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Banu Hashim
(Arabic: بنو هاشم)
Banu Quraysh of the Banu Ismail
LocationHejaz, Saudi Arabia (majority)
Middle East
North Africa
Horn of Africa
Far East
Descended fromHashim
Parent tribeBanu Quraysh
BranchesSayyid/Alvi (Banu Hasan, Banu Husayn, Banu Abbas Alemdar)
Banu Abbas

The Banū Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم) is the clan of the Quraysh tribe to which the prophet Muhammad belonged, named after Muhammad's great-grandfather Hashim ibn Abd Manaf.

Members of this clan, and especially their descendants, are also referred to as Hashimids, Hashimites, or Hashemites, and often carry the surname al-Hāshimī. These descendants, and especially those tracing their lineage to Muhammad through his daughter Fatima, hold the traditional title of Sharīf (often synonymous to Sayyid).[1]

From the 8th century on, Hashimid descent came to be regarded as a mark of nobility, and formed the basis upon which many dynasties legitimized their rule.[2] Some of the most famous Islamic dynasties of Hashimid descent include the Abbasids (ruled from Baghdad 750–945; held the caliphate without exercising power 945–1258 in Badghad and 1261–1517 in Cairo), the Fatimids (ruled from Cairo and claimed the caliphate 909–1171), the Alawids (rulers of Morocco, 1631–present), and the Hashemites (rulers of Jordan, 1921–present).


Traditionally, the tribe is named after Hashim ibn Abd Manaf. He was married to Salma bint Amr of the Banu Najjar, an Israelite clan.[3]

Amongst pre-Islamic Arabs, people classified themselves according to their tribe, their clan, and then their house/family. There were two major tribal kinds: the Adnanites (descended from Adnan, traditional ancestor of the Arabs of northern, central and western Arabia) and the Qahtanites (originating from Qahtan, the traditional ancestor of the Arabs of southern and south eastern Arabia).[4][5] Banu Hashim is one of the clans of the Quraysh tribe,[6] and is an Adnanite tribe. It derives its name from Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, the great-grandfather of Muhammad, and along with the Banu Abd Shams, Banu Al-Muttalib, and Banu Nawfal clans comprises the Banu Abd al-Manaf section of the Quraysh.

The House of Abdul-Muttalib of Banu Hashim comprised nobility in pre-Islamic Mecca. This was based on their hereditary duty to act as stewards and caretakers of the pilgrims coming to Mecca to worship at the Kaaba, the sacred shrine that in Islamic tradition was built by Ibrahim (Abraham) and his first-born son and heir Ismail (Ishmael) was a Monotheist site of worship.

With time, the Kaaba had come to be occupied by some hundreds of idols. Visiting of these idols by the different tribes caused traffic which added considerably to the wealth of the merchants of Mecca, which also benefited from its position astride the caravan routes from Yemen (Arabia Felix) up to the Mediterranean markets.

It was into the House 'Abd al-Muttalib of Banu Hashim of Quraysh that Muhammad was born. At the age of 40, his establishment of Islam set him at odds with the established powers in Mecca. His membership of the 'top house, of the top clan' (in terms of prestige and power) was a factor (according to Islamic tradition) through which God kept him safe from assassination during the early years of his mission, as a number of his uncles would not countenance any such insult to their so-called clan honour. After 13 years, the Muslim community of Mecca migrated (made Hijrah) to the city of Yathrib (which subsequently became known as Medina) to avoid their often murderous persecution by the non-believers of Mecca. With the conquest of Mecca, the city was captured by the army of Islam. The Kaabah was cleansed of idols and became the centre of pilgrimage for Muslims, once again the centre of pure Abrahamic monotheism. (It is illegal for non-Muslims to enter an area designated surrounding the city of Mecca).

The two major lines of descent of Muhammad are those of his two grandsons, Al-Hasan and Al-Husain, born of the union of his daughter Fatimah and his cousin and son-in-law Ali. Muhammad besought the love of the Muslims on his grandsons, thus their descendants have become spiritual aristocracy among the Muslims. The descendants of the Banu Hashim are known by the titles of Saiyed, Sayed, Sayyid, Syed and Sharif.

