A slice of a pallasite meteorite fragment of what was once a meteoroid before it collided with Earth, discovered in Argentina; on display at the Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Canada.

A meteoroid is a sand- to boulder-sized particle of debris in the Solar System. The visible path of a meteoroid that enters Earth's (or another body's) atmosphere is called a meteor, or colloquially a "shooting star" or "falling star". Many meteors appearing seconds or minutes apart, and appearing to originate from the same fixed point in the sky, are called a meteor shower. The root word meteor comes from the Greek meteōros, meaning "high in the air". If a meteoroid reaches the ground and survives impact, then it is called a meteorite.

Around 15,000 tonnes of meteoroids, micrometeoroids, and different forms of space dust enter Earth's atmosphere each year.[1]


See also: Micrometeoroid
Animated illustration of different phases as a meteoroid enters the Earth's atmosphere to become meteor and land as a meteorite
2008 TC3 fragment found on Feb. 28, 2009 in the Nubian Desert, Sudan.

As of 2011, the International Astronomical Union defined a meteoroid as "a solid object moving in interplanetary space, of a size considerably smaller than an asteroid and considerably larger than an atom".[2][3] Beech and Steel, writing in Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, proposed a new definition where a meteoroid is between 100 µm and 10 m across.[4] Following the discovery and naming of asteroids below 10 m in size, Rubin and Grossman refined the Beech and Steel definition of meteoroid to objects between 10 µm and 1 m in diameter.[5] The NEO definition includes larger objects, up to 50 m in diameter, in this category. Objects smaller than meteoroids are classified as micrometeoroids and cosmic dust. The Minor Planet Center does not use the term "meteoroid".

Meteoroid composition

The composition of meteoroids can be inferred as they pass through Earth's atmosphere from their trajectories and the light spectra of the resulting meteor. Their effects on radio signals also give information, especially useful for daytime meteors which are otherwise very difficult to observe. From these trajectory measurements, meteoroids have been found to have many different orbits, some clustering in streams (see Meteor showers) often associated with a parent comet, others apparently sporadic. Debris from meteoroid streams may eventually be scattered into other orbits. The light spectra, combined with trajectory and light curve measurements, have yielded various compositions and densities, ranging from fragile snowball-like objects with density about a quarter that of ice,[6] to nickel-iron rich dense rocks. The study of meteorites also insights into the composition of non-ephemeral meteoroids.

Meteoroids in the solar system

Meteoroids travel around the Sun in a variety of orbits and at various velocities. The fastest ones move at about 26 miles per second (42 kilometers per second) through space in the vicinity of Earth's orbit.[citation needed] The Earth travels at about 18 miles per second (29 kilometers per second). Thus, when meteoroids meet the Earth's atmosphere head-on (which only occurs when meteors are in a retrograde orbit such as the Eta Aquarids, which are associated with the retrograde Halley's Comet), the combined speed may reach about 44 miles per second (71 kilometers per second). Meteoroids moving through the Earth's orbital space average about 20 km/s.[7]

Meteoroid collisions with Earth and its atmosphere

When meteoroids intersect with the Earth's atmosphere at night, they are likely to become visible as meteors. If meteoroids survive the entry through the atmosphere and reach the Earth's surface, they are called meteorites. Meteorites are transformed in structure and chemistry by the heat of entry and force of impact. A noted meteoroid, 2008 TC3, was observed in space on a collision course with Earth on 6 October 2008 and entered the Earth's atmosphere the next day, striking a remote area of northern Sudan. It was the first time that a meteoroid had been observed in space and tracked prior to impacting Earth.


A fireball is a brighter-than-usual meteor. The International Astronomical Union defines a fireball as "a meteor brighter than any of the planets" (magnitude −4 or greater).[11] The International Meteor Organization (an amateur organization that studies meteors) has a more rigid definition. It defines a fireball as a meteor that would have a magnitude of −3 or brighter if seen at zenith. This definition corrects for the greater distance between an observer and a meteor near the horizon. For example, a meteor of magnitude −1 at 5 degrees above the horizon would be classified as a fireball because if the observer had been directly below the meteor it would have appeared as magnitude −6.[12] For 2011 there are 4589 fireballs records at the American Meteor Society.[13] Fireballs reaching magnitude −14 or brighter are called bolides.[14] The IAU has no official definition of "bolide", and generally considers the term synonymous with "fireball". Astronomers often use "bolide" to identify an exceptionally bright fireball, particularly one that explodes (sometimes called a detonating fireball). It may also be used to mean a fireball which creates audible sounds. The word bolide comes from the Greek βολίς (bolis) [15] which can mean a missile or to flash. If the magnitude of a bolide reaches −17 or brighter it is known as a superbolide.[14][16]


