة, malāʾik/malāʾikah)[1] are believed to be heavenly beings, created from a luminous origin by God.[2][3] They have different roles, including their praise of God, interacting with humans in ordinary life, defending against devils and carrying on natural phenomena.[3] Islam acknowledges the concept of angels both as anthropomorphic creatures with wings and abstract forces advising good.[4] Belief in angels is one of the main articles of faith in Islam.[5]

The Quran is the principal source for the Islamic concept of angels,[4] but more extensive features of angels appear in hadith literature, Mi'raj literature, Islamic exegesis, theology, philosophy, and mysticism.[2][3][6] The angels differ from other spiritual creatures in their attitude as creatures of virtue, in contrast to devils and jinn.[2][7] Angels play an important role in Muslim everyday life by protecting the believers from evil influences and recording the deeds of humans.

Islamic Modernist scholars such as Muhammad Asad and Ghulam Ahmed Parwez have suggested a metaphorical reinterpretation of the concept of angels.[8]

Etymology

The Quranic word for angel (Arabic: ملك, romanized: malak) derives either from Malaka, meaning "he controlled", due to their power to govern different affairs assigned to them,[9] or from the triliteral root '-l-k, l-'-k or m-l-k with the broad meaning of a "messenger", just as its counterpart in Hebrew (malʾákh). Unlike the Hebrew word, however, the term is used exclusively for heavenly spirits of the divine world, as opposed to human messengers. The Quran refers to both angelic and human messengers as rasul instead.[10]

Characteristics

In Islam, angels are heavenly creatures created by God. They are considered older than humans and jinn.[11] Contrary to popular belief, angels are never described as agents of revelation in the Quran, although exegesis credits Gabriel with that.[12] One of the Islamic major characteristic is their lack of bodily desires; they never get tired, do not eat or drink, and have no anger.[13] As with other monotheistic religions, angels are characteristics of their purity and obedience to God.[14] In Islamic traditions, they are described as being created from incorporeal light (Nūr) or fire (Nar).[15][a] A narrative transmitted from Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, audited and commented by two hadith commentary experts in the modern era, Shuaib Al Arna'ut[23] and Muḥammad 'Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Mubarakpuri,[24] has spoken a hadith that Muhammad said the number of angels were countless, to the point that there is no space in the sky as wide as four fingers, unless there is an angel resting his forehead, prostrating to God.[24][23]

Angels are usually described in anthropomorphic forms combined with supernatural images, such as wings, being of great size, wearing heavenly clothes and great beauty.[25] Some angels are identified with specific colors, often with white, but some special angels have a distinct color, such as Gabriel being associated with the color green.[26]

Angels were being able to impersonate humans, such as when Gabriel,[27] Michael, Israfil,[28] [Notes 1][b] and thousands of the greatest angels, from the third heaven, came to the battle of Badr by impersonating appearance of Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, a Companions of the Prophet and bodyguard of the prophet.[c][33]

Prior to Islam, angels were considered to be daughters of God and worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia.[34] This is also mentioned concerning Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manāt.[35] The notion that God created the angels as females and fathered daughters is rejected in the Quran.[36]

Nobility

Humans and angels

Scholars debated whether human or angels rank higher. Angels usually symbolize virtuous behavior, while humans have the ability to sin, but also to repent. The prostration of angels before Adam is often seen as evidence for humans' supremacy over angels. Others hold angels to be superior, as being free from material deficits, such as anger and lust. Angels are free from such inferior urges and therefore superior, a position especially found among Mu'tazilites and some Asharites.[37] A similar opinion was asserted by Hasan of Basri, who argued that angels are superior to humans and prophets due to their infallibility, originally opposed by both Sunnis and Shias.[38] This view is based on the assumption of superiority of pure spirit against body and flesh.

