In this illustration from the Hamzanama, the flaming eyes of the ifrit Arghan the Div are slightly crossed and his orange skin spotted all over; he carries a chest over the waters on behalf of Hamza.[1]

Ifrit, also spelled as efreet, afrit, and afreet (Arabic: عفريت, romanizedʿifrīt, lit.'[ʕifriːt]' (listen), plural عفاريت ʿafārīt), is a powerful type of demon in Islamic culture. The ʿafārīt are often associated with the underworld and identified with the spirits of the dead, and have been compared to evil geniī loci in European culture.[2] In Quran, hadith, and Mi'raj narrations the term is always followed by the phrase "among the jinn". In later folklore, they developed into independent entities, identified as powerful demons or spirits of the dead who sometimes inhabit desolate places such as ruins and temples. Their true habitat is the Jahannam or underworld.[3]


Makhan embraced by an ifrit. Illustration to Nizami Ganjavi's poem Hamsa. Bukhara, 1648.

The word ifrit appears in Surah an-Naml: 39 of the Quran, but only as an epithet and not to designate a specific type of demon.[2][4] The term itself is not found in pre-Islamic Arabic poetry, although variants such as ifriya and ifr are recorded prior to the Quran.[4] Traditionally, Arab philologists trace the derivation of the word to عفر (ʻafara, "to rub with dust" or "to roll into dust").[3][5] It is further used to describe sly, malicious, wicked and cunning characteristics.[6]

Some Western philologists suggest a foreign origin of the word and attribute it to Middle Persian afritan which corresponds to Modern Persian آفريدن (to create), but this is regarded as unlikely by others.[4] Johnny Cheung states that it is instead a Zoroastrian spirit called an āfriti- in the Avestan language. "This Avestan term, which would have been passed on into Middle Persian or Parthian as a typical learned borrowing, is more likely the ultimate source of Arabic ‘ifrīt."[7]

In folklore, the term developed into a designation of a specific class of demon, though most Islamic scholarly traditions regard the term as an adjective.[5][4] Popular beliefs were elaborated in works such as in al-Ibshihi's Mustatraf. They became identified either as a dangerous kind of demon (shaitan) preying on women, or as spirits of the dead.[4]

Islamic scriptures

The ifrit Al-Malik al-Aswad (The Black King) sitting on the right listening to the complaints of jinn; from a manuscript in the late 14th century Book of Wonders[8]

In Islamic scriptures the term ifrit is always followed by the expression of the jinn.[9] Due to the ambiguous meaning of the term jinn, which is applied to a wide range of different spirits, their relation towards the genus of jinn remains vague.[3] However, within the Islamic scriptures themselves, the term is apparently used as an epithet to describe a powerful or malicious spirit of undefined nature.[10][4][3]

In the Quran itself, such an ifrit is mentioned in Quran 27:38-40. The ifrit offers to carry the throne of Bilqis, the queen of Sheba, to King Solomon: "An ifrit from the jinn said: 'I will bring it to you before you rise from your place. And verily, I am indeed strong, and trustworthy for such work." However, the duty is not given to him, but to somebody who is endowed with knowledge of the scripture.[4] An "ifrit among the jinn" is mentioned in a hadith of Muhammad al-Bukhari, attempting to interrupt the prayers of the prophet Muhammad[11][a] and in a narrative of Muhammad's night journey recorded in the eighth century by Malik ibn Anas. In the latter account, the "ifrit among the jinn" threatens Muhammad with a fiery presence, whereupon the Archangel Gabriel taught Muhammad a prayer to defeat it.[13][9] Muslim texts explain, God sent the ifrit on purpose so that Gabriel might teach Muhammad and his ummah (Muslim community) to overcome their fear of demons at night.[14]

Islamic folklore

In Islamic folklore, the afarit became a class of chthonic spirits, inhabiting the layers of the seven earths,[15][16] generally ruthless and wicked, formed out of smoke and fire.[b][17] Nizami Ganjavi describes the ifrit tormenting Mahan, as created from "God's wrath", thus underpinning the ifrit's role secondary to God's will.[18]

But despite their negative depictions and affiliation to the nether regions, afarit are not fundamentally evil on a moral plane; they might even carry out God's purpose. Such obligations can nevertheless be ruthless, such as obligation to blood vengeance and avenging murder.[3] Further, an ifrit can be compelled by a sorcerer, if summoned.[9]


Mask depicting Bes, ancient Egypt deity, sometimes identified with afarit by Muslim Egyptians,[19] early 4th–1st century BC (Walters Art Museum, Baltimore)

Although afarit are not necessarily components of a person, but independent entities, a common belief in Islamic Egypt[c] associates afarit with part of a human's soul.[23](pp103–104)

Probably influenced by the Ancient Egypt idea of Ka, the afarit are often identified with the spirits of the dead, departing from the body at the moment of death. They live in cemeteries, wander around places the dead person frequently visited, or roam the earth close to the place of death, until the Day of Judgment. A person who died a natural death does not have a malevolent ifrit. Only people who are killed give rise to a dangerous and active ifrit, drawn to the blood of the victim. Driving an unused nail into the blood is supposed to stop their formation.[24] Such afarit might scare and even kill the living or take revenge on the murderer.[25][23](p153) Martyrs, saints and prophets do not have a ghost, and therefore no ifrit.[23](p153)