A Leonid meteor, seen in the 2009 Leonid Meteor Shower.
"Meteor" and "Meteors" redirect here. For other uses, see Meteor (disambiguation).
Photo of a part of the sky during a meteor shower over an extended exposure time. The meteors have actually occurred several seconds to several minutes apart.
Comet 17P/Holmes and Geminid

A meteor or "shooting star" is the visible path of a meteoroid or micrometeoroid that has entered the Earth's atmosphere. Meteors typically occur in the mesosphere, and most range in altitude from 76 km to 100 km (46–62 miles).[8] Millions of meteors occur in the Earth's atmosphere every day. Most meteoroids that cause meteors are about the size of a pebble. Meteors may occur in showers, which arise when the Earth passes through a trail of debris left by a comet, or as "random" or "sporadic" meteors, not associated with a specific single cause. A number of specific meteors have been observed, largely by members of the public and largely by accident, but with enough detail that orbits of the meteoroids producing the meteors have been calculated. All of the orbits passed through the asteroid belt.[9] The velocities of meteors result from the movement of the Earth around the Sun at about 30 km/s (18.5 miles per second),[10] the orbital speeds of meteoroids, and the gravitational attraction of the Earth.

Meteors become visible between about 75 to 120 kilometers (34–70 miles) above the Earth. They disintegrate at altitudes of 50 to 95 kilometers (31–51 miles).[citation needed] Meteors have roughly a fifty percent chance of a daylight (or near daylight) collision with the Earth. Most meteors are, however, observed at night, when darkness allows fainter objects to be recognized. For bodies with a size scale larger than (10 cm to several metres) meteor visibility is due to the atmospheric ram pressure (not friction) that heats the meteoroid so that it glows and creates a shining trail of gases and melted meteoroid particles. The gases include vaporized meteoroid material and atmospheric gases that heat up when the meteoroid passes through the atmosphere. Most meteors glow for about a second. A relatively small percentage of meteoroids hit the Earth's atmosphere and then pass out again: these are termed Earth-grazing fireballs (for example The Great Daylight 1972 Fireball). The visible light produced by a meteor may take on various hues, depending on the chemical composition of the meteoroid, and the speed of its movement through the atmosphere. As layers of the meteoroid abrade and ionize, the color of the light emitted may change according to the layering of minerals. Possible colors (and elements producing them) include:

Atmospheric remains of meteor passage

Entry of meteoroids into the Earth's atmosphere produces three main effects, ionization of atmospheric molecules, dust that the meteoroid sheds, and the sound of passage.

During the entry of a meteoroid or asteroid into the upper atmosphere, an ionization trail is created, where the molecules in the upper atmosphere are ionized by the passage of the meteor. Such ionization trails can last up to 45 minutes at a time. Small, sand-grain sized meteoroids are entering the atmosphere constantly, essentially every few seconds in any given region of the atmosphere, and thus ionization trails can be found in the upper atmosphere more or less continuously. When radio waves are bounced off these trails, it is called meteor burst communications. Meteor radars can measure atmospheric density and winds by measuring the decay rate and Doppler shift of a meteor trail.Most meteoroids burn up when they enter the atmosphere. The left-over debris is called meteoric dust or just meteor dust. Meteor dust particles can persist in the atmosphere for up to several months. These particles might affect climate, both by scattering electromagnetic radiation and by catalyzing chemical reactions in the upper atmosphere.[17]

Sounds of meteors

Sound generated by a meteor in the upper atmosphere, such as a sonic boom, is typically delayed for many seconds after the meteor disappears. Occasionally, as with the Leonid meteor shower of 2001,"crackling", "swishing", or "hissing" sounds have been reported,[18] occurring at the same instant as a meteor flare. Similar sounds have also been reported during intense displays of Earth's auroras.[19][20][21][22]