Contrarily argued, humans rank above angels, since for a human it is harder to be obedient and to worship God, hassling with bodily temptations, in contrast to angels, whose life is much easier and therefore their obedience is rather insignificant. Islam acknowledges a famous story about competing angels and humans in the tale of Harut and Marut, who were tested to determine, whether or not, angels would do better than humans under the same circumstances,[39] a tradition opposed by some scholars, such as ibn Taimiyya, but still accepted by others, such as ibn Hanbal.[40]

Maturidism generally holds that angels' and prophets' superiority and obedience derive from their virtues and insights to God's action, but not as their original purity.[41]

Andalusian scholar ibn Arabi argues that a human generally ranks below angels, but developed to Al-Insān al-Kāmil, ranks above them.[42] This is comparable to the major opinion, stating that prophets and messengers among humans rank above angels, but the ordinary human below an angel, while the messengers among angels rank higher than prophets.[37] Ibn Arabi explains this, in his al-Futuhat regarding the questions of Tirmidhi, by that Muhammad intercedes for the angels first, then for (other) prophets, saints, believers, animals, plants and inanimate objects last.[43]

Groups of modern scholars from Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University in Yemen and Mauritania issued fatwa that the angels should be invoked with blessing Islamic honorifics (ʿalayhi as-salāmu), which is applied to human prophets and messengers.[44] This fatwas were based on the ruling from Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya.[44]

Impeccability

Main article: Ismah

The possibility and degree of erring angels is debated in Islam.[45] In the early Islamic period, supernatural creatures were not expected to understand sin or expiate it. They only follow their nature created by God.[46] Hasan of Basra is often considered one of the first who established the doctrine of infallibility of angels by reinterpreting verses which seem to imply erring angels.[47] To establish the doctrine of infallible angels, he asserted that Harut and Marut haven't been angels, but kings, and Iblis (Satan) was a jinn, with support from the Quranic verse "he was one of the jinn".[48] This view was, however, not universal in the formative stage of Islam, as Abu Hanifa (d. 767), on the other hand, divided angels into three categories. Obedient angels, like Gabriel; disobedient angels, like whose who teach sorcery and unbelieving angels, like Iblis and his host.[49]

Objection to a strict infallibility of angels rests on the following events in the Quran and Muslim tradition.[50] The Quran mentions the fall of Iblis (whose angelic nature is rejected by many scholars) from the place of angels in several Surahs. Surah 2:102 implies that a pair of angels fell to earth and introduces magic to humanity. According to Surah 2:30, angels complained about God's decision to create Adam.[50] In Shia traditions, a cherub called Futrus was cast out from heaven and fell to the earth in the form a snake.[51] The Isma'ilism work Umm al-Kitab reiterates the story of Iblis in the form of an angel called Azazil who boasts about himself being superior to God until he is thrown into lower celestial spheres and ends up on earth.[52]

Al-Maturidi (853–944 CE) pointed at verses of the Quran, according to which angels are tested by God and concludes angels have free-will, but, due to their insights to God's nature, choose to obey. Some angels nevertheless lack this insight and fail, pointing to Surah Al-Anbiya, and thus sentenced to hell.[41][53] Since both the Quran and Kutub al-Sittah describe angels erring or failing to accomplish that has been ordered to them, Sunni scholars (Kalam) also explained that angels might be effected by circumstances, like smell or confusion when God created Adam.[54][55][56][57]

Al-Taftazani (1322 AD –1390 AD) accepted that angels might slip into error and become disobedient, but rejected that angels would ever consciously turn against God's command and become unbelievers.[58] Most scholars of Salafism usually reject accounts on erring angels entirely and do not investigate this matter further.[59]

Purity

Angels believed to be engaged in human affairs are closely related to Islamic purity and modesty rituals. Many hadiths, including Muwatta Imam Malik from one of the Kutub al-Sittah, talk about angels being repelled by humans' state of impurity.[60]: 323  Such angels keep a distance from humans, who polluted themselves by certain actions (such as sexual intercourse). However, angels might return to an individual as soon as the person (ritually) purified himself or herself. The absence of angels may cause several problems for the person. If driven away by ritual impurity, the Kiraman Katibin, who record people's actions,[60]: 325  and the Guardian angel,[60]: 327  will not perform their tasks assigned to the individual. Another hadith specifies, during the state of impurity, bad actions are still written down, but good actions are not. When a person tells a lie, angels nearly are separated from the person from the stench the lie emanates.[60]: 328  Angels also depart from humans when they are naked or are having a bath out of decency, but also curse people who are nude in public.[60]: 328 

