Illustration from Phillip Medhurst Collection depicting Joshua fighting Amalek (Exodus 17).

Amalek (/ˈæməlɛk/;[1] Hebrew: עֲמָלֵק, ʿĂmālēq, Arabic: عماليق ʿAmālīq) is described in the Hebrew Bible as the enemy nation of the Israelites. The name "Amalek" can refer to the descendants of Amalek, the grandson of Esau, or anyone who lived in their territories in Canaan.[2][3][4] Islamic tradition considers Amalek to be an Arabian tribe in pre-Islamic Mecca and Medina[5][6] or North African descendants of Ham, the son of Noah.[7]

Etymology

In some rabbinical interpretations, Amalek is etymologised as am lak, 'a people who lick (blood)',[8] but most scholars regard the origin to be unknown.[9]

Amalek in the Hebrew Bible

"Amalekites" redirects here. For Amalekites in the Book of Mormon, see Amalekites (Book of Mormon).

According to the Hebrew Bible, Amalek was the son of Eliphaz (himself the son of Esau, ancestor of the Edomites and the brother of Israel) and Eliphaz's concubine Timna. Timna was a Horite and sister of Lotan.[2] According to a midrash, Timna was a princess who tried to convert to Judaism. However, she was rejected by Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. She replied she would rather be a handmaiden to the dregs of Israel than be a mistress of another gentile nation. To punish the Patriarchs for their attitudes, Timna birthed Amalek, whose descendants would cause Israel much distress. Amalek was also the product of an incestuous union since Eliphaz was Timna's second father, according to 1 Chronicles 1:36, after he committed adultery with the wife of Seir the Horite, who was Timna's biological father.[10][11] First-century Roman-Jewish scholar and historian Flavius Josephus refers to Amalek as a "bastard" (νόθος) in a derogatory sense.[12]

Battle with the Amalekites, by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld (1860), representing Exodus 17:8–16.

Amalekites

Amalek is described in Genesis 36:16 as the "chief of Amalek" among the "chiefs of the sons of Esau",from which it is surmised that he ruled a clan or territory named after him. In the oracle of Balaam, Amalek was called the "first of the nations".[13] One modern scholar believes this attests to Amalek's high antiquity,[14] while traditional commentator Rashi states: "He came before all of them to make war with Israel".[15] The Amalekites (/ˈæməlɛkts/[16]) were claimed to be Amalek's descendants through the genealogy of Esau.[17]

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Amalekites inhabited the Negev.[3] They appear to have lived a nomadic or seminomadic lifestyle along the fringes of southern Canaan's agricultural zone.[4] This is probably based on the association of this tribal group with the steppe region of ancient Israel and the area of Kadesh (Genesis 14:7).

As a people, the Amalekites are identified throughout the Hebrew Bible as a recurrent enemy of the Israelites:[17]

Interpretation

Judaism

"Davidster" (Star of David) by Dick Stins is a Holocaust memorial in The Hague. The text at the side (in Dutch and Hebrew) is from Deuteronomy 25:17, 19 – "Remember what Amalek has done to you ... do not forget."

In the Mishneh Torah, Rambam derives three commandments, two positive and one negative, related to references to Amalek in the Torah:

# Type Commandment Source
59 Negative Not to forget the wicked deeds which Amalek perpetrated against us[29] "Do not forget" (Deut. 25:19)
188 Positive To exterminate the seed of Amalek[30] "You shall blot out the memory of Amalek" (Deut. 25:19)
189 Positive To constantly remember what Amalek did to us[31] "Remember what Amalek did to you" (Deut. 25:17)

Many rabbinic authorities such as Maimonides ruled that the commandment only applies to a Jewish king or an organized community, and cannot be performed by an individual.[32] According to Rashi, the Amalekites were sorcerers who could transform themselves to resemble animals, in order to avoid capture. Thus, in 1 Samuel 15:3, it was considered necessary to destroy the livestock when destroying Amalek.[33] According to Haggahot Maimuniyyot, the commandment only applies to the future messianic era and not in present times; this limitation is widely supported by medieval authorities.[34]

Maimonides elaborates that when the Jewish people wage war against Amalek, they must request the Amalekites to accept the Seven Laws of Noah and pay a tax to the Jewish kingdom. If they refuse, they are to be executed.[35]