Sound recordings made under controlled conditions in Mongolia in 1998 by a team led by Slaven Garaj, a physicist at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology at Lausanne, support the contention that the sounds are real.[23]

How these sounds could be generated, assuming they are in fact real, remains something of a mystery. It has been hypothesized by some scientists at NASA that the turbulent ionized wake of a meteor interacts with the magnetic field of the Earth, generating pulses of radio waves. As the trail dissipates, megawatts of electromagnetic energy could be released, with a peak in the power spectrum at audio frequencies. Physical vibrations induced by the electromagnetic impulses would then be heard if they are powerful enough to make grasses, plants, eyeglass frames, and other conductive materials vibrate.[24][25][26][27] This proposed mechanism, although proven to be plausible by laboratory work, remains unsupported by corresponding measurements in the field.

Seasonal variation in meteor sightings

A meteor shower is the result of an interaction between a planet, such as Earth, and streams of debris from a comet or other source. The passage of the Earth through cosmic debris from comets and other sources is recurring in many cases. (See List of meteor showers.) Comets can produce debris by water vapor drag, as demonstrated by Fred Whipple in 1951,[28] and by breakup. Each time a comet swings by the Sun in its orbit, some of its ice vaporizes and a certain amount of meteoroids will be shed. The meteoroids spread out along the entire orbit of the comet to form a meteoroid stream, also known as a "dust trail" (as opposed to a comet's "dust tail" caused by the very small particles that are quickly blown away by solar radiation pressure).

The frequency of fireball sightings increases by about 10-30% during the weeks of vernal equinox.[29] Even meteorite falls are more common during the northern hemisphere's spring season. Although this phenomenon has been known for quite some time, the reason behind the anomaly is not fully understood by scientists. Some researchers attribute this to an intrinsic variation in the meteoroid population along Earth's orbit, with a peak in big fireball-producing debris around spring and early summer. Research is in progress for mapping the orbits of the meteors in order to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon.[30]


Although meteors have been known since ancient times, they were not known to be an astronomical phenomenon until early in the 19th century. Prior to that, they were seen in the West as an atmospheric phenomenon, like lightning, and were not connected with strange stories of rocks falling from the sky. Thomas Jefferson wrote "I would more easily believe that (a) Yankee professor would lie than that stones would fall from heaven."[31] He was referring to Yale chemistry professor Benjamin Silliman's investigation of an 1807 meteorite that fell in Weston, Connecticut.[31] Silliman believed the meteor had a cosmic origin, but meteors did not attract much attention from astronomers until the spectacular meteor storm of November 1833.[32] People all across the eastern United States saw thousands of meteors, radiating from a single point in the sky. Astute observers noticed that the radiant, as the point is now called, moved with the stars, staying in the constellation Leo.[33]

The astronomer Denison Olmsted made an extensive study of this storm, and concluded it had a cosmic origin. After reviewing historical records, Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers predicted the storm's return in 1867, which drew the attention of other astronomers to the phenomenon. Hubert A. Newton's more thorough historical work led to a refined prediction of 1866, which proved to be correct.[32] With Giovanni Schiaparelli's success in connecting the Leonids (as they are now called) with comet Tempel-Tuttle, the cosmic origin of meteors was now firmly established. Still, they remain an atmospheric phenomenon, and retain their name "meteor" from the Greek word for "atmospheric".[34]

Notable meteors

See also: Near-Earth object § Historic impacts

Perhaps the best-known meteor/meteorite fall is the Peekskill Meteorite, filmed on October 9, 1992 by at least 16 independent videographers.[35] Eyewitness accounts indicate the fireball entry of the Peekskill meteorite started over West Virginia at 23:48 UT (±1 min). The fireball, which traveled in a northeasterly direction, had a pronounced greenish colour, and attained an estimated peak visual magnitude of −13. During a luminous flight time that exceeded 40 seconds the fireball covered a ground path of some 700 to 800 km.[36] One meteorite recovered at Peekskill, New York, for which the event and object gained their name, had a mass of 12.4 kg (27 lb) and was subsequently identified as an H6 monomict breccia meteorite.[37] The video record suggests that the Peekskill meteorite had several companions over a wide area. The companions are unlikely to be recovered in the hilly, wooded terrain in the vicinity of Peekskill.