In philosophy

Inspired by Neoplatonism, the medieval Muslim philosopher Al-Farabi developed a cosmological hierarchy, governed by several Intellects. For al-Farabi, human nature is composed of both material and spiritual qualities. The spiritual part of a human exchanges information with the angelic entities, who are defined by their nature as knowledge absorbed by the Godhead.[61] A similar function is attested in the cosmology of the Muslim philosopher Ibn Sina, who, however, never uses the term angels throughout his works. For Ibn Sina, the Intellects have probably been a necessity without any religious connotation.[62]

Muslim theologians, such as al-Suyuti, rejected the philosophical depiction on angels, based on hadiths stating that the angels have been created through the light of God (nūr). Thus angels would have substance and could not merely be an intellectual entity as claimed by philosophers.[63]

The chain of being, according to Muslim thinkers, includes minerals, plants, animals, human and angels. Muslim philosophers usually define angels as substances endowed with reason and immortality. Humans and animals are mortal, but only men have reason. Devils are unreasonable like animals, but immortal like angels.[64][65]

Sufism

The Sufi Muslim and philosopher Al Ghazali (c. 1058–19 December 1111) divides human nature into four domains, each representing another type of creature: animals, beasts, devils and angels.[66] Traits human share with bodily creatures are the animal, which exists to regulate ingestion and procreation and the beasts, used for predatory actions like hunting. The other traits humans share with the jinn[d] and root in the realm of the unseen. These faculties are of two kind: that of angels and of the devils. While the angels endow the human mind with reason, advices virtues and leads to worshipping God, the devil perverts the mind and tempts to abusing the spiritual nature by committing lies, betrayals and deceits. The angelic natures advices how to use the animalistic body properly, while the devil perverts it.[68] In this regard, the plane of a human is, unlike whose of the jinn and animals, not pre-determined. Humans are potentially both angels and devils, depending on whether the sensual soul or the rational soul develop.[69][70]

Angels as companions

In later Sufism, angels are not merely models for the mystic but also their companions. Humans, in a state between earth and heaven, seek angels as guidance to reach the upper realms.[71] Some authors have suggested that some individual angels in the microcosmos represent specific human faculties on a macrocosmic level.[72] According to a common belief, if a Sufi can not find a sheikh to teach him, he will be taught by the angel Khidr.[73][74] The presence of an angel depends on human's obedience to divine law. Dirt, depraved morality and desecration may ward off an angel.[71]

Angels and devils

Just as in non-Sufi-related traditions, angels are thought of as created of light. Al-Jili specifies that the angels are created from the Light of Muhammad and in his attribute of guidance, light and beauty.[75] Influenced by Ibn Arabis Sufi metaphysics, Haydar Amuli identifies angels as created to represent different names/attributes of God's beauty, while the devils are created in accordance with God's attributes of Majesty, such as "The Haugthy" or "The Domineering".[76]

According to al-Ghazali humans consist of animalistic and spiritual traits. From the spiritual realm (malakut), the plane in which symbols take on form, angels and devils advise the human hearth (qalb).[77] However, the angels also inhabit the realm beyond considered the realm from which reason ('aql) derives from and devils have no place.