Other Talmudic commentators argued that the calls to spare no Amalekite or "blot out their memory" were metaphorical[36] and did not require the actual killing of Amalekites. Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch said that the command was to destroy "the remembrance of Amalek" rather than actual Amalekites.[37] The Sfat Emet interpreted the command as fully hating Amalek, without performing any physical action.[38] The Chofetz Chaim said that God would perform the elimination of Amalek and that Jews only need to remember what Amalek did to them.[39]

Isaac S.D. Sassoon believes that the cherem commands existed to prevent the Jewish community from being endagered but believes people should think twice before literally following them.[40] Nathan Lopes Cardazo argues that the Torah's ethically questionable laws were intentional since they were a result of God working with an underdeveloped world. He believes that God appointed the Sages to help humanity evolve in their understanding of the Torah.[41]

Christianity

Theologian Charles Ellicott explains that the Amalekites were subject to cherem in the Book of Samuel for the purposes of incapacitation, due to their 'accursed' nature and the threat they posed to the commonwealth of surrounding nations.[42] Matthew Henry considers the cherem to be defensive warfare since the Amalekites were invaders.[43] John Gill describes the cherem as the law of retaliation being carried out.[44]

According to Christian Hofreiter, almost all Christian authorities and theologians have historically interpreted the cherem passages literally. He states that "there is practically no historical evidence that anyone in the Great Church" viewed them as being purely an allegory. In particular, Augustine, Thomas Aquinas and John Calvin have defended a literal reading of these passages at length. Origen of Alexandria is sometimes cited as having viewed the cherem passages allegorically; Hofreiter argues that although Origen prioritized a spiritual interpretation of the Bible, he did not deny that the herem passages described historical events.[45]

Paul Copan argues that the cherem commands were hyperbolic since the passages contain merisms such as "man and woman" [46] and Near Easterners valued "bravado and exaggeration" when reporting warfare.[47][48] Kluger believes this is an earnest attempt to absolve the Israelites, and their God, of moral responsibility. Nonetheless, she argues Copan's interpretation still "normalizes mass violence" and "hostility towards targeted groups".[23]

Islam

Ibn Khaldūn affirms that God ordered Saul, the king of Israel, to depose the Amalekites, which caused Haman's hostility to the Jews in the Book of Esther.[49]

Modern academia

Some commentators have discussed the ethics of the commandment to exterminate all the Amalekites, including children, and the presumption of collective punishment.[50][51][52][53] It has also been described as genocidal, according to genocide scholars like Norman Naimark.[54][55][56][57]

Kluger believes that the extermination verses can be explained by the Israelites seeing the Amalekites as their "unwelcome brother" and the "rejected son", possessing all the negative qualities that the Israelites inherently saw within themselves, which Kluger sees as a form of self-hatred. She also observes that the Hebrew Bible is surprisingly neutral when describing the Amalekites and that the texts do not provide an adequate explanation on why they were singled out for complete annihilation, compared to the Egyptians and Canaanites for example.[23]

Ada Taggar-Cohen observes that cherem commands were not uncommon in the ancient Near East. Their purpose was to show that the deity was on the aggressor's side and that the enemy deserved said deity's wrath for their "sins". It also allowed kings to pursue militarist policies without taking moral responsibility.[58]

C.L. Crouch considers the cherem commands to be an exceptional component to Israelite and Judahite warfare since they were erratically applied, even in the early stages of national and ethnic identity formation. They were an extreme means to eradicate the powerful threat of chaos. Similar attitudes were held by Assyrian rulers such as Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal.[59]

Historicity

No reference to Amalek or the Amalekites has been found in surviving Egyptian and Assyrian monumental inscriptions and records, even though both groups recorded various tribes and peoples of the Levant in the relevant time period(s). Therefore, Hugo Winckler concluded that there were no Amalekites and that the Biblical stories concerning them were entirely ahistorical and mythological.[60] Although archaeological research has improved knowledge about nomadic Arabs, no specific artifact or site has been linked to Amalek with certainty.[4]

It is possible that some of the fortified settlements in the Negev highlands and Tel Masos, which is near Beer-sheba and possibly equivalent to Hormah,[61] have Amalekite connections.[62] If this hypothesis is correct, it is likely that Saul's anti-Amalekite campaigns were motivated by a strategic desire to wrest control of copper production at Tel Masos. Copper was valuable to the early Israelites and their theology and ritual.[63]

Archaeological evidence from the Tell el-Qudeirat fortress and Horvat Haluqim in the Negev, dated to the late 11th to early 10th century BC, could corroborate with the Biblical Israelite-Amalekite confrotations, during the reigns of Saul and David. Bruins discovered that their inhabitants were semi-nomadic agro-pastoralists. They lived in tents, rode camels, participated in the copper trade and worshipped gods at masseboth shrines. Oval fortresses were built during the same time period of the aforementioned confrontations. However, other scholars argue that these settlements were inhabited by Edomites or Simeonites.[64]

Alternative theories of origin

Gustave Doré, The Death of Agag. "Agag" may have been the hereditary name of the Amalekite kings. The one depicted was killed by Samuel (1 Samuel 15).