A large fireball was observed in the skies near Bone, Indonesia on October 8, 2009. This was thought to be caused by an asteroid approximately 10 meters in diameter. The fireball contained an estimated energy of 50 kilotons of TNT, or about twice the Nagasaki atomic bomb. No injuries were reported.[38]

A large bolide was reported on 18 November 2009 over southeastern California, northern Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho and Colorado. At 12:07 a.m., a security camera at the high altitude W. L. Eccles Observatory (9600 ft above sea level) recorded a movie of the passage of the object to the north.[39][40] Of particular note in this video is the spherical "ghost" image slightly trailing the main object (this is likely a lens reflection of the intense fireball), and the bright fireball explosion associated with the breakup of a substantial fraction of the object. An object trail can be seen to continue northward after the bright fireball event. The shock from the final breakup triggered seven seismological stations in northern Utah; a timing fit to the seismic data yielded a terminal location of the object at 40.286 N, -113.191 W, altitude 27 km.[41] This is above the Dugway Proving Grounds, a closed Army testing base.

Gallery of meteors

Meteorite and meteoroid impacts

Main article: Meteorite

Herschel Crater is among the many impacts of meteoroids visible on Saturn's moon Mimas.

A meteorite is a portion of a meteoroid or asteroid that survives its passage through the atmosphere and impact with the ground without being destroyed.[42] Meteorites are sometimes, but not always, found in association with hypervelocity impact craters; during energetic collisions, the entire impactor may be vaporized, leaving no meteorites. Geologists use the term, "bolide", in a different sense from astronomers to indicate a very large impactor. For example, the USGS uses the term to mean a generic large crater-forming projectile in a manner "to imply that we do not know the precise nature of the impacting body ... whether it is a rocky or metallic asteroid, or an icy comet for example".[43]

Meteoroids also impact other bodies in the solar system. On such stony bodies as the moon or Mars with no or little atmosphere, they leave enduring craters.

Frequency of large meteoroid collisions with Earth

See also: Planet Earth collision probability with near-Earth objects

The biggest asteroid to hit Earth on any given day is likely to be about 40 centimeters, in a given year about 4 meters, and in a given century about 20 meters. These statistics are obtained by the following:

Over at least the range from 5 centimeters (2 inches) to roughly 300 meters (1,000 feet), the rate at which Earth receives meteors obeys a power-law distribution as follows:

where N(>D) is the expected number of objects larger than a diameter of D meters to hit Earth in a year.[44] This is based on observations of bright meteors seen from the ground and space, combined with surveys of near Earth asteroids. Above 300 meters in diameter, the predicted rate is somewhat higher, with a two-kilometer asteroid (one million-megaton TNT equivalent) every couple of million years — about 10 times as often as the power-law extrapolation would predict.

Meteorite craters

Main article: Impact crater

Two tektites, molten terrestrial ejecta from a meteorite impact.

Meteoroid collisions with solid Solar System objects, including the Moon, Mercury, Callisto, Ganymede and most small moons and asteroids, create impact craters, which are the dominant geographic features of many of those objects. On other planets and moons with active surface geological processes, such as Earth, Venus, Mars, Europa, Io and Titan, visible impact craters may become become eroded, buried or transformed by tectonics over time. In early literature, before the significance of impact cratering was widely recognised, the terms cryptoexplosion or cryptovolcanic structure were often used to describe what are now recognised as impact-related features on Earth.[45] Molten terrestrial material ejected from a meteorite impact crater can cool and solidify into an object known as a tektite. These are often mistaken for meteorites.

Gallery of meteorites

See also


  1. ^ Stuart Gary - Survey finds not all meteors the same - ABC Science
  2. ^ Millman P.M. (1961). "A report on meteor terminology". JRASC. 55: 265–267. Bibcode:1961JRASc.55..265M. ((cite journal)): Check |bibcode= length (help)
  3. ^ "Glossary International Meteor Organization". Imo.net. 2008-11-18. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  4. ^ Beech, M. (1995). "On the Definition of the Term Meteoroid". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. 36 (3): 281–284. Bibcode:1995QJRAS..