Unlike kalām (theology), Sufi cosmology usually makes no distinction between angels and jinn, understanding the term jinn as "everything hidden from the human senses". Ibn Arabi states: "[when I refer to] jinn in the absolute sense of the term, [I include] those which are made of light and those which are made of fire."[78] While most earlier Sufis (like Hasan al-Basri) advised their disciples to imitate the angels, Ibn-Arabi advised them to surpass the angels. The angels being merely a reflection of the Divine Names in accordance within the spiritual realm, humans experience the Names of God manifested both in the spiritual and in the material world.[71] Haydar Amuli specifies that angels are created from the Light of Muhammad and reflect guidance, light and beauty, while the devils God's attributes of "Majesty", "The Haughty" and "Domineering".[76]

In Salafism

Contemporary Salafism continues to regard the belief in angels as a pillar of Islam and regards the rejection of the literal belief in angels as unbelief and an innovation brought by secularism and Positivism. Modern reinterpretations, as for example suggested by Nasr Abu Zayd, are strongly disregarded. Simultaneously, many traditional materials regarding angels are rejected on the ground, they would not be authentic. The Muslim Brotherhood scholars Sayyid Qutb and Umar Sulaiman Al-Ashqar reject much established material concerning angels, such as the story of Harut and Marut or naming the Angel of Death Azrail. Sulayman Ashqar not only rejects the traditional material itself, he furthermore disapproves of scholars who use them.[79]

Individual angels

Islam has no standard hierarchical organization that parallels the division into different "choirs" or spheres hypothesized and drafted by early medieval Christian theologians, but generally distinguishes between the angels in heaven (karubiyin) and the messengers who carry out divine decrees between heaven and earth.[80] Angels are not equal in status and consequently, they are delegated different tasks to perform.

Archangels (karubiyin)

There are four special angels (karubiyin)[81] considered to rank above the other angels in Islam. They have proper names, and central tasks are associated with them:

Mentioned in the Quran

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Muhammad requests Maalik to show him Hell during his heavenly journey. Miniature from The David Collection.
Muhammad requests Maalik to show him Hell during his heavenly journey. Miniature from The David Collection.

Mentioned in canonical hadith tradition

Hadith narratives of Isra and Mi'raj

Muhammad encounters the angel composed of fire and ice during his Night journey. Miniature from a copy of al-Sarai's Nahj al-Faradis from The David Collection
Muhammad encounters the angel composed of fire and ice during his Night journey. Miniature from a copy of al-Sarai's Nahj al-Faradis from The David Collection

According to hadith transmitted by Ibn Abbas, Muhammad encountered several significant angels on his journey through the celestial spheres.[116][117] Many scholars such as Al-Tha'labi drew their exegesis upon this narrative, but it never led to an established angelology as known in Christianity. The principal angels of the heavens are called Malkuk, instead of Malak.[118]

First heaven Second heaven Third heaven Fourth heaven Fifth heaven Sixth heaven Seventh heaven
Habib Angel of Death Maalik Salsa'il Kalqa'il Mikha'il (Archangel) Israfil
Rooster angel Angels of death Angel with seventy heads Angels of the sun - Cherubim Bearers of the Throne
Ismail (or Riḍwan) Mika'il Arina'il - - Shamka'il Afra'il

Mentioned in non canonical tradition

Disputed

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Differences between nūr and nar have been debated in Islam. In Arabic, both terms are closely related morphologically and phonetically.[16] Baydawi explains that the term light serves only as a proverb, but fire and light refers actually to the same substance.[17] Apart from light, other traditions also mention exceptions about angels created from fire, ice or water.[18] Tabari argued that both can be seen as the same substance, since both pass into each other but refer to the same thing on different degrees.[19] Asserting that both fire and light are actually the same but on different degrees can also be found by Qazwini and Ibishi.[20][21] In his work Al-Hay'a as-samya fi l-hay'a as-sunmya, Suyuti asserts that the angels are created from "fire that eats, but does not drink", in opposition to the devils who are created from "fire that drinks, but does not eat", which is also identified with the fire of the sun.[22]
  2. ^ According to Islamic belief in weak chain of hadith, Raphael were acknowledged as angel who were tasked to blower of Armageddon trumpet, and one of archangels who bear the Throne of God on their back.[31]
  3. ^ According to one hadith, Muhammad were told that the angels that appeared in the battle of Badr were highest in status and the greatest, according to Gabriel in hadith narrated by Muhammad.[32]
  4. ^ Here jinn refers to unseen creatures in general[67]
  5. ^ According to Muhammad al-Bukhari, when Muhammad journeyed through the celestial spheres and met Ibrahim in Bait al-Makmur, there are 70,000 angels in that place.[119] (not a total number of angels)
  1. ^ found in Mustadrak al Sahihayn.[29] The complete narration from Al-Hakim al-Nishapuri is:

    ...Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Yaqoub has reported from Ibrahim bin Abdullah Al-Saadi, who told us Muhammad bin Khalid bin Uthma, told us Musa bin Yaqoub, told me Abu Al-Huwairith, that Muhammad bin Jubayr bin Mut'im told him, that he heard Ali – may God be pleased with him – addresses the people, and he said: While I was leaving from the well of Badr, a strong wind came, the like of which I had never seen, then it left, then came a strong wind, the like of which I have never seen except for the one before it, then it went, then came a strong wind that I did not see before. I have never seen anything like it except for the one before it, and the first wind was Gabriel descended among a thousand angels with the Messenger of God – may God bless him and grant him peace – and the second wind was Michael who descended among a thousand angels to the right of the Messenger of God – may God bless him and his family and grant them peace – and Abu Bakr was On his right, and the third wind was Israfil. He descended with a thousand angels on the side of the Messenger of God – may God's prayers and peace be upon him and his family – and I was on the right side. When God Almighty defeated his enemies, the Messenger of God – may God's prayers and peace be upon him and his family – carried me on his horse, I blew up, and I fell On my heels, I prayed to God Almighty...

    Ibn al Mulqin [id], hadith scholar from Cordoba of 13–14th centuries, evaluated that he found weaknesses in Musa ibn Yaqoub and Abu al Huwairith chain, and deemed there was weakness about the narrative chain of this hadith.[30] However, recent scholarship from Ali Hasan al-Halabi has noted there is another hadith which supports the participation of Raphael in Badr[28]