In Genesis 14:7, the "field of the Amalekites" is mentioned, but the person who is named Amalek was not born yet.

Some commentators claim that this passage is a reference to the territory which was later inhabited by the Amalekites.[65] C. Knight elaborates this concept by making a comparison: one might say "Caesar went into France", though Gaul only later became known as France.[7]

Alternatively, during the Islamic Golden Age, certain Arabic writings claimed that the Amalekites existed long before Abraham.[66] Some Muslim historians claimed that the Amalekites who fought against Joshua were the descendants of the inhabitants of North Africa. Ibn-Arabshâh claimed that Amalek was a descendant of Ham, son of Noah.[7][66] However, the name Amalek may have been given to two different nations. The Arabians mention Imlik, Amalik, or Ameleka among the aborigines of Arabia, the remains of which were mingled with the descendants of Qahtan (Joktan) and Adnan and became Mostarabs or Mocarabes, that is, Arabians were mixed with foreigners.[7]

John Gill believes the Amalekites of Genesis 14:7 were equivalent to the Hamite-Arabian Amalekites described by Muslim scholars. He argues the Amalekites were always allied with the Canaanites who descended from Ham, were conquered by the Shemite Chedorlaomer, existed before the Edomite Amalekites thus affirming Numbers 24:20, and that the Edomites never rescued these Amalekites from Saul's campaigns due to inter-tribal feuds.[67]

By the 19th century, many Western theologians believed that the nation of Amalek could have flourished before the time of Abraham. Matthew George Easton theorized that the Amalekites were not the descendants of Amalek by taking a literal approach to Genesis 14:7.[68] However, the modern biblical scholar Gerald L. Mattingly uses textual analysis to glean that the use of Amalekite in Genesis 14:7 is actually an anachronism,[4] and in the early 19th century, Richard Watson enumerated several speculative reasons for the existence of a "more ancient Amalek" than Abraham.[66]

In his exegesis of Numbers 24:20, concerning Balaam's utterance: "Amalek was the first one of the nations, but his end afterward will be even his perishing", Richard Watson attempts to associate this passage to the "first one of the nations" that developed post-Flood.[66] According to Samuel Cox, the Amalekites were the "first" in their hostility toward the Israelites.[69]

Abrahamic traditions

Jewish traditions

Amalek is the archetypal enemy of the Jews and the symbol of evil in Jewish religion and folklore.[70] Nur Masalha, Elliot Horowitz, and Josef Stern suggest that the Amalekites represent an "eternally irreconciliable enemy" that wants to murder Jews. In post-biblical times, Jews associated contemporary enemies with Amalek or Haman and, occasionally, believed pre-emptive violence is acceptable against such enemies.[71] Groups identified with Amalek include the Romans, Nazis, Stalinists, ISIS,[72] Zionists[73] and bellicose Iranian leaders such as Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.[74][75] More metaphorically, to some Hasidic rabbis (particularly the Baal Shem Tov), Amalek represents atheism or the cynical rejection of God, which leads to unethical hedonism. This is sometimes known as the "Amalekite doctrine".[76] In contemporary times, religious Jews associate Amalek with violent antisemites,[71][77] nihilism and Jewish doubt in God.[76]

During the Purim festival, the Book of Esther is read in commemoration of the salvation of Jewish people from Haman, who plotted to kill all Jews in Persian Empire. It is customary for the audience to make noise and shout whenever "Haman" is mentioned, in order to desecrate his name, based on Exodus 17:14. It is also customary to recite Deuteronomy 25:17–18 on the Shabbat before Purim. This was because Haman was considered to be an Amalekite although this label is more likely to be symbolic rather than literal.[78][77][79] Some Iranophilic Jews interpreted Haman's Amalekite background as being anathema to both Jews and 'pure-blooded Iranians'.[49]