In the 19th Century CE, to try to resolve the confusion surrounding the descendants of Muhammad, the Ottoman Caliphs attempted to replicate the Almanach de Gotha (the tome listing the noble houses of Europe) to show known and verifiable lines of descent. Although not 100% complete in its scope the resulting Kitab al-Ashraf (Book of the Sharifs), kept at the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul is one of the best sources of evidence of descent from Muhammad.[7] The Alids (the term given to the descendants of Muhammad via his daughter Fatima and Ali) lines of descent produced many once, current (and future) reigning dynasties across the Islamic imperium, amongst these stand:


The following Royal and Imperial dynasties claim descent from Hashim:





East Asia

Family tree

Kilab ibn MurrahFatimah bint Sa'd
Zuhrah ibn Kilab
(progenitor of Banu Zuhrah)
maternal great-great-grandfather
Qusai ibn Kilab
paternal great-great-great-grandfather
Hubba bint Hulail
paternal great-great-great-grandmother
`Abd Manaf ibn Zuhrah
maternal great-grandfather
`Abd Manaf ibn Qusai
paternal great-great-grandfather
Atikah bint Murrah
paternal great-great-grandmother
Wahb ibn `Abd Manaf
maternal grandfather
Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf
(progenitor of Banu Hashim)
paternal great-grandfather
Salma bint `Amr
paternal great-grandmother
Fatimah bint `Amr
paternal grandmother
paternal grandfather
Halah bint Wuhayb
paternal step-grandmother
paternal uncle
paternal half-uncle
paternal half-uncle
first nurse
second nurse
Abu Talib
paternal uncle
paternal half-uncle
Abu Lahab
paternal half-uncle
6 other sons
and 6 daughters
first wife
`Abd Allah ibn `Abbas
paternal cousin
paternal cousin and son-in-law
family tree, descendants
family tree
Umm Kulthum
adopted son
Ali ibn Zainab
Umamah bint Zainab
`Abd-Allah ibn Uthman
(marriage disputed)
Usama ibn Zayd
adoptive grandson
Muhsin ibn Ali
Hasan ibn Ali
Husayn ibn Ali
family tree
Umm Kulthum bint Ali
Zaynab bint Ali
tenth / eleventh wife*
Abu Bakr
family tree
second / third wife*
family tree
Umm Salama
sixth wife
eighth wife
eleventh / twelfth wife*
second / third wife
Family tree
fifth wife
fourth wife
seventh wife
Umm Habiba
ninth wife
Maria al-Qibtiyya

See also


  1. ^ Van Arendonk, C.; Graham, W.A. (1960–2007). "Sharīf". In Bearman, P. J.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W. P. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition.
  2. ^ Van Arendonk & Graham 1960–2007.
  3. ^ The Agrarian System of Islam Muḥammad Taqī Amīnī Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli, 1991
  4. ^ Reuven Firestone (1990). Journeys in Holy Lands: The Evolution of the Abraham-Ishmael Legends in Islamic Exegesis. p. 72. ISBN 9780791403310.
  5. ^ Göran Larsson (2003). Ibn García's Shuʻūbiyya Letter: Ethnic and Theological Tensions in Medieval al-Andalus. p. 170. ISBN 9004127402.
  6. ^ Al-Mubarakpuri, Safi-ur-Rahman (2002). The Sealed Nectar (Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum). Darussalam. p. 30. ISBN 1591440718.
  7. ^ "Home".
  8. ^ a b c Vachon, Boudreau & Cogné 1998, p. 236.
  9. ^ Hoiberg 2010, p. 10.
  10. ^ Vachon, Boudreau & Cogné 1998, p. 238.
  11. ^ a b c Vachon, Boudreau & Cogné 1998, p. 235.
  12. ^ a b c I. M. Lewis, A pastoral democracy: a study of pastoralism and politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa, (LIT Verlag Münster: 1999), p. 157.
  13. ^ Abul Fazl (2004). The Āʼīn-i Akbarī (2nd ed.). Sang-e-Meel Publications. ISBN 9693515307.
  14. ^ Khan, Muhammad Najm-ul-Ghani (1918). Akhbar-us-Sanadeed, vol. 1. Lucknow: Munshi Nawal Kishore. pp. 79–83 (85–89).
  15. ^ Vachon, Boudreau & Cogné 1998, p. 237.
  16. ^ Punjab States Gazetteers Bahawalpur State Vol.36 (Volume 36 ed.). 1908. p. 47.
  17. ^ Khan, Shah Nawaz (1952). Maasir al Umara. Calcutta: Calcutta Oriental Press. pp. 259–262.
  18. ^ a b Vachon, Boudreau & Cogné 1998, p. 233.