References

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  2. ^ a b c Reynolds, Gabriel S. (2009). "Angels". In Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett K. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Vol. 3. Leiden: Brill Publishers. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_COM_23204. ISBN 978-90-04-18130-4. ISSN 1873-9830.
  3. ^ a b c Kassim, Husain (2007). Beentjes, Pancratius C.; Liesen, Jan (eds.). "Nothing can be Known or Done without the Involvement of Angels: Angels and Angelology in Islam and Islamic Literature". Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature Yearbook. Berlin: De Gruyter. 2007 (2007): 645–662. doi:10.1515/9783110192957.6.645. ISSN 1614-337X. S2CID 201096692.
  4. ^ a b c Burge, Stephen (2015) [2012]. "Part 1: Angels, Islam, and al-Suyūṭī's Al-Ḥabāʾik fī akhbār al-malāʾik – Angels in Classical Islam and contemporary scholarship". Angels in Islam: Jalāl al-Dīn al-Suyūṭī's Al-Ḥabāʾik fī akhbār al-malāʾik (1st ed.). London and New York: Routledge. pp. 3–15. doi:10.4324/9780203144978. ISBN 9780203144978. LCCN 2011027021. OCLC 933442177. S2CID 169825282.
  5. ^ "BBC – Religions – Islam: Basic articles of faith". Archived from the original on 13 August 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-13.
  6. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0 p. 22-23
  7. ^ el-Zein, Amira (2009). "Correspondences Between Jinn and Humans". Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn. Contemporary Issues in the Middle East. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. p. 20. ISBN 9780815650706. JSTOR j.ctt1j5d836.5. LCCN 2009026745. OCLC 785782984.
  8. ^ Guessoum (2010-10-30). Islam's Quantum Question: Reconciling Muslim Tradition and Modern Science. ISBN 978-0-85773-075-6.
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  11. ^ Kuehn, Sara, Stefan Leder, and Hans-Peter Pökel. The intermediate worlds of angels: islamic representations of celestial beings in transcultural contexts. Orient-Institut, 2019. p. 336
  12. ^ Welch, A.T., Paret, R. and Pearson, J.D., "al-Ḳurʾān", in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 05 May 2022 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0543> First published online: 2012 First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007 section 2
  13. ^ Glassé, Cyril; Smith, Huston (2003). The New Encyclopedia of Islam. Rowland Altamira. pp. 49–50. ISBN 978-0-759-10190-6.
  14. ^ Burge, Stephen (2015). Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik. Routledge. p. 140. ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0.
  15. ^ Jane Dammen McAuliffe Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān Volume 3 Georgetown University, Washington DC p. 45
  16. ^ Mustafa Öztürk Journal of Islamic Research Vol 2 No 2 December 200
  17. ^ Houtsma, M. Th. (1993). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936, Band 5. Brill. p. 191. ISBN 978-9-004-09791-9 p. 191
  18. ^ Fr. Edmund Teuma, O.F.M. Conv The Nature of "Ibli'h in the Qur'an as Interpreted by the Commentators p. 16
  19. ^ Gauvain, Richard (2013). Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God. Abingdon, England: Routledge. p. 73. ISBN 978-0710313560 p. 302
  20. ^ Syrinx von Hees Enzyklopädie als Spiegel des Weltbildes: Qazwīnīs Wunder der Schöpfung: eine Naturkunde des 13. Jahrhunderts Otto Harrassowitz Verlag 2002 ISBN 978-3-447-04511-7 page 270
  21. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2013). Islamic Life and Thought. Routledge. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-134-53818-8.
  22. ^ ANTON M. HEINEN ISLAMIC COSMOLOGY A STUDY OF AS-SUYUTI'S al-Hay'a as-samya fi l-hay'a as-sunmya with critical edition, translation, and commentary ANTON M. HEINEN BEIRUT 1982 p. 143
  23. ^ a b Ammi Nur Baits. "How Many Angels are?". konsultasisyariah.com (in Arabic and Indonesian). yufid.org. Retrieved 27 March 2022. (HR. Ahmad 21516, Turmudzi 2312, Abdurrazaq in Mushanaf 17934. This hadith is rated as hasan lighairihi by Shuaib Al-Arnauth).
  24. ^ a b vol 6 تحفة الأحوذي بشرح جامع الترمذي [Tafseed Al - Ahwadi Explaining Jami at-Tirmidhi vol 6] (Hadith -- Criticism, interpretation, etc) (in Arabic). Maktabah al-Ashrafiyah. 1990. p. 695. Retrieved 27 March 2022. Interpretation of tirmidhi Hadith: إِنِّي أَرَى مَا لَا تَرَوْنَ، وَأَسْمَعُ مَا لَا تَسْمَعُونَ أَطَّتِ السَّمَاءُ، وَحُقَّ لَهَا أَنْ تَئِطَّ مَا فِيهَا مَوْضِعُ أَرْبَعِ أَصَابِعَ إِلَّا وَمَلَكٌ وَاضِعٌ جَبْهَتَهُ سَاجِدًا لِلَّهِ، وَاللَّهِ لَوْ تَعْلَمُونَ مَا أَعْلَمُ لَضَحِكْتُمْ قَلِيلًا وَلَبَكَيْتُمْ كَثِيرًا
  25. ^ Burge, Stephen (2015). Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik. Routledge. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0.
  26. ^ Burge, Stephen (2015). Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik. Routledge. p. 113. ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0.
  27. ^ al-Misri, Mahmud (2015). Sahabat-Sahabat Rasulullah vol 1: Zubair bin Awwam [Companion of the Prophet vol 1: Zubair bin Awwam] (in Indonesian and Arabic). Pustaka Ibnu Katsir. p. Shaja'ah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam Radhiyallahu anh (bravery of Zubayr ibn al-Awwam; by Mahmud al-Misri [ar]; official Book review by Basalamah; quoting various supplementary sources such as Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Siyar A'lam Nubala, Al-Tirmidhi, Prophetic biography of Ibn Hisham, etc. ISBN 9789791294386. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
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