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מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל

Location of Israel
Location of Israel
Map of Israel
Map of Israel

Israel (/ˈɪzri.əl, -r-/; Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, romanizedYīsrāʾēl; Arabic: إِسْرَائِيل, romanizedʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel (מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل, Dawlat ʾIsrāʾīl), is a country in Western Asia. It is situated on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea, and shares borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan to the east, and Egypt to the southwest; it is also bordered by the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively. Tel Aviv is the economic and technological center of the country, while its seat of government is in its proclaimed capital of Jerusalem, although Israeli sovereignty over East Jerusalem is unrecognized internationally.

Inhabited since the Middle Bronze Age by Canaanite tribes, the land held by present-day Israel was once the setting for much of Biblical history, beginning with the 9th-century Iron Age kingdoms of Israel and Judah, which fell, respectively, to the Neo-Assyrian Empire (c. 720 BCE) and Neo-Babylonian Empire (586 BCE). Later rulers included the Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great, the Seleucid Empire, the Hasmonean dynasty, and, from 63 BCE, the Roman Republic and later Roman Empire. From the 5th century CE, it was part of the Byzantine Empire, up until the 7th century Rashidun Caliphate's conquest of the Levant. With the First Crusade of 1096–1099, Crusader states were established. Muslim rule was then restored in 1291 by the Mamluk Sultanate, which later ceded the territory to the Ottoman Empire. (Full article...)

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Portion of the Temple Scroll, one of the longest of the Dead Sea Scrolls discovered at Qumran
Portion of the Temple Scroll, one of the longest of the Dead Sea Scrolls discovered at Qumran

Hebrew (Hebrew alphabet: עִבְרִית‎, ʿĪvrīt, IPA: [ivˈʁit] or [ʕivˈɾit]; Samaritan script: ࠏࠁࠓࠉࠕ; Paleo-Hebrew script: 𐤏𐤁𐤓‫𐤉𐤕) is a Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the Israelites and their longest-surviving descendants: the Jews and Samaritans. It was largely preserved throughout history as the main liturgical language of Judaism (since the Second Temple period) and Samaritanism. Hebrew is the only Canaanite language still spoken today, and serves as the only truly successful example of a dead language that has been revived. It is also one of only two Northwest Semitic languages still in use, with the other being Aramaic.

The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date back to the 10th century BCE. Nearly all of the Hebrew Bible is written in Biblical Hebrew, with much of its present form in the dialect that scholars believe flourished around the 6th century BCE, during the time of the Babylonian captivity. For this reason, Hebrew has been referred to by Jews as Lashon Hakodesh (לָשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ‎‎, lit.'the holy tongue' or 'the tongue [of] holiness') since ancient times. The language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Bible, but as Yehudit (transl. 'the language of Judah') or Səpaṯ Kəna'an (transl. "the language of Canaan"). Mishnah Gittin 9:8 refers to the language as Ivrit, meaning Hebrew; however, Mishnah Megillah refers to the language as Ashurit, meaning Assyrian, which is derived from the name of the alphabet used, in contrast to Ivrit, meaning the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet. (Full article...)
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The Arza sanatorium, 1934

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Mercaz Clal exterior2.jpg
Clal Center (Hebrew: מרכז כלל, Mercaz Clal), also known as Clal Building (Hebrew: בנין כלל, Binyan Clal), is a 15-story office tower and indoor shopping mall on Jaffa Road in Jerusalem. Completed in 1972, it was the first upscale, indoor shopping mall in Jerusalem. Built as part of a plan to revitalize Jaffa Road, it enjoyed a brief period of high occupancy until many tenants relocated to malls and office buildings in new suburbs in the 1990s. It is widely viewed as a commercial and architectural failure. (Full article...)

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Gefilte fish topped with slices of carrot
Gefilte fish topped with slices of carrot

Gefilte fish (/ɡəˈfɪltə fɪʃ/; from Yiddish: געפֿילטע פֿיש, lit. "stuffed fish") is a dish made from a poached mixture of ground deboned fish, such as carp, whitefish, or pike. It is traditionally served as an appetizer by Ashkenazi Jewish households. Popular on Shabbat and Jewish holidays such as Passover, it may be consumed throughout the year.

Historically, gefilte fish was a stuffed whole fish consisting of minced-fish forcemeat stuffed inside the intact fish skin. By the 16th century, cooks had started omitting the labor-intensive stuffing step, and the seasoned fish was most commonly formed into patties similar to quenelles or fish balls. (Full article...)

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17 August 2022 – Israel–Turkey relations
Israel and Turkey restore full diplomatic relations for the first time since 2018. (Axios)
15 August 2022 – Israeli–Syrian ceasefire line incidents during the Syrian civil war
Israel launches a series of airstrikes on Damascus and Tartus, Syria, killing three soldiers and injuring three others. (Al Jazeera)
14 August 2022 – Israeli–Palestinian conflict
A Palestinian gunman opens fire inside a bus in Jerusalem's Old City, injuring eight people, two of them critically. Israeli police later raid the Silwan neighborhood, where the suspect lived, and arrest him. (Al Jazeera) (AP)
9 August 2022 – Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Ibrahim al-Nabulsi, local head of the al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades, and two other people are killed during a raid by Israeli soldiers in Nablus. At least 40 others are injured. (BBC News)

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  1. ^ Butcher, Tim. Sharon presses for fence across Sinai, Daily Telegraph, December 07, 2005.
  2. ^ cite web| title=11 Jan, 2010; from google (Israel–Egypt barrier construction began) result 8|url=https://www.rt.com/politics/israel-approves-democratic-barrier/))
  3. ^ "November 22, 2010; from google (Israel–Egypt barrier construction began) result 10".
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