Province of Judah
Yêhūd Mêdīnāta (Aramaic)
c. 539 BCEc. 332 BCE
Flag of Yehud Medinata
Standard of Cyrus the Great
Map of Palestine under the Persians:
  Jews (Judea)
  Samaritans (Samaria)
StatusProvince of the Achaemenid Persian Empire
CapitalJerusalem
31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217
Common languagesAramaic, Hebrew, Old Persian
Religion
Judaism, Samaritanism
Demonym(s)Jewish, Judean, Judahite, or Israelite
Historical eraAxial Age
c. 539 BCE
539 BCE
538 BCE
538 BCE
• Construction of the Second Jewish Temple in Jerusalem
520–515 BCE
c. 332 BCE
Currency
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Symbol of the Mesopotamian sun-god Shamash Babylonian Yehud
Coele-Syria Vergina Sun of ancient Greece
Today part of

Yehud Medinata,[1][2][3][4][5] also called Yehud Medinta[a] or simply Yehud, was an autonomous administrative division of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. It constituted a part of Eber-Nari and was bounded by Arabia to the south, laying along the frontier of the two satrapies. Spanning most of Judea—from the Shephelah in the west to the Dead Sea in the east—it was one of several Persian provinces in Palestine, together with Moab, Ammon, Gilead, Samaria, Ashdod, and Idumea, among others.[10] It existed for just over two centuries before the Greek conquest of Persia resulted in it being incorporated into the Hellenistic empires.

Following the Persian conquest of Babylon in 539 BCE, the Persian province of Yehud was established to absorb the Babylonian province of Yehud, which, in turn, had been established to absorb the Kingdom of Judah after the Jewish–Babylonian War. Upon the fall of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, the Persian king Cyrus the Great issued the so-called Edict of Cyrus, which is described in the Hebrew Bible as his authorization and encouragement of the return to Zion, thereby ending the Babylonian captivity. Despite Cyrus' rehabilitation of the Jews, the Persian province's overall population is gauged as having been considerably smaller than that of the fallen Israelite kingdom. The name "Yehud Medinata" is originally Aramaic and was first introduced after the Babylonian conquest of Judah.[1]

Background

Main article: History of the Jews and Judaism in the Land of Israel

The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, including the province of Yehud.[11][12][13][14]

Kingdom of Judah v. Neo-Babylonian Empire

Further information: Jewish–Babylonian War and Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC)

In the late-7th century BCE, Judah became a vassal-kingdom of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, but there were rival factions at the court in Jerusalem, some supporting loyalty to Babylon and others urging rebellion. In the early years of the 6th century BCE, despite the strong remonstrances of the prophet Jeremiah and others, the Judahite king Jehoiakim revolted against Nebuchadnezzar II. The revolt failed, and in 597 BCE, many Judahites, including the prophet Ezekiel, were exiled to Babylon. A few years later, Judah revolted yet again. In 589, Nebuchadnezzar again besieged Jerusalem, and many Jews fled to Moab, Ammon, Edom and other countries to seek refuge. The city fell after an 18-month siege and Nebuchadnezzar again pillaged and destroyed Jerusalem and burned the Temple. Thus, by 586 BCE, much of Judah was devastated, the royal family, the priesthood, and the scribes, the country's elite, were in exile in Babylon, and the former kingdom suffered a steep decline of both economy and population.[15]

Jewish exile to Babylon

Further information: Babylonian captivity

The numbers deported to Babylon or who made their way to Egypt and the remnant that remained in Yehud province and in surrounding countries are subject to academic debate. The Book of Jeremiah reports that a total of 4,600 were exiled to Babylon. To such numbers must be added those deported by Nebuchadnezzar in 597 BCE after the first siege to Jerusalem, when he deported the king of Judah, Jeconiah, and his court and other prominent citizens and craftsmen along with a sizable portion of the Jewish population of Judah, numbering about 10,000. The Book of Kings also suggests that it was 8,000.