Christian traditions

Early Church fathers such as Justin Martyr, Irenaeus and Cyprian consider the defeat of Amalek in Exodus 17:8–13 to be reminiscent of Jesus defeating the powers of the devil at the cross. Origen sees the battle as an allegory of the Law mysteriously invoking Christ, who recruits strong people (i.e. Christians) to defeat the demonic Strong Man, as described in Ephesians 6:12.[80]

John Gill believes that Amalek is a type of antichrist that 'raises his hand against the throne of God, his tabernacle and his saints'. He believes the phrase "from generation to generation" in Exodus 17:16 specifically refers to the Messianic Age, where Amalek and other antichristian states are exterminated by the Lamb.[81] Likewise, Charles Ellicott notes that the Amalekites were collectively called 'the sinners' in 1 Samuel 15:18, which was only used elsewhere for the Sodomites in Genesis 13:13.[82]

Carl Friedrich Keil and Franz Delitzsch state that the Amalekites were extinct by the second half of Hezekiah's reign.[83]

Professor Philip Jenkins notes that Christian extremists have historically labelled enemies such as Native Americans, Protestants, Catholics and Tutsis as Amalekites to justify their genocides.[84] Jews and victims of the Crusades were also called Amalekites. Because of this, modern Christian scholars have re-examined the Biblical narratives that inspired these atrocities using philology, literary analysis, archaeology and historical evidence.[23]

Islamic traditions

Islamic commentators believe the Amalekites were an ancient Arabian tribe. The monotheistic Ishmaelites evangelized to them in Mecca and later, supplanted their population. However, the paganism of the Amalekites and other Arabian tribes negatively influenced the Ishmaelites, including their approach to the Kaaba.[5]

Adam J. Silverstein observes that most of the medieval Muslim world ignored the Book of Esther or modified its details, despite their familiarity with the Persian Jewish community. This was caused by their attempt to reconcile the Biblical Esther with the Quranic Haman, who was the antagonist of the Exodus narrative, and Persian mythological historical traditions. Notable exceptions include Ibn Khaldūn, who affirmed the Amalekite origins of Haman and his antisemitic vendetta.[49]

Modern usage

Rabbis generally agree that Amalekites no longer exist, based on the argument that Sennacherib deported and mixed the nations, so it is no longer possible to determine who is an Amalekite.[85] Thus, the commandment to kill Amalekites is not practised by contemporary Jews.

Since the Holocaust, the phrase as it appears in Deuteronomy 25:17 is used as a call to witness. Yad Vashem, Israel's memorial to the Holocaust, features the phrase on a banner, and in letters between European Jews during the Holocaust, they plead with each other to "bear witness".[36]

In the Israel-Palestine conflict, some Israeli politicians and extremists have compared Palestinians to Amalek, stated that the Palestinians are the Amalekites.[86][87] or accuse Arabs of exhibiting "behavior" that is "typical" of Amalekites.[88] Yasser Arafat was called "the Amalek and Hitler of our generation" by 200 rabbis.[88] Many in the Gush Emunim movement see Arabs as the "Amalek of today".[89] One reason includes the belief that Amalek is any nation that prevents Jews from settling in the Land of Israel, which includes the Palestinians.[90] During the 2014 Gaza war, a leading yeshiva identified Palestinians as the descendants of the ancient Amalekites and Philistines.[90] Genealogically, Arabs are not related to Amalekites and prior to the Arab–Israeli conflict, some Jews associated Amalek with the Roman Empire and medieval Christians.[88]

Conversely, some ultra-Orthodox groups consider Zionists to be Amalekites due to Zionist antisemitism.[73]

During the 2024 Israel–Hamas war, Benjamin Netanyahu said that the Israeli government was "committed to completely eliminating this evil from the world", and he also stated: "You must remember what Amalek has done to you, says our Holy Bible. And we do remember".[91] At an argument to the International Court of Justice about possible genocide by Israeli forces in Gaza, South Africa presented the comments as inciting genocide against the Palestinian people; Netanyahu denied that was his intention, stating the South African accusation reflected a "deep historical ignorance" since he was referring to Hamas, not Palestinians as a whole.[92][93]