In Moroccan belief, the afarit form a more powerful type of demon, compared to the jinn and other supernatural creatures. They have more substantial existence, and are greater in scale and capacity[26] than other demons.[27] Their physical appearance is often portrayed as having monstrous deformities, such as claw-like or thorny hands, flaming eyes or seven heads.[27][9]

Just as with jinn, an ifrit might possess an individual. Such persons gain some abilities from the ifrit, such as getting stronger and more brave, but the ifrit renders them insane.[26][27] With the aid of a magical ring, the afarit might be forced to perform certain orders, such as carrying heavy stones.[27]


A story circulates among the Shabak community in Northern Iraq about a certain ifrit who incensed Ali by his evil nature long before the creation of Adam. Consequently, for the ifrit's wickedness, Ali chained the ifrit and left him alone. When the prophets arrived, he appeared to all of them and begged them for his release, but no prophet was able to break the chains of the ifrit. When Muhammad found the ifrit, he brought him to Ali. Ali was merciful to the ifrit, and decided to release him under the condition that he surrender to the will of God.[28]

In fiction

Afarit appear already in early poems, such as those of Al-Maʿarri (973–1057), who describes his protagonist visiting a paradise with "narrow straits" and "dark valleys" for afarit, between heaven and hell.[29] In later works, the afarit are mentioned among the narratives collected in One Thousand and One Nights. In one tale called "The Porter and the Young Girls", a prince is attacked by pirates and takes refuge with a woodcutter. The prince finds an underground chamber in the forest leading to a beautiful woman who has been kidnapped by an ifrit. The prince sleeps with the woman and both are attacked by the jealous ifrit, who changes the prince into an ape. Later a princess restores the prince and fights a pitched battle with the ifrit, who changes shape into various animals, fruit, and fire until being reduced to cinders.[30][3] In "The Fisherman and the Jinni" an ifrit, locked in a jar by the Seal of Solomon, is released but later tricked by the fisherman again into the jar. Under the condition that the ifrit aids him to achieve riches, he releases the ifrit again.[31] The latter ifrit, however, might be substituted by a marid, another type of powerful demon[30][3] easily tricked by the protagonist.[32] The latter portrayal of an ifrit, as a wish-granting spirit released from a jar, became characteristic of Western depictions of jinn.[31]

Afarit feature frequently in film and video games. In the Final Fantasy video game series, an ifrit appears as a summonable spirit and an enemy. Like its mythological counterpart, it is a spirit of fire and can use an iconic spell called Hell-Fire.[33] In the fifth season of True Blood (2012), an ifrit seeks vengeance for murder of Iraqi civilians by U.S soldiers.[34] In both the novel American Gods (2001) and the television adaptation by Neil Gaiman an ifrit disguised as a taxi-driver appears, trying to get used to his new role, seeking intimacy in a lonely world.[35]

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ In Shibli's (d. 1367) retelling, he calls the ifrit a shaitan, underlining the ambiguous nature of the afarit.[12]
  2. ^ The description "smoke and fire" is contrary to the jinn in Quranic traditions, who are created out of smokeless (clear) fire,[3] but is in accord with a common tradition depicting the devils (shayāṭīn), as created out of smoke.
  3. ^ Although the identification of afarit with ghosts is usually associated with Muslims in Egypt, it is also attested among Muslims in India, Syria, and Javan Muslims in Cirebon.[20][21][22]