Babylonian province of Judah

Further information: Yehud (Babylonian province)

The former kingdom of Judah then became a Babylonian province Yehud, with Gedaliah, a native Judahite, as governor (or possibly ruling as a puppet king). According to Miller and Hayes, the province included the towns of Bethel in the north, Mizpah, Jericho in the east, Jerusalem, Beth-Zur in the west and En-Gedi in the south.[16] The administrative centre of the province was Mizpah.[17] On hearing of the appointment, the Jews that had taken refuge in surrounding countries returned to Judah.[18][unreliable source?] However, before long, Gedaliah was assassinated by a member of the former royal house, and the Babylonian garrison was killed, triggering a mass movement of refugees to Egypt.[16] In Egypt, the refugees settled in Migdol, Tahpanhes, Noph, and Pathros,[19][unreliable source?] and Jeremiah went with them as moral guardian.

Neo-Babylonian Empire v. Achaemenid Empire

Although a significant number of Judeans were deported by the Babylonians and Jerusalem was left in ruins, a small but far from negligible population of Judeans continued to live in their native land during this period.[20] The population of Persian-period Jerusalem has been estimated at 1,500 inhabitants.[20] By the late sixth century, the temple in Jerusalem had been restored and its body of worship and practice and sacrificial cult re-established.[20]

Jewish return to Zion

Further information: Edict of Cyrus and Return to Zion

The Edict of Cyrus, which was issued by the Persian king Cyrus the Great shortly after the fall of Babylon, was a royal proclamation by which he ended the Babylonian captivity. In the Hebrew Bible, this decree is accredited as having enabled the return to Zion—an event in which the exiled populace of Judah returned to their homeland after it had been restructured as a self-governing Jewish province within the Achaemenid Empire. To replace Solomon's Temple, work began on the Second Temple after the region was conquered by the Persians.

Persian province of Judah

Further information: Second Temple period

Much of the literature which became the Hebrew Bible was compiled in the early post-Exilic period, and Persian Yehud saw considerable conflict over the construction and function of the Temple and matters of cult (i.e., how God was to be worshiped). Persia controlled Yehud using the same methods it used in other territories; Yehud's status as a Persian holding is crucial to understanding the society and literature of the period.[citation needed] The returnees from the exile community attempted to restore in Yehud the pre-Exile tripartite leadership template of king (Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel), high priest (Joshua, descended from the priestly line), and prophet (Haggai, Zechariah). However, by the middle of the next century, probably around 450 BCE, the kings and prophets had disappeared and only the high priest remained, joined by the scribe-sage (Ezra) and the appointed aristocrat-governor (Nehemiah). This new pattern provided the leadership model for Yehud for centuries to come.[21]

History

Silver coin (gerah) minted in the Persian province of Yehud, dated c. 375–332 BCE. Obv: Bearded head wearing crown, possibly representing the Persian Great King. Rev: Falcon facing, head right, with wings spread; Paleo-Hebrew YHD to right.
Coins bearing the inscription YHD, or Yehud. The coin at top shows the god YHWH, the coin at bottom right has an image of the owl of Athena (Athenian coinage was the standard for Mediterranean trade).[22]

Administration and demographics

Yehud was considerably smaller than the old kingdom of Judah, stretching from around Bethel in the north to about Hebron in the south (although Hebron itself was unpopulated throughout the Persian period), and from the Jordan River and Dead Sea in the east to, but not including, the Shephelah (the slopes between the Judean highlands and the coastal plains) in the west. After the destruction of Jerusalem the centre of gravity shifted northward to Benjamin; this region, once a part of the kingdom of Israel, was far more densely populated than Judah itself, and now held both the administrative capital, Mizpah, and the major religious centre of Bethel.[23] Mizpah continued as the provincial capital for over a century. The position of Jerusalem before the administration moved back from Mizpah is not clear, but from 445 BCE onwards it was once more the main city of Yehud, with walls, a temple (the Second Temple) and other facilities needed to function as a provincial capital, including, from 420 BCE, a local mint striking silver coins.[24] Nevertheless, Persian-era Jerusalem was modest: about 1,500 inhabitants.[20][25] It was the only true urban site in Yehud, as the bulk of the province's population lived in small unwalled villages. This picture did not much change throughout the entire Persian period. The entire population of the province remained around 30,000. There is no sign in the archaeological record of massive inwards migration from Babylon,[26] in contradiction to the biblical account where Zerubbabel's band of returning Israelite exiles alone numbered 42,360.[27]

