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Salawat (Arabic: صَلَوَات, romanizedṣalawāt; sg. صَلَاة, ṣalāh) or durood (Urdu: دُرُوْد) is an Islamic complimentary Arabic phrase which contains veneration for Muhammad. This phrase is usually expressed by Muslims as part of their five daily prayers (usually during the tashahhud) and also when Muhammad's name is mentioned.[1][2][3]

Salawat is a plural form of salat (Arabic: صَلَاة) and from the triliteral root of ṣ-l-w (the letters ṣād-lām-wā, ص ل و) which literally means 'prayer' or 'send blessings upon'.[4][5]

Some Arabic philologists suggest that the meaning of the word "Salawat" varies depending on who uses the word and to whom it is used for.[6]

Significance

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In Islam, when a Muslim or Islamic angels (malā'ikah) recite salawat, it means they are sending it to the prophet and are showing Allah their respect for Muhammad, while when the same is sending upon prophet by Allah himself, it means he is blessed by Allah.[1] "When Muhammad sends Salawat upon the believers, it indicates his prayer for their welfare, blessing and salvation."[7]

Muhammad was also reported saying: "The meanest person is he who does not invoke Salawat upon me when my name is mentioned in his presence."[8][9]

Ibn Asakri transmitted from al-Hasan bin Ali that Muhammad said: "Invoke more Salawat upon me, for your invocation is conducive to your sins being forgiven. And pray for me a high status and intercession, for surely my intercession will plead in your favour before Allah."[6]

According to Ja'far al-Sadiq, Muhammad said: "All supplications to Allah will remain in a veil from the sky until a Salawat is sent to Mohammad PBUH and his Household."[10] In another tradition, Ja'far al-Sadiq was quoted that: "Whoever sends Salawat on the Prophet PBH and his Household means 'I am standing on the promise that I gave when Allah asked me, 'Am I not your lord? And I answered yes you are.'"[11]

Salawat contents

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"Blessings of Allah be upon him and his household and peace" (صَلَّىٰ ٱللَّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ)

One salawat recommended by Muhammad is:

ʾAllāhumma ṣalli ʿalā Muḥammadin wa ʿalā ʾāli Muḥammadin kamā ṣallayta ʿalā ʾIbrāhīma wa ʿalā ʾāli ʾIbrāhīma ʾinnaka Ḥamīdun Majīdun ʾAllāhumma bārik ʿalā Muḥammadin wa ʿalā ʾāli Muḥammadin kamā bārakta ʿalā ʾIbrāhīma wa ʿalā ʾāli ʾIbrāhīma ʾinnaka Ḥamīdun Majīdun

Muhammad was also reported to have said: "Do not invoke incomplete salawat upon me". His sahabah asked him: "What is incomplete salawat?" He replied them: "When you say: 'O Allah, send blessing to Muhammad' and then stop on that. Rather say: ٱللَّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَىٰ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ 'O Allah! send Your blessing to Muhammad and the progeny of Muhammad."[13]

Variants of salawat

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There are several variant phrases of salawat that may be used. The most common phrases are:

Arabic Transliteration
IPA
Phrase
ٱللَّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ ʾallāhumma ṣalli ʿalā muḥammadin wa-ʾāli muḥammadin
/ʔaɫ.ɫaː.hum.ma sˤal.li ʕa.laː mu.ħam.ma.din wa.ʔaː.li mu.ħam.ma.din/
O God, send blessings upon Muhammad and the Progeny of Muhammad.
ٱللَّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلىٰ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ ʾallāhumma ṣalli ʿalā muḥammadin wa-ʾalā ʾāli muḥammadin
/ʔaɫ.ɫaː.hum.ma sˤal.li ʕa.laː mu.ħam.ma.din wa.ʕa.laː ʔaː.li mu.ħam.ma.din/
O God, send blessings upon Muhammad and upon the Progeny of Muhammad.
ٱللَّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ وَسَلِّمْ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلىٰ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ ʾallāhumma ṣalli wa-sallim ʿalā muḥammadin wa-ʾalā ʾāli muḥammadin
/ʔaɫ.ɫaː.hum.ma sˤal.li wa.sal.lim ʕa.laː mu.ħam.ma.din wa.ʕa.laː ʔaː.li mu.ħam.ma.din/
O God, send blessings and peace upon Muhammad and upon the Progeny of Muhammad.
ٱللَّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ وَسَلِّمْ وَبَارِكْ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلىٰ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ ʾallāhumma ṣalli wa-sallim wa-bārik ʿalā muḥammadin wa-ʾalā ʾāli muḥammadin
/ʔaɫ.ɫaː.hum.ma sˤal.li wa.sal.lim wa.baː.rik ʕa.laː mu.ħam.ma.din wa.ʕa.laː ʔaː.li mu.ħam.ma.din/
O God, send blessings and peace and benediction upon Muhammad and upon the Progeny of Muhammad.
ٱللَّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ وَسَلِّمْ وَبَارِكْ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلىٰ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ أَجْمَعِينَ وَعَلىٰ جَمِيعِ ٱلْمَلَائِكَةِ وَجَمِيعِ ٱلْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَٱلْمُرْسَلِينَ وَٱلشُّهَدَاءِ وَٱلصِّدِّيقِينَ وَجَمِيعِ عِبَادِ ٱللَّٰهِ ٱلصَّالِحِينَ ʾallāhumma ṣalli wa-sallim wa-bārik ʿalā muḥammadin wa-ʾalā ʾāli muḥammadin ʾajmaʿīna wa-ʿalā jamīʿi l-malāʾikati wa-jamīʿi l-ʾanbiyāʾi wa-l-mursalīna wa-š-šuhadāʾi wa-ṣ-ṣiddīqīna wa-jamīʿi ʿibādi -llāhi ṣ-ṣāliḥīna
/ʔaɫ.ɫaː.hum.ma sˤal.li wa.sal.lim wa.baː.rik ʕa.laː mu.ħam.ma.din wa.ʕa.laː ʔaː.li mu.ħam.ma.din ʔad͡ʒ.ma.ʕiː.na wa.ʕa.laː d͡ʒa.miː.ʕi‿l.ma.laː.ʔi.ka.ti wa.d͡ʒa.miː.ʕi‿l.ʔan.bi.jaː.ʔi wal.mur.sa.liː.na waʃ.ʃu.ha.daː.ʔi wasˤ.sˤid.diː.qiː.na wa.d͡ʒa.miː.ʕi ʕi.baː.di‿l.laː.hi‿sˤ.sˤaː.li.ħiː.na/
O God, send blessings and peace and benediction upon Muhammad and upon the Progeny of Muhammad all together, and upon all of the Angels, and [upon] all of the Prophets, Messengers, martyrs and truthful ones, and [upon] all of the righteous servants of God.
ٱللَّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَجِّلْ لِوَلِيِّكَ ٱلْفَرَجَ وَٱلْعَافِيَةَ وَٱلنَّصْرَ ʾallāhumma ṣalli ʿalā muḥammadin wa-ʾāli muḥammadin wa-ʿajjil li-walīyika l-faraja wa-l-ʿāfiyata wa-n-naṣra
/ʔaɫ.ɫaː.hum.ma sˤal.li ʕa.laː mu.ħam.ma.din wa.ʔaː.li mu.ħam.ma.din wa.ʕad͡ʒ.d͡ʒil li.wa.liː.ji.ka‿l.fa.ra.d͡ʒa wal.ʕaː.fi.ja.ta wan.nasˤ.ra/
O God, bless Muhammad and the Progeny of Muhammad, and hasten the alleviation of your vicegerent (i.e. Imam Mahdi), and grant him vitality and victory. (Usually recited by Shia Muslims)
ٱللَّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَجِّلْ فَرَجَهُمْ ʾallāhumma ṣalli ʿalā muḥammadin wa-ʾāli muḥammadin wa-ʿajjil farajahum
/ʔaɫ.ɫaː.hum.ma sˤal.li ʕa.laː mu.ħam.ma.din wa.ʔaː.li mu.ħam.ma.din wa.ʕad͡ʒ.d͡ʒil fa.ra.d͡ʒa.hum/
O God, bless Muhammad and the Progeny of Muhammad, and hasten their alleviation. (Usually recited by Shia Muslims)
ٱللَّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَجِّلْ فَرَجَهُمْ وَٱلْعَنْ أَعْدَاءَهُمْ ʾallāhumma ṣalli ʿalā muḥammadin wa-ʾāli muḥammadin wa-ʿajjil farajahum wa-lʿan ʾaʿdāʾahum
/ʔaɫ.ɫaː.hum.ma sˤal.li ʕa.laː mu.ħam.ma.din wa.ʔaː.li mu.ħam.ma.din wa.ʕad͡ʒ.d͡ʒil fa.ra.d͡ʒa.hum wal.ʕan ʔaʕ.daː.ʔa.hum/
O God, bless Muhammad and the Progeny of Muhammad, and hasten their alleviation and curse their enemies. (Usually recited by Shia Muslims)