  1. ^ Sleigh, Tom (2018). The Land between Two Rivers: Writing in an Age of Refugees. Graywolf Press. pp. chapter: 1.11. ISBN 978-1-555-97986-7.
  2. ^ a b Edward Westermarck Ritual and Belief in Morocco: Vol. I (Routledge Revivals) Routledge, 23 Apr 2014 ISBN 9781317912682 p. 387
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Chelhod, J., “ʿIfrīt”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 06 October 2019 <> First published online: 2012 First print edition: ISBN 9789004161214, 1960-2007
  4. ^ a b c d e f g McAuliffe, Jane Dammen. Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān. Vol. 3. Georgetown University, Washington DC. pp. 486–487.
  5. ^ a b Chelhod, J., “ʿIfrīt”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 26 September 2019 doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_3502 First published online: 2012 First print edition: ISBN 9789004161214, 1960-2007
  6. ^ "الباحث العربي: قاموس عربي عربي". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2019-02-19.
  7. ^ Cheung, Johnny (2016). "On the (Middle) Iranian borrowings in Qur'ānic (and pre-Islamic) Arabic". HAL: 15. Retrieved 26 December 2023.
  8. ^ de Lafayette, Maximillien (2017). Early & contemporary spirit artists, psychic artists, and medium painters from 5000 BC to the present day economy. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-365-97802-9.
  9. ^ a b c d Szombathy, Zoltan, "ʿIfrīt", in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. 3, edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. Consulted online on 06 October 2019. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_COM_32379. First published online: 2018 First print edition: ISBN 9789004356641, 2018, 2018-3
  10. ^ Vincent Crapanzano The Ḥamadsha: A Study in Moroccan Ethnopsychiatry University of California Press 1973 ISBN 9780520022416 p. 136
  11. ^ Lebling, Robert (2010-07-30). Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar. I.B.Tauris. pp. 141, 151–153. ISBN 978-0-857-73063-3.
  12. ^ Nünlist, Tobias (2015). Dämonenglaube im Islam (in German). Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p. 109. ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4.
  13. ^ Brooke Olson Vuckovic Heavenly Journeys, Earthly Concerns: The Legacy of the Mi'raj in the Formation of Islam Routledge, 2004 ISBN 9781135885243 p. 35-36
  14. ^ Ürkmez, Ertan. "Türk-İslâm mitolojisi bağlamında Mi ‘râç motifi ve Türkiye kültür tarihine yansımaları." (2015).
  15. ^ Günther, Sebastian; Pielow, Dorothee (18 October 2018). Die Geheimnisse der oberen und der unteren Welt: Magie im Islam zwischen Glaube und Wissenschaft [The Secrets of the Upper and Lower Worlds: Magic in Islam between faith and science] (in German). BRILL. p. 597. ISBN 9789004387577.
  16. ^ Conermann, Stephan (2014). History and Society During the Mamluk Period (1250-1517). V&R unipress GmbH. p. 25. ISBN 9783847102281.
  17. ^ Hossein Nasr, Seyyed (2013). Islamic Life and Thought. Routledge. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-134-53818-8.
  18. ^ Annabelle, Birgit; Böttcher, Krawietz (2021). Islam, Migration and Jinn: Spiritual Medicine in Muslim Health Management. Deutschland: Springer International Publishing. p. 30. ISBN 978-3-030-61247-4.
  19. ^ Winkler, Hans Alexander (2009). Ghost Riders of Upper Egypt: A study of spirit possession. Cairo, EG: American University in Press. p. 29. ISBN 9789774162503.
  20. ^ Muhaimin, A.G. (2006). The Islamic Traditions of Cirebon: Ibadat and Adat among Javanese Muslims. ANU E Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-920942-31-1.
  21. ^ Fartacek, Gebhard (2010). Unheil durch Dämonen?: Geschichten und Diskurse über das Wirken der Ǧinn; eine sozialanthropologische Spurensuche in Syrien [Evil from Demons?] (in German). Böhlau Verlag Wien. p. 68. ISBN 9783205784852. Stories and discourses on the works of the djinn; a socio-anthropological search for clues in Syria.
  22. ^ Smith, Frederick M. (2012). The Self Possessed: Deity and spirit possession in South Asian literature and civilization. Columbia University Press. p. 570. ISBN 978-0-231-51065-3.
  23. ^ a b c al-Aswad, el-Sayed (2002). Religion and Folk Cosmology: Scenarios of the visible and invisible in rural Egypt. Westport, CT: Praeger / Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 103–104, 153. ISBN 9780897899246.
  24. ^ "Aeromancy". The Element Encyclopedia of the Psychic World. Harper Element. 2006. p. 10.
  25. ^ Lebling, Robert (2010). Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and genies from Arabia to Zanzibar. I.B. Tauris. pp. 151–153. ISBN 978-0-85773-063-3.
  26. ^ a b Crapanzano, Vincent (1973). The Ḥamadsha: A study in Moroccan ethnopsychiatry. University of California Press. p. 137. ISBN 9780520022416.
  27. ^ a b c d Westermarck, Edward (23 April 2014). Ritual and Belief in Morocco. Routledge Revivals. Vol. I. Routledge. pp. 263–264. ISBN 9781317912682.
  28. ^ Moosa, Matti (1987). Extremist Shiites: The Ghulat sects. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-815-62411-0.
  29. ^ Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Amira El-Zein 2009 ISBN 978-0-815-65070-6 page 20
  30. ^ a b Anne E. Duggan Ph.D., Donald Haase Ph.D., Helen J. Callow Folktales and Fairy Tales: Traditions and Texts from around the World, 2nd Edition [4 volumes]: Traditions and Texts from around the World ABC-CLIO, 12.02.2016 volume 2 ISBN 9781610692540 p. 402
  31. ^ a b Jeffrey Andrew Weinstock The Ashgate Encyclopedia of Literary and Cinematic Monsters Routledge, 01.04.2016 ISBN 9781317044253 p. 166-169
  32. ^ Leon Hale (January 13, 2002). "Arabic mythology is worth revisiting". Houston Chronicle.
  33. ^ Ruth Ayaß, Cornelia Gerhardt The Appropriation of Media in Everyday Life John Benjamins Publishing 2012 ISBN 9789027273376 p. 205
  34. ^ Hudson, Dale. "'Of course there are Werewolves and Vampires': 'True Blood' and the Right to Rights for other Species." American Quarterly, vol. 65, no. 3, 2013, pp. 661–687.,
  35. ^ Tara Prescott Neil Gaiman in the 21st Century: Essays on the Novels, Children's Stories, Online Writings, Comics and Other Works McFarland, 11.02.2015 ISBN 9780786494774 p. 25.