The Persians seem to have experimented with ruling Yehud as a client-kingdom, but this time under the descendants of Jehoiachin, who had kept his royal status even in captivity.[28] Sheshbazzar, the governor of Yehud appointed by Cyrus in 538, was of Davidic origin, as was his successor (and nephew) Zerubbabel; Zerubbabel in turn was succeeded by his second son and then by his son-in-law, all of them hereditary Davidic governors of Yehud, a state of affairs that ended only around 500 BCE.[28] This hypothesis—that Zerubbabel and his immediate successors represented a restoration of the Davidic kingdom under Persian overlordship—cannot be verified, but it would be in keeping with the situation in some other parts of the Persian Empire, such as Phoenicia.[28]

The second and third pillars of the early period of Persian rule in Yehud, copying the pattern of the old Davidic kingdom destroyed by the Babylonians, were the institutions of High Priest and Prophet. Both are described and preserved in the Hebrew Bible in the histories of Ezra–Nehemiah–Chronicles and in the books of Zechariah, Haggai and Malachi, but by the mid-5th century BCE the prophets and Davidic kings had disappeared, leaving only the High Priest.[21] The practical result was that after c.500 BCE Yehud became a theocracy, ruled by a line of hereditary High Priests.[29]

The governor of Yehud would have been charged primarily with keeping order and seeing that tribute was paid. He would have been assisted by various officials and a body of scribes, but there is no evidence that a popular "assembly" existed, and he would have had little discretion over his core duties.[30] Evidence from seals and coins suggests that most, if not all, of the governors of Persian Yehud were Jewish, a situation which conforms with the general Persian practice of governing through local leaders.[21]

Governors

Coin of Hezekiah, Satrap of Judaea, Achaemenid period. Circa 375–333 BCE.[31]

The succession order and dates of most of the governors of the Achemenid province of Yehud cannot be recreated with any degree of certainty.[32] Coins, jar-stamp impressions, and seals from the period are giving us the names of Elnathan, Hananiah (?), Jehoezer, Ahzai and Urio, all of them Jewish names.[32] Some of them must have served between Zerubbabel and Nehemiah.[32] Bagoas the Persian (Bagohi or Bagoi in Persian) is known by this short form of several theophoric names that was often used for eunuchs.[32][33] He is mentioned in the 5th-century Elephantine papyri, and must therefore have served after Nehemiah.[32]

Community and religion

There is a general consensus among biblical scholars that ancient Judah during the 9th and 8th centuries BCE was basically henotheistic or monolatrous, with Yahweh as a national god in the same way that surrounding nations each had their own national gods.[37] Monotheistic themes arose as early as the 8th century, in opposition to Assyrian royal propaganda, which depicted the Assyrian king as "Lord of the Four Quarters" (the world), but the Exile broke the competing fertility, ancestor and other cults and allowed it to emerge as the dominant theology of Yehud.[38] The minor gods or "sons of God" of the old pantheon now turned into a hierarchy of angels and demons in a process that continued to evolve throughout the time of Yehud and into the Hellenistic age.[37]

Persian Zoroastrianism certainly influenced Judaism. Although the exact extent of that influence continues to be debated, they shared the concept of God as creator, as the one who guarantees justice and as the God of heaven. The experience of exile and restoration itself brought about a new worldview in which Jerusalem and the House of David continued to be central ingredients, and the destruction of the Temple came to be regarded as a demonstration of Yahweh's strength.[39]

Possibly the single most important development in the post-Exilic period was the promotion and eventual dominance of the idea and practice of Jewish exclusivity, the idea that the Jews (meaning descendants of Jacob, followers of the God of Israel and of the law of Moses) were or should be an ethnic group apart from all others. According to Levine, that was a new idea, originating with the party of the golah, those who returned from the Babylonian exile.[40] In spite of the reforming ex-Babylonian golah leader, Nehemiah, refusing the request of the Yahweh-worshiping Samaritans to help rebuild the Temple, and Ezra's horror at learning that Yehudi Yahweh-worshipers were intermarrying with non-Yehudis (possibly even non Yahweh-worshipers), the relations with the Samaritans and other neighbours were, in fact, close and cordial.[40] Comparison of Ezra-Nehemiah and Chronicles bears this out: Chronicles opens participation in Yahweh-worship to all twelve tribes and even to foreigners, but for Ezra-Nehemiah, "Israel" means the tribes of Judah and Benjamin alone as well as the holy tribe of Levi.[41]

