Percentage of Hindus by country, according to the Pew Research Center.
Percentage of Hindus by country, according to the Pew Research Center.

Hinduism has approximately 1.35 billion adherents worldwide (15-16% of the world's population).[1] Nepal (81.3%)[2][3] and India (79.8%)[4] are countries with Hindus being the majority of their respective populations, while Mauritius (an island nation belonging to the African continent) has 48.14%[5] of the population as followers of the Hindu religion.[6] Along with Christianity (31.5%) and Islam (23.3%), Hinduism is one of the five major religions of the world by percentage of the population. Hinduism is the third largest religion in the world behind Christianity and Islam.[7]

Presently, India and Nepal are the two Hindu majority countries. Most Hindus are found in Asian countries. The countries with more than 5,000 Hindu residents and citizens include (in decreasing order) India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Indonesia (especially in Bali, which is 84% Hindu), Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, the United States, Myanmar, Thailand, United Kingdom, Canada, South Africa, Mauritius, Suriname and the Caribbean (West Indies).

There are significant numbers of Hindu enclaves around the world, with many in Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Hinduism is also practiced by the non-Indic people like the Balinese of Bali island (Indonesia), Tengger and Osing of Java (Indonesia) and the Balamon Chams of Vietnam, and Ghanaian Hindus in Ghana.

Background

Hinduism is a heterogeneous religion and consists of many schools of thought. Hinduism has no traditional ecclesiastical order, no centralised religious authorities, no governing body, no prophets; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, monotheistic, pantheistic, monistic, agnostic, humanist or atheistic.[8] Estimates of Hinduism by country reflect this diversity of thought and way of life.

Demographic estimates

Demographic estimates of Hindu populations by country have been published by the Pew Research Center in 2012,[9] as well as US State Department's International Religious Freedom Report 2006.[10]

By total number, India has the most Hindus. As a percentage, Nepal has the largest percentage of Hindus in the world followed by India and Mauritius.[11] The Hindu population around the world as of 2020 is about 1.2 billion (making it the world's third-largest religion after Christianity and Islam), of which nearly around 1.1 billion Hindus live in India (making it the nation with the highest concentration of Hindus), as 94% of the world's Hindus live in this country.[12][13] As per a statistical study, there are an estimated 100 million Hindus who live outside of India.[14] In 2010, only two countries in the world had a majority of its population as Hindus – Nepal and India.[15] On Maritius, 48.14 percent of the population were Hindu, according to the 2015 census.[16] Bangladesh, Fiji, Bhutan, Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Sri Lanka have very large and influential Hindu minorities.

By country

Sources used for the table below include the US State Department,[10] the CIA World Factbook,[17] adherents.com,[18] Pew Research Center.[19][20] and as identified.