See also

Notes

References

Citations

  1. ^ "Amalek". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^ a b Genesis 36:12; 1 Chronicles 1:36
  3. ^ a b Numbers 13:29
  4. ^ a b c d Mattingly 2000, p. 48.
  5. ^ a b Athamina, Khalil (2005). "Abraham in Islamic Perspective Reflections on the Development of Monotheism in Pre-Islamic Arabia". Der Islam. 81 (2): 193–196 – via De Gruyter.
  6. ^ Milani, Zohreh Babaahmadi (2022). "An Investigation into Qur'anic and Historical Reasons for the Immigration and Presence of the People of the Book in Arabia". International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding. 9 (8): 205–206 – via IJMMU.
  7. ^ a b c d Knight 1833, p. 411.
  8. ^ Patterson, David (2011). A Genealogy of Evil: Anti-Semitism from Nazism to Islamic Jihad. Cambridge University Press. pp. 43, 244. ISBN 9781139492430.
  9. ^ M. Weippert, Semitische Nomaden des zweiten Jahrtausends. Biblica vol. 55, 1974, 265-280, 427-433
  10. ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1913). The Legends of the Jews. pp. 422–423.
  11. ^ For an Rabbanic explanation of Timna lineage see Kadari, Tamar (31 December 1999). "Timna, concubine of Eliphaz: Midrash and Aggadah". The Shalvi/Hyman Encyclopedia of Jewish Women. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
  12. ^ Feldman 2004, p. 8–9.
  13. ^ Numbers 24:20
  14. ^ Macpherson, J. (2004) [1898]. "Amalek". In Hastings, James (ed.). A Dictionary of the Bible: Volume I (Part I: A -- Cyrus). Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific. pp. 77–79. ISBN 9781410217226.
  15. ^ Rashi [1]
  16. ^ "Amalekite". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  17. ^ a b Mills 1997, p. 21.
  18. ^ 1 Samuel 15:2
  19. ^ 1 Samuel 15:3
  20. ^ "1 Samuel 15: Matthew Poole Commentary". Biblehub. 2024. Archived from the original on January 23, 2024.
  21. ^ "1 Samuel 15: Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". Biblehub. 2024. Archived from the original on January 23, 2024.
  22. ^ "1 Samuel 15: Benson Commentary". Biblehub. 2024. Archived from the original on January 23, 2024.
  23. ^ a b c d Kugler, Gili (2020). "Metaphysical Hatred and Sacred Genocide: The Questionable Role of Amalek in Biblical Literature". Journal of Genocide Research. 23 (1): 1–16 – via Taylor & Francis Online.
  24. ^ 1 Samuel 30:9–20
  25. ^ 2 Samuel 1:6–10
  26. ^ 2 Samuel 1:16
  27. ^ Black, Matthew, editor (1962), Peake's Commentary on the Bible, Camden, NJ: Thomas Nelson and Sons
  28. ^ The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990. ISBN 0-13-614934-0.
  29. ^ "Mishneh Torah, Negative Mitzvot". Sefaria. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  30. ^ "Mishneh Torah, Positive Mitzvot". Sefaria. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  31. ^ "Mishneh Torah, Positive Mitzvot". Sefaria. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  32. ^ Maimonides (Sefer Hamitzvot, end of positive commandments), Nachmanides (Commentary to Exodus 17:16), Sefer HaYereim (435), Hagahot Maimoniyot (Hilchot Melachim 5:5)
  33. ^ Rashi, 1 Samuel 15:3 commentary, The Rubin Edition, ISBN 1-57819-333-8, p. 93
  34. ^ Klapper, Aryeh (4 March 2020). "How Not to Talk About Amalek". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 2020-03-04. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
  35. ^ Mishneh Torah, Hilchot Melachim uMilchamot, 6:1 and 6:4
  36. ^ a b Kampeas, Ron (2024-01-16). "Netanyahu rejects South Africa's claim that his quote about 'Amalek' was a call to genocide". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 13 February 2024.
  37. ^ Commentary to Deuteronomy 25
  38. ^ Shemot Zachor 646
  39. ^ Introduction to positive commandments, Beer Mayim Hayim, letter Alef
  40. ^ Sassoon, Isaac S.D. (May 14, 2015). "Obliterating Cherem". TheTorah.com. Archived from the original on February 9, 2024.
  41. ^ Cardazo, Nathan Lopes (October 19, 2016). "The Deliberately Flawed Divine Torah". TheTorah.com. Archived from the original on February 12, 2024.