Despite Yehud being consistently monotheistic, some pockets of polytheistic Yahwism still appeared to exist in the Persian period: the Elephantine papyri (usually dated to the 5th century BCE) shows that a small community of Jews living on the Egyptian island of Elephantine, while being devout supporters of Yaweh, also venerated the Egyptian goddess Anat and even had their own temple on the island. This community had probably been founded before the Babylonian Exile and had, therefore, remained cut off from religious reforms on the mainland.[42] While it appears that the Elephantine community had some contact with the Second Temple (as evidenced by the fact that they had written a letter to the High Priest Johanan of Jerusalem[43]), the exact relationship between the two is currently unclear.[44] Following the expulsion of the Persians from Egypt by Pharaoh Amyrtaeus (404 BCE), the Jewish temple in Elephantine was abandoned.[42]

Language and literature

Scholars believe that in the Persian period the Torah assumed its final form, the history of ancient Israel and Judah contained in the books from Joshua to Kings was revised and completed and the older prophetic books were redacted.[39] New writing included the interpretation of older works, such as the Book of Chronicles, and genuinely original work including Ben Sira, Tobit, Judith, 1 Enoch and, much later, Maccabees. The literature from Ben Sira onwards is increasingly permeated with references to the Hebrew Bible in the present form, suggesting the slow development of the idea of a body of "scripture" in the sense of authoritative writings.[45]

One of the more important cultural shifts in the Persian period was the rise of Aramaic as the predominant language of Yehud and the Jewish diaspora. Originally spoken by the Aramaeans, it was adopted by the Persians and became the lingua franca of the empire, and already in the time of Ezra, it was necessary to have the Torah readings translated into Aramaic for them to be understood by Jews.[40]

Only a small amount of Hebrew-written epigraphic material from the Persian period has survived, including some coins from Tell Jemmeh and Beth-zur using the Paleo-Hebrew script, two seal impressions on bullae from a cave in Wadi Daliyeh, a seal from Tell Michal, etc. In contrast, Aramaic-written epigraphic material is much more prevalent.[46]

Biblical narrative

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In 539 BCE, Babylon fell to the Persians. That event is dated securely from non-biblical sources. In his first year (538 BCE), Cyrus the Great decreed that the deportees in Babylon could return to Yehud and rebuild the Temple.[47] Led by Zerubbabel, 42,360 exiles returned to Yehud,[27] where he and Jeshua the priest, although they were in fear of the "people of the land", re-instituted sacrifices.[48]

According to Book of Ezra, Jeshua and Zerubbabel were frustrated in their efforts to rebuild the Temple by the enmity of the "people of the land" and the opposition of the governor of "Beyond-the-River" (the satrapy of which Yehud was a smaller unit). (Ezra 3–4:4) However, in the second year of Darius (520 BCE), Darius discovered the Decree of Cyrus in the archives and directed the satrap to support the work, which he did, and the Temple was completed in the sixth year of Darius (516/515 BCE). (Ezra 6:15)

The Book of Ezra dates Ezra's arrival in Jerusalem to the second year of Artaxerxes. Its position in the narrative implies that he was Artaxerxes I in which case the year was 458 BCE. Ezra, a scholar of the commandments of Yahweh, was commissioned by Artaxerxes to rebuild the Temple and enforce the laws of Moses in Beyond-the-River. Ezra led a large party of exiles back to Yehud, where he found that Jews had intermarried with the "peoples of the land" and immediately banned intermarriage. (Ezra 6–10)

In the 20th year of Artaxerxes (almost definitely Artaxerxes I, whose twentieth year was 445/444 BCE) Nehemiah, the cup-bearer to the king and in a high official post, was informed that the wall of Jerusalem had been destroyed and was granted permission to return to Jerusalem to rebuild it. He succeeded in doing so but encountered strong resistance from the "people of the land", the officials of Samaria (the province immediately to the north of Yehud, the former kingdom of Israel) and other provinces and peoples around Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 1–7)