Hinduism by country
Region Country Hindu total Percentage Total population Census year
South Asia Afghanistan <1,000(est) <0.01%[21][22] 31,889,923 2017
Western Europe Andorra 300 - 400 0.4%[23] 60,000 >2012
Caribbean Anguilla 50 - 60 0.43%[24] 13,452 -NA-
Caribbean Antigua and Barbuda 379 0.4%[25] 81,799 -NA-
South America Argentina 4,000+ 0.01%[26] 40,301,927 -NA-
Oceania Australia 440,300 1.9%[27] 23,401,400 2016
Central Europe Austria 11,000 0.1% [28] 8,900,000
Middle East Bahrain 7,000 – 144,286[note 1] <1%–9.8%[31][note 1] 708,573
South Asia Bangladesh 14,300,000 8.54%[32] 167,000,000 2011
Caribbean Barbados 1055 0.46%[33] 226,193
Western Europe Belgium 6,235 0.06%[34] 10,392,226
Central America and Caribbean Belize 612 0.2%[35] 294,385
South Asia Bhutan 185,700 22.6%–25%[36][37] 742,737
Southern Africa Botswana 3,353 0.3%[38] 1372675
South America Brazil 5,675-9500 0.0029%[39]–0.01% 192,755,799
Southeast Asia Brunei 131 0.035%[40] 374,577
West Africa Burkina Faso 150 0.001%[citation needed] 14,326,203
Central Africa Burundi 8,391 0.1%[41][42] 8,390,505
Southeast Asia Cambodia 41,988 0.3%[43][44] 13,995,904
North America Canada 497,965 1.45%[45][46] 33,390,141 2011
Central Europe Czech Republic 2,404 0.023%[47] 10,436,560
South America Colombia 8,876 0.02%[48] 44,379,598
East Africa Comoros 711 0.1%(approx)
[citation needed]
711,417
Central Africa Congo (Kinshasa) 30,000[20] 0.18%[20] 65,751,512
Balkans Croatia 449 0.01% (approx)[49] 4,493,312
North America Cuba 23,927 0.21%[50] 11,394,043
West Africa Côte d'Ivoire 18,013 0.1%[51][52] 18,013,409
Western Europe Denmark 5,468 0.1%[53][54] 5,468,120
East Africa Djibouti 99 0.02%[55] 496,374
Caribbean Dominica 145 0.2%[56] 72,386
East Africa Eritrea 4,907 0.1% (approx)[57] 4,906,585
Eastern Europe Estonia 295 0.027% [58] 1,094,564
Oceania Fiji 261,136 27.9%[59][60] 935,974
Western Europe Finland 5,000 0.1%[61] 5,238,460
Western Europe France 63,718 0.1%[62][63] 63,718,187
Eastern Europe Georgia 465 0.01% (approx)[64] 4,646,003
Western Europe Germany 100,000 0.12%[65] 81,800,000
West Africa Ghana 11,466 0.05% (approx)[66] 22,931,299
Western Europe Gibraltar 628 2.0% [67] 32,194
Caribbean Grenada 630 0.7%[68] 89,971
Caribbean Guadeloupe 2,300 0.5%[69] 460,000
South America and Caribbean Guyana 190,966 24.83%[70] 769,095
Central Europe Hungary 1,767[71] 0.02% 9,956,108
South Asia India 1,053,000,000 79.8% [72][73][74] 1,320,000,000 (2011 Census)
Southeast Asia Indonesia 10,000,000 - 18,000,000
[citation needed][note 2]
3.86 - 6.95%[78][79][80] 259,000,000
Middle East Iran 20,000[20] <0.1[20] 65,397,521
Western Europe Ireland 14,300 0.30%[81] 4,761,865 2016
Middle East Israel 6,427 0.1% (approx)[82] 6,426,679
Western Europe Italy 108,950 0.2% (approx)[83] 60,418,000
Caribbean Jamaica 1,836 0.07%[84] 2,780,132
East Asia Japan 30,000[20] <0.1[20] 127,433,494
East Africa Kenya 60,000[20] 0.1%[20] 37,000,000
East Asia Korea, South 12,452 0.015% (approx) 49,044,790
Middle East Kuwait 300,667[note 3] 12%[86] 2,505,559
Eastern Europe Latvia 179 0.012%[87] 1,481,823
Middle East Lebanon 4,926 0.1% (approx)[88] 4,925,502
Eastern Europe Lithuania 344 0.01% [89] 2,561,000
Southern Africa Lesotho 2,125 0.1% (approx)[90][91] 2,125,262
West Africa Liberia 3,196 0.1% (approx)[92] 3,195,931
North Africa Libya 6,037 0.1%[93][94] 6,036,914
