It has been suggested that Peace be upon him be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since April 2021.

Islam uses a number of "conventionally complimentary phrases" or durood, sometimes called Islamic honorifics, ‘blessings’, ‘titles’ or even ‘prayers’.[1] The "honorifics" either praise (e.g. "Subhanahu wa-ta’ala", in the case of Allah), or wish good things (such as "prayers and peace", "Allāh be pleased with them") for Muhammad, another prophet or other objects of the honorific. In Arabic writing (and speaking) they follow the name of the object of the honorific fully spelled out (fully enunciated), while in English language sources they are sometimes abbreviated, ("Allah (swt)" or "Muhammad (pbuh)"), sometimes spelled out ("Abdurrahman ibn Abi Bakr, Radi-Allahu anhu"),[2] sometimes appear spelled out in Arabic,[3] and sometimes appear as a typographic ligature of Arabic calligraphy.[4]

Unlike conventional honorifics they follow, rather than precede, the name of the individual being noted. (They are distinct from honorifics such as "Hadrat-i Muhammad", the Persian title given Muhammad, which precedes his name,[1] or titles for distinguished Muslims such as Mawlānā or Sheikh.) (The term durood may be limited to the prophets in Islam, or go beyond "conventionally complimentary phrases" into short prayers,[5][6] honorifics for scholars or companions follow the same pattern as durood but are not prayers.)

Some Muslims preach against the use of abbreviations in honorifics, insisting on the entire phrase spelled out, quoting a hadith in support of this.[7][8]

Ṣallā Allāhu ʿalayhu wa-sallam written in Arabic calligraphy
Ṣallā Allāhu ʿalayhu wa-sallam written in Arabic calligraphy

Scriptural basis

The honorifics for Muhammad are based on a Quranic verse according to one source:

"Indeed, Allah confers blessing upon the Prophet, and His angels [ask Him to do so]. O you who have believed, ask [Allah to confer] blessing upon him and ask [Allah to grant him] peace." - Qur'an 33:56[citation needed]

A hadith narrated by Abu Hurayrah states: The Messenger of Allah said:

"Whoever sends one salah (prayer) upon me, Allah will send ten upon him."

Honorifics applying to God

Applied to Muhammad and his family

"Blessings of Allah be upon him and his family and peace" (as a more famous phrase by Shia Muslims)
"Blessings of Allah be upon him and his family and peace" (as a more famous phrase by Shia Muslims)

Further information: Peace be upon him and Salawat

These are also called Darood Shareef.

Arabic Transliteration Translation Used in an example (honorific simplified in form)
عليه الصلاة والسلام ‘alay-hi ’ṣ-ṣalātu wa’s-salām "Upon him be prayers and peace" "The Messenger of Allāh (′alayhi as-salātu was-salām) ..."
عليه وعلى آله الصلاة والسلام ‘alay-hi wa-‘ala āali-hi ’ṣ-ṣalātu wa’s-salām "Upon him and on his family be prayers and peace"[8] "The Messenger of Allāh (′alayhi wa-′ala 'ālihi aṣ-ṣalāt was-salām) ..."

Applied to angels and prophets

Applies to the archangels (Jibril, Mikhail, etc ) as well as any other Islamic prophets preceding Muhammad (Isa as, Musa as, Ibrahim as etc).

Applied to companions or enemies of Muhammad

Used after companions ("Aṣ-Ṣaẖābah") of Muḥammad

Used after enemies (Arabic: العَدُوّ, al-‘aduww) of Muḥammad

Applied to scholars and saints

Applies to highly revered scholars and men thought to be of high spiritual rank.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Islamic Terminology". islamic-dictionary. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  2. ^ example: "History of Islamic Civilization/The Formative Period of Islam". wikibooks. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  3. ^ example: "Ettiquettes of writing Allah, prophet, scholars". ahlalhdeeth.com. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  4. ^ example: b. Ibrahim (iMuslim), Mehzabeen (January 12, 2012). "Add Images of Islamic Phrases to Your WordPress Posts using Shortcodes". muslim matters. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  5. ^ Haroon, Anwar (21 October 2015). SAMAA' "Glorifying God Almighty Allah And His Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace ... Xlibris. ISBN 9781514415375.[self-published source]
  6. ^ Saahib, Hazrat Moulana Manzoor Nu’maani. What is Islam ? for Non Muslim. The Way of Islam. pp. 60–61. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  7. ^ Estes, Yusuf. "SWT? SAWS? PBUH? 786? (OK?)". Just ask Islam. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  8. ^ a b c d - Etiquette, Morals and Heart-Softeners » The Heart Softeners » Supplications prescribed in Shareeah. 47976: Ruling on writing (S) or (SAWS) etc| Islam Question and Answer|21 September 2004