  42. ^ "1 Samuel 15: Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". Biblehub. Archived from the original on 2014-11-08.
  43. ^ "1 Samuel 14: Henry's Complete Commentary on the Bible". StudyLight.org. 2022. Archived from the original on January 23, 2024.
  44. ^ "1 Samuel 15: Gill's Exposition". Biblehub. Archived from the original on 2013-12-17.
  45. ^ Hofreiter, Christian (16 February 2018). Making Sense of Old Testament Genocide: Christian Interpretations of Herem Passages. Oxford University Press. pp. 247–248. ISBN 978-0-19-253900-7.
  46. ^ Copan, Paul (2011). Is God a Moral Monster? Making Sense of the Old Testament God. Baker Books. pp. 175–176. ISBN 978-0801072758.
  47. ^ Copan, Paul (Fall 2010). "How Could God Command Killing the Canaanites?". Enrichment Journal: 138–143.
  48. ^ Copan, Paul (2022). Is God a Vindictive Bully? Reconciling Portrayals of God in the Old and New Testaments. Baker Academic. p. 205. ISBN 978-1540964557.
  49. ^ a b c Silverstein, Adam J. (2018). Veiling Esther, Unveiling Her Story: The Reception of a Biblical Book in Islamic Lands. Oxford University Press. pp. 39–63. ISBN 978-0198797227.
  50. ^ Harris, Michael J. Divine Command Ethics: Jewish and Christian perspectives. pp. 137–138.
  51. ^ Elkins, Dov Peretz; Treu, Abigail. The Bible's Top Fifty Ideas: The essential concepts everyone should know. pp. 315–316.
  52. ^ Sorabji, Richard; Rodin, David. The Ethics of War: Shared problems in different traditions. p. 98.
  53. ^ Rogerson, John William; Carroll, M. Daniel. Theory and Practice in Old Testament Ethics. p. 92.
  54. ^ Naimark, Norman M. (2017). Genocide: A World History. Oxford University Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-19-976526-3.
  55. ^ Morriston, Wes (2012). "Ethical Criticism of the Bible: The Case of Divinely Mandated Genocide" (PDF). Sophia. 51 (1): 117–135. doi:10.1007/s11841-011-0261-5. S2CID 159560414.
  56. ^ Freeman, Michael (1994). "Religion, nationalism and genocide: ancient Judaism revisited". European Journal of Sociology / Archives Européennes de Sociologie / Europäisches Archiv für Soziologie. 35 (2): 259–282. doi:10.1017/S000397560000686X. ISSN 0003-9756. JSTOR 23997469. S2CID 170860040.
  57. ^ Kugler, Gili (2020). "Metaphysical Hatred and Sacred Genocide: The Questionable Role of Amalek in Biblical Literature". Journal of Genocide Research. 23: 1–16. doi:10.1080/14623528.2020.1827781. S2CID 228959516.
  58. ^ Taggar-Cohen, Ada (October 6, 2022). "War at the Command of the Gods". TheTorah.com. Archived from the original on February 9, 2024.
  59. ^ Crouch, C.L. (2009). War and Ethics in the Ancient Near East: Military Violence in Light of Cosmology and History (1st ed.). De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3110223514.
  60. ^ Singer, Isidore (1901). The Jewish encyclopedia: a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (2004 reprint ed.). Cornell University Library. ISBN 978-1112115349.
  61. ^ Aharon Kempinski, "Tel Masos: Its Importance in Relation to the Settlement of the Tribes of Israel in the Northern Negev," Expedition Magazine vol. 20, issue 4 1978.
  62. ^ Mattingly 2000, p. 49.
  63. ^ Nissim Amzallag,"A Metallurgical Perspective on the Birth of Ancient Israel," Entangled Religions 12.2 (2021)
  64. ^ Bruins, Hendrik J. (2022). "Masseboth Shrine at Horvat Haluqim: Amalekites in the Negev Highlands-Sinai Region? Evaluating the Evidence" (PDF). Negev, Dead Sea and Arava Studies. 14 (2–4): 121–142.
  65. ^ Including Rashi
  66. ^ a b c d Watson 1832, p. 50.
  67. ^ "Genesis 14 Gill's Exposition". Biblehub.com. 2024. Archived from the original on February 12, 2024.
  68. ^ Easton 1894, p. 35, Am'alekite.
  69. ^ Cox 1884, pp. 125–126.
  70. ^ Britt, Brian; Lipton, Diana; Soltes, Ori Z.; Walfish, Barry Dov (2010). Amalek, Amalekites. De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-018355-9.