Western Europe Luxembourg 336 0.07% (approx)[95] 480,222
Southern Africa Madagascar 19,449 0.1%[96][97] 19,448,815
Southern Africa Malawi 2,721 – 2,726 0.02%[98] – 0.2%[99] 13,603,181
Southeast Asia Malaysia 1,949,850 6.3%[100][101] 30,949,962
Caribbean Martinique 1,317 0.3%[102] 439,202
South Asia Maldives 37 0.01%[103] 369,031
Southern Africa Mauritius 600,327 48.5%[104][105] 1,236,817 2011
Eastern Europe Moldova 433 0.01% (approx)[106] 3,200,000
Southern Africa Mozambique 10,453 – 41,811 0.05%[107] – 0.2%[108] 20,905,585
Southeast Asia Myanmar 252,763[109] 0.5%[109] 50,279,900[109]
South Asia Nepal 23,500,000 81.3%[110][111] 28,901,790 2011
Western Europe Netherlands 96,110 – 200,000 0.58%[112] – 1.20%[113] 16,570,613
Oceania New Zealand 90,158 2.1%[114] 4,115,771
Western Europe Norway 23,140 0.5% 4,627,926
Middle East Oman 96,147 – 182,679 3%[115] – 5.7%[116] 3,204,897
South Asia Pakistan 3,626,000 1.85%[117] 196,000,000 2011
Central America Panama 9,726 0.3%[118][119] 3,242,173
Southeast Asia Philippines 10,000[20] <0.1% [20] 102,000,000[120]
Western Europe Portugal 7,396 0.07% 10,642,836
Central Europe Poland 2421 0.008%[121] 30,575,000
Caribbean Puerto Rico 3,550 0.09%[122] 3,944,259
Middle East Qatar 422,118 15.1%[123] 2,795,484[124] 2020
East Africa Réunion 55,409 6.7%[125] 927,000
Eastern Europe Russia 143,000 0.1%[126] 141,377,752
Oceania Samoa 38 0.02% (approx) 187,429
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 860 1.82% [127] 47195 2011
Middle East Saudi Arabia 303,611[note 4] 0.6%[129] – 1.1%[130] 27,601,038
East Africa Seychelles 1,910 2.1%[20]-2.4%[131] 90,945
West Africa Sierra Leone 2,458 – 6,145 0.04%[132] – 0.1%[133] 6,144,562
Southeast Asia Singapore 280,000 5.0%[134][135] 5,600,000 2011
Central Europe Slovakia 5,448 0.1% (approx)
[citation needed]
5,447,502
Central Europe Slovenia 500 0.025% (approx)
[citation needed]
2,009,245
Southern Africa South Africa 505,000 0.9%[136]-1.1%[20] 49,991,300
South Asia Sri Lanka 2,671,000 12.6%[137] 21,200,000 2011
South America and Caribbean Suriname 120,623 – 128,995 22.3%[138] – 27.4%[139] 470,784
Southern Africa Swaziland 1,700 – 2,266 0.15%[140] – 0.2%[141] 1,133,066
Western Europe Sweden 7,044 – 10,837 0.078% – 0.12%[142] 9,031,088
Western Europe Switzerland 28,708-50,000[143][144] 0.38%[145][146]-0.6%[147] 7,554,661
East Africa Tanzania 50,000[148] 0.11%[148] 39,384,223
Caribbean Trinidad and Tobago 240,100 18.2%[149][150][151] 1,056,608 2011
Southeast Asia Thailand 65,000 0.1%[152] 65,068,149
Oceania Tonga 100 0.1%[153] 103,043
Middle East Turkey 300 0.00035%-0.001% 84,339,067
Eastern Europe Ukraine 42,386 0.1%[154] 42,386,400
East Africa Uganda 355,497 0.93[155] 38,225,447 2015
Middle East United Arab Emirates 490,000[note 5] 5 - 20%[157] 9,682,000
Western Europe United Kingdom 1,020,000 1.7%[158][159] 60,776,238 2017
North America United States 2,300,000 0.7%[160] 322,000,000 2015
Caribbean United States Virgin Islands 528 1.9%[161] 28,054
Central Asia Uzbekistan 2,778 0.01% (approx)
[citation needed]
27,780,059
Southeast Asia Vietnam 70,000 0.07% 85,262,356
Middle East Yemen 155,614 0.7%[162] 22,230,531
Southern Africa Zambia 16,068 0.14%[163][164] 11,477,447
Southern Africa Zimbabwe 3,000 0.02% 12,311,143
Total 1,100,000,000 - 1,120,000,000 16 7,500,000,000

By region

These percentages were calculated by using the above numbers. The first percentage, in the 4th column, is the percentage of the population that is Hindu in a specific region (Hindus in the region * 100/total population of the region). The last column shows the Hindu percentage compared to the total Hindu population of the world (Hindus in the region * 100/total Hindu population of the world).

(Note: Egypt, Sudan, and other Arab Maghreb countries are counted as part of North Africa, not the Middle East).

Hinduism in Africa
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Central Africa 193,121,055 N/A N/A N/A
East Africa 193,741,900 667,694 0.345% 0.071%
North Africa 202,151,323 5,765 0.003% 0.001%
Southern Africa 137,092,019 1,269,844 0.926% 0.135%
West Africa 268,997,245 70,402 0.026% 0.007%
Total 885,103,542 2,013,705 0.225% 0.213%
Hinduism in Asia
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Central Asia 92,019,166 149,644 0.163% 0.016%
East Asia 1,527,960,261 130,631 0.009% 0.014%
West Asia 274,775,527 3,187,673 1.5% 0.084%
South Asia 1,437,326,682 1,068,728,901 70.05% 98.475%
Southeast Asia 571,337,070 6,386,614 1.118% 0.677%
Total 3,903,418,706 1,074,728,901 26.01% 99.266%
Hinduism in Europe
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Balkans 65,407,609 449 0.001% 0.001%
Central Europe 74,510,241 163 0% 0%
Eastern Europe 212,821,296 717,101 0.337% 0.076%
Western Europe 375,832,557 1,313,640 0.348% 0.138%
Total 728,571,703 2,030,904 0.278% 0.214%
Hinduism in the Americas
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Caribbean 24,898,266 279,515 1.123% 0.030%
Central America 41,135,205 5,833 0.014% 0.006%
North America 446,088,748 2,131,127 0.478% 0.191%
South America 371,075,531 389,869 0.105% 0.041%
Total 883,197,750 2,806,344 0.281% 0.263%
Hinduism in Oceania
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Oceania 38,552,683 791,615 2.053% 0.071%
Total 38,552,683 791,615 2.053% 0.071%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b The estimates vary depending on whether temporary workers are included or not. The official census of the Bahrain government states that 99% of its citizens are Muslims, and the remaining 1% includes Jews, Christians, Hindus, and Bahais.[29] According to a 2017 publication by Abdullahi An-Na'im, the Muslims in Bahrain constitute 99.3% of the total population.[30]
  2. ^ The lower number is based on a Pew Research estimate and is primarily concentrated on the island of Bali, Indonesia and nearby provinces of Indonesia. The higher number is based on a 2010 estimate by the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Government of Indonesia.[75] The largest Hindu organization in Indonesia Parisada Hindu Dharma Indonesia states that the Indonesian census greatly underestimates the Hindu population, because the predominantly Muslim nation of Indonesia does not recognize all forms of Hinduism, and only recognizes monotheistic Hinduism under its constitution.[76][77]
  3. ^ The estimates vary depending on whether temporary workers – with no residency nor right to openly practice their religion – are included or not. The official Kuwaiti government census data does not count Hindus as residents or citizens of Kuwait.[85]
  4. ^ The estimates vary depending on whether temporary workers – with no residency nor right to openly practice their religion – are included or not. The Saudi Arabian government mandates that all Saudi citizens must be Muslims, and it prohibits public practice of Hinduism and other non-Muslim religions.[128]
  5. ^ The estimates vary depending on whether temporary workers – with no residency nor right to openly practice their religion – are included or not. 80% of the UAE population consists of non-citizen temporary workers, and an estimated 25% of these workers may be Hindu. Only Sunni Muslims can be naturalized new citizens in the UAE. According to the US State Department, the federal constitution of the UAE designates Islam as the official religion, and Islam is also the official religion of all seven of the individual emirates in the federal union. The Government does not recognize all non-Muslim religions and only a limited number of Christian groups are granted legal recognition in UAE. Non-Muslim and non-Christian religions such as Hinduism are not recognized legally in any of the emirates.[156]

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