Supposed benefits

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It is said that whoever sends 10 salawat upon Muhammad and his household will be sent a thousand salawat by God and his angels, and whoever sends 1,000 salawat upon Muhammad and his household will not be affected by the fire of hell.[14][15]

Sending salawat upon Muhammad and his progeny is said to pave the way for his intercession on the day of judgement,[16] serve as a compensation for sins,[15] and to be the most weighty deed on the scale of deeds.[17] Salawat upon Muhammad and his households is said to lead to the affection of God and his messenger,[18] to purify deeds,[19] and to serve as the light in the grave, As-Sirāt bridge and Paradise.[20]

Salawat is said to be one of the best deeds on Friday,[19] and is said to lighten and open the heart.[21]

Reciting salawat aloud is said to vanish hypocrisy,[22] and continuous recitation of salawat is said to fulfil one's worldly and heavenly wants (supplication).[23]

Unicode

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Unicode
encoding utf-8 sign name unicode transcription Arabic English
ﷺ Arabic sign SALLALLAHOU ALAYHE WASSALLAM SallAllahu alayhi was Sallam صَلَّىٰ ٱللَّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him

See also

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Reference

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  1. ^ a b Zubair, Khwaja Mohammed (2017-05-31). "Salutations on our dear Prophet". Khaleej Times. Retrieved 2021-09-17.
  2. ^ "Muhammad, Shuaib." Knowing the Certainty.e-book, 2010
  3. ^ "Sholawat Ibrahimiyah Arab dan Terjemahan, Bacaan Sholawat Nabi Paling Utama". Surya.co.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2023-06-20.
  4. ^ "Abbas Jaffer, Masuma Jaffer." T Quranic Science. ICAN Press, 2009
  5. ^ "Verse (2:157) - English Translation". Quranic Arabic Corpus. Retrieved 2 March 2024.
  6. ^ a b Muḥammad Muṣṭafá, Badawī (1975). A critical introduction to modern Arabic poetry. Cambridge University Press.
  7. ^ "Seyed Mahmoud Madani" Special Salawaat of the month of Sha'aban. Ansariyan,2014
  8. ^ "Muhammad Imran" Path of paradise. Islamic Book Centre,1900
  9. ^ "Jami' at-Tirmidhi 3546 - Chapters on Supplication - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". Sunnah.com. Retrieved 2022-08-22.
  10. ^ Muḥammad, Rayshahri (2008). Scale of wisdom. British Library.
  11. ^ "Muhammad Ameen" Al-Burhan (The conclusive proof). Maktaba Subah-e-Noor, 1995
  12. ^ "Abdul Razaq.O.Kilani" Minaret in the delta. J.J.I,2008
  13. ^ "Abd al-Husayn Sharaf al-Din" The right path. The University of Michigan.
  14. ^ Muhammad Rayshahri. Scale of wisdom. ICAS press.
  15. ^ a b Muhammad Baqir Ibn Muhammad Taqqi Majilisi (2003). Hayat Al-Qulub. Ansariyan publication.
  16. ^ Prof Ramazan AYNALLI (2015). My Beloved prophet.
  17. ^ Sayyid Hussein Alamdar (2014). Self Building. Amazon.
  18. ^ The University of Michigan (2009). Mahjubah-vol.24. Amazon.
  19. ^ a b Muhammad Ibn Abd al Rahman (2008). Salat & Salam. White Thread press.
  20. ^ Alamah Muhammad Baqir Al-Majilisi (2014). Ain-Al-Hayat;The Essence of life. Createspace Independence.
  21. ^ Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani (2012). Salawat of tremendous blessings. Islamic Supreme Council of America.
  22. ^ Ahmad Muhani (2010). Al-Sahifah Al-Sajjadiyyah. Islamic propagation organization.
  23. ^ Hamza Yusuf (2012). Purification of heart. Amazon.