  71. ^ a b * Masalha, Nur (2000). Imperial Israel and the Palestinians: the politics of expansion. Pluto Press. pp. 129–131.
    • Stern, Josef (2004). "Maimonides on Amalek, Self-Corrective Mechanisms, and the War against Idolatry"". In Hartman, David; Malino, Jonathan W. (eds.). Judaism and modernity: the religious philosophy of David Hartman. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 360–362.
    • Hunter, Alastair G. (2003). "Denominating Amalek: Racist stereotyping in the Bible and the Justification of Discrimination". In Bekkenkamp, Jonneke; Sherwood, Yvonne (eds.). Sanctified aggression: legacies of biblical and post-biblical vocabularies. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 99–105.
  72. ^ Horowitz, Elliott (2018). Reckless Rites: Purim and the Legacy of Jewish Violence. Princeton University Press. pp. 1–7. ISBN 978-0-691-19039-6.
  73. ^ a b Porat, Dina (1992). "'Amalek's Accomplices' Blaming Zionism for the Holocaust: Anti-Zionist Ultra-Orthodoxy in Israel during the 1980s". Journal of Contemporary History. 27 (4) – via SageJournals.
  74. ^ Roth, Daniel. "Shabbat Zachor: "Remember what Amalek did to you!" But why did he do it? Can we reconcile with our eternal sworn enemies?" Pardes from Jerusalem, 18 Feb. 2018. Elmad by Pardes.
  75. ^ Zaimov, Stoyan (April 29, 2017). "ISIS a Reenactment of Biblical War Between Israel and the Amalekites, Military Analysts Say". Christian Post. Archived from the original on 2021-04-16.
  76. ^ a b Koperwas, Josh. "Destroying Amalek: Removing Doubt & Insecurity". Sefaria. Archived from the original on January 23, 2024.
  77. ^ a b "Esther 3 Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges". Biblehub. Archived from the original on Jul 2, 2023.
  78. ^ Finley, Mordecai (21 February 2018). "Unmasking Purim, Fighting Amalek: Behind the whimsy of this holiday lie some deep lessons for living". Jewish Journal. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  79. ^ Public Domain Hirsch, Emil; Seligsohn, M.; Schechter, Solomon (1904). "HAMAN THE AGAGITE". In Singer, Isidore; et al. (eds.). The Jewish Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. p. 189–190. Retrieved 13 February 2017
  80. ^ Paczkowski, Mieczysław (2014). "Amalek and the amalekites in the ancient christian literature". Teologia i Człowiek. 26 (2): 137–155 – via ResearchGate.
  81. ^ "Exodus 17 Gill's Exposition". Biblehub.com. 2024. Archived from the original on February 12, 2024.
  82. ^ "1 Samuel 15 Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". Biblehub.com. 2024. Archived from the original on February 12, 2024.
  83. ^ "1 Chronicles 4 Keil and Delitzsch OT Commentary". Biblehub.com. 2024. Archived from the original on February 12, 2024.
  84. ^ Jenkins, Philip (2013). Laying Down the Sword: Why We Can't Ignore the Bible's Violent Verses. HarperCollins Religious US. ISBN 978-0061990724.
  85. ^ Eynei Kol Ḥai, 73, on Sanhedrin 96b. Also Minchat Chinuch, parshat Ki Tetze, mitzvah 434.
  86. ^ Goldberg, Jeffrey (May 24, 2004). "Among the Settlers". The New Yorker. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  87. ^ Lanard, Noah. "The Dangerous History Behind Netanyahu's Amalek Rhetoric". Mother Jones. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  88. ^ a b c Elliott Horowitz (2018). Reckless Rites:Purim and the Legacy of Jewish Violence. Princeton University Press. pp. 2–4.
  89. ^ Nur Masalha. Imperial Israel and the Palestinians. Pluto Press. p. 113.
  90. ^ a b Defining Israel:The Jewish State, Democracy, and the Law. Hebrew Union College Press. p. 281.
  91. ^ "Netanyahu invokes 'Amalek' narrative in speech about expanding ground operation in Gaza".
  92. ^ "PM's office says it's 'preposterous' to say his invoking Amalek was a genocide call". Times of Israel. 16 January 2024.
  93. ^ "Harsh Israeli rhetoric against Palestinians becomes central to South Africa's genocide case". Associated Press. 18 January 2024.

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