In chapter 8, the Book of Nehemiah abruptly switches back to Ezra,[49] apparently with no change in the chronology, but the year is not specified. The Book of Nehemiah says that Ezra gathered the Jews together to read and enforce the law (his original commission from Darius but put into effect only now, 14 years after his arrival). Ezra argued to the people that failure to keep the law had caused the Exile. The Jews then agreed to separate themselves from the "peoples of the land" (once again, intermarriage was banned), keep the Sabbath and generally observe the Law. (Nehemiah 8–12)

Attempt at matching with historical chronology

Further information: Historicity of the Bible

There is no complete agreement on the chronology of the Babylonian and Persian periods: the following table is used in this article, but alternative dates for many events are plausible. That is especially true of the chronological sequence of Ezra and Nehemiah, with Ezra 7:6–8 stating that Ezra came to Jerusalem "in the seventh year of Artaxerxes the King," without specifying whether he was Artaxerxes I (465–424 BCE) or Artaxerxes II (404–358 BCE). The probable date for his mission is 458 BCE, but it is possible that it took place in 398 BCE.[50]

Year Event
587 BCE Conquest of Jerusalem and destruction of Solomon's Temple by the Babylonians; second deportation (first deportation in 597); Gedaliah installed as governor in Mizpah
582? BCE Assassination of Gedaliah; refugees flee to Egypt; third deportation to Babylon
562 BCE Jeconiah, 19th king of Judah, deported and imprisoned in Babylon in 597, released; remains in Babylon
539 BCE Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II, ruled c. 559–530 BCE) and the Persian army conquer Babylon
538 BCE "Declaration of Cyrus" allowing Jews to return to Jerusalem
530 BCE Cambyses II (ruled 530–522 BCE) succeeds Cyrus
525 BCE Cambyses II conquers Egypt
522 BCE Darius I (ruled 522–486 BCE) succeeds Cambyses II
521 BCE Negotiations in Babylon between Darius I and the exiled Jews
520 BCE[51] Return to Jerusalem of Zerubbabel as the governor of Yehud and of Joshua the Priest as the High Priest of Israel
520–515 BCE[51] Rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem (Second Temple)
458? BCE Arrival in Jerusalem of Ezra (7th year of the reign of Artaxerxes I, ruled 465–424 BCE)
445/444 BCE Arrival in Jerusalem of Nehemiah (20th year of the reign of Artaxerxes I)
397? BCE
(possible)
Arrival in Jerusalem of Ezra (7th year of the reign of Artaxerxes II, ruled 404–358 BCE)
333/332 BCE Alexander the Great conquers the Mediterranean provinces of the Achaemenid Persian Empire; beginning of Hellenistic period

Archaeology

Obverse of Jewish–Persian coinage from Yehud Medinata

The results of archaeological excavations and surveys suggest that in comparison to late Iron Age Judah, late Persian period Yehud was a rural province with no more than half as many settlements as the late Iron Age, and a much smaller population. Jerusalem had shrunk to its pre-eighth century proportions, and also had a much smaller population, which now concentrated in the Temple Mount and in the City of David, especially near the Pool of Siloam. The most impressive building plan of the period was discovered at Ein Gedi.[52]

Throughout the fourth century BCE, the province of Yehud was home to a network of strongholds. One of these is Hurvat Eres, a little rectangular fort that was discovered atop Har HaRuach, north of Kiryat Ye'arim.[53] Other noteworthy non-urban sites from the time period include a fortress and agricultural estate found in Har Adar, as well as an agricultural estate in Qalandia.[52]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Some Israeli authors, such as Isaac Kalimi, Moshe Bar-Asher, and Joseph Fleishman, prefer "medinta" based on their reading of Ezra 5:8.[6][7][8][9]

Citations

  1. ^ a b Crotty, Robert Brian (2017). The Christian Survivor: How Roman Christianity Defeated Its Early Competitors. Springer. p. 25 f.n. 4. ISBN 978-981-10-3214-1. Retrieved 28 September 2020. The Babylonians translated the Hebrew name [Judah] into Aramaic as Yehud Medinata ('the province of Judah') or simply 'Yehud' and made it a new Babylonian province. This was inherited by the Persians. Under the Greeks, Yehud was translated as Judaea and this was taken over by the Romans. After the Jewish rebellion of 135 CE, the Romans renamed the area Syria Palaestina or simply Palestine. The area described by these land titles differed to some extent in the different periods.
  2. ^ Spolsky, Bernard (2014). The Languages of the Jews: A Sociolinguistic History. Cambridge University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-107-05544-5. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  3. ^ Gooder, Paula (2013). The Bible: A Beginner's Guide. Beginner's Guides. Oneworld Publications. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-78074-239-7. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  4. ^ "medinah". Bible Hub: Search, Read, Study the Bible in Many Languages. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  5. ^ Philologos (21 March 2003). "The Jews of Old-Time Medina". Forward. The Forward Association. Retrieved 4 May 2020. ...in the book of Esther,...the opening verse of the Hebrew text tells us that King Ahasuerus ruled over 127 medinas from India to Ethiopia — which the Targum, the canonical Jewish translation of the Bible into Aramaic, renders not as medinata, 'cities,' but as pilkhin, 'provinces.'
  6. ^ Kalimi, Isaac (2005). An Ancient Israelite Historian: Studies in the Chronicler, His Time, Place and Writing. Studia Semitica Neerlandica. BRILL. pp. 12, 16, 89, 133, 157. ISBN 978-90-04-35876-8. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  7. ^ Bar-Asher, Moshe (2014). Studies in Classical Hebrew. Studia Judaica, Volume 71 (reprint ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 76. ISBN 978-3-11-030039-0. ISSN 0585-5306. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  8. ^ Fleishman, Joseph (2009). Gershon Galil; Markham Geller; Alan Millard (eds.). To stop Nehemiah from building the Jerusalem wall: Jewish aristocrats triggered an economic crisis. Vetus Testamentum, Supplements. Brill. pp. 361-390 [369, 374, 376, 377, 384]. ISBN 978-90-474-4124-3. Retrieved 28 September 2020. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  9. ^ Kochman, Michael (1981). Status and Territory of 'Yehud Medinta' in the Persian Period (dissertation) (in Hebrew). Hebrew University of Jerusalem. p. 247. ISBN 978-3-16-145240-6. Retrieved 28 September 2020 – via "Bibliography" (p. 247; just the work's title) in Kasher, Aryeh. "Jews, Idumaeans, and Ancient Arabs: Relations of the Jews in Eretz-Israel with the Nations of the Frontier and the Desert During the Hellenistic and Roman Era (332 BCE-70 CE)". Mohr Siebeck, 1988, Texts and Studies in Ancient Judaism Series (Volume 18), ISBN 9783161452406.
  10. ^ Klingbeil, Gerald A. (2016). When Not to “Tie the Knot”: A Study of Exogamous Marriage in Ezra–Nehemiah Against the Backdrop of Biblical Legal Tradition. Berrien Springs, Michigan, United States: Andrews University. pp. 156–158. The current thinking about Persian period Yehud entails an (ethnically) multi-faceted population, a much better understanding of its archaeology, as well as the interaction between the smallish province of Yehud with other Persian provinces in Palestine, including Moab, Ammon, Gilead, Samaria, Ashdod, Idumea, etc., that were all part of the fifth Persian satrapy called Ebir-Nāri. This interest is not only due to a more careful and differentiated analysis of the material culture (i.e., the archaeology of Persian period Palestine), but also to the fact that most modern scholars view this period as the hotbed of creative literary activity during which most books of the Hebrew Bible were edited or composed thus meriting a closer look.
  11. ^ O'Brien, Patrick Karl (2002). Atlas of World History. Oxford University Press. pp. 42–43. ISBN 978-0-19-521921-0.
  12. ^ Philip's Atlas of World History. 1999.
  13. ^ Davidson, Peter (2018). Atlas of Empires: The World's Great Powers from Ancient Times to Today. i5 Publishing LLC. ISBN 978-1-62008-288-1.
  14. ^ Barraclough, Geoffrey (1989). The Times Atlas of World History. Times Books. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7230-0304-5.
  15. ^ Lester L. Grabbe, A History of the Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period – Vol 1: A History of the Persian Province of Judah (2004) ISBN 978-0-567-08998-4, p.28.
  16. ^ a b James Maxwell Miller and John Haralson Hayes, A History of Ancient Israel and Judah (1986) ISBN 978-0-664-21262-9, p.xxi, 425.
  17. ^ 2 Kings 25:22–24, Jeremiah 40:6–8
  18. ^ Jeremiah 40:11–12
  19. ^ Jeremiah 44:1
  20. ^ a b c d Leith, Mary Joan (2020). "New Perspectives on the Return from Exile and Persian-Period Yehud". In Kelle, Brad E.; Strawn, Brent A. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of the Historical Books of the Hebrew Bible. Oxford University Press. pp. 147–169. ISBN 978-0-19-026116-0.
  21. ^ a b c Levine, Lee I. (2 December 2002). Jerusalem: Portrait of the City in the Second Temple Period (538 B.C.E. ? 70 C.E.). Jewish Publication Society. ISBN 978-0-8276-0750-7 – via Google Books.
  22. ^ Edelman, Diana Vikander (26 March 1995). The Triumph of Elohim: From Yahwisms to Judaisms. Peeters Publishers. ISBN 978-90-390-0124-0 – via Google Books.
  23. ^ "Philip R. Davies, The Origin of Biblical Israel".
  24. ^ Hulster, Izaak Jozias (26 March 2009). "Iconographic Exegesis and Third Isaiah". Mohr Siebeck – via Google Books.
  25. ^ "Oded Lipschits, "Persian Period Finds from Jerusalem: Facts and Interpretation", Journal of Hebrew Scriptures (vol.9, art.20, 2009)".
  26. ^ Grabbe, Lester L. (27 September 2006). "A History of the Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period (vol. 1): The Persian Period (539-331BCE)". Bloomsbury Academic – via Google Books.
  27. ^ a b Nehemiah 7:66–67 and Ezra 2:64–65
  28. ^ a b c Becking, Bob; Korpel, Marjo Christina Annette (26 March 1999). "The crisis of Israelite religion: transformation of religious tradition in exilic and post-exilic times". BRILL – via Google Books.
  29. ^ Wylen, Stephen M. (26 March 1996). The Jews in the Time of Jesus: An Introduction. Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0-8091-3610-0 – via Google Books.
  30. ^ Grabbe, Lester L. (27 September 2006). A History of the Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period (vol. 1): The Persian Period (539-331BCE). Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-0-567-04352-8 – via Google Books.
  31. ^ Bar-Kochva, Bezalel (2010). Pseudo Hecataeus, "On the Jews": Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora. Univ of California Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-520-26884-5.
  32. ^ a b c d e Nelson, Richard (2014). Historical Roots of the Old Testament (1200-63 BCE). Vol. 13. Society of Biblical Literature (SBL Press). p. 208. ISBN 978-1-62837-006-5. Retrieved 28 September 2020. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  33. ^ Bagoas, Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition (1910–11), via theodora.com. Accessed 28 September 2020.
  34. ^ Fitzpatrick-McKinley, Anne (2015). Empire, Power and Indigenous Elites: A Case Study of the Nehemiah Memoir. Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism, vol. 169. BRILL. p. 162. ISBN 978-90-04-29222-2. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  35. ^ Lykke, Anna (2016). Coins and Coinages in the Context of Ancient Greek Sanctuaries: Jerusalem – a Case Study from the Fringe of the Greek World. Philippika - Altertumswissenschaftliche Abhandlungen / Contributions to the Study of Ancient World Cultures (Vol. 102, pp. 109-118). Vol. 102. Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 109–118. Retrieved 27 September 2020. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  36. ^ Avraham Negev and Shimon Gibson (2001). Achzib Beth Zur; Bethsura. New York and London: Continuum. pp. 89–90. ISBN 978-0-8264-1316-1. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  37. ^ a b Grabbe, Lester L. (27 September 2006). A History of the Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period (vol. 1): The Persian Period (539-331BCE). Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-0-567-04352-8 – via Google Books.
  38. ^ Petersen, David L. (2009). Method Matters. Society of Biblical Lit. ISBN 978-1-58983-444-6 – via books.google.com.
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  53. ^ Mazar, Amihai; Wachtel, Ido (2015). "Ḥurvat ՙEres: A Fourth-Century BCE Fortress West of Jerusalem". Israel Exploration Journal. 65 (2): 214–244. ISSN 0021-2059. JSTOR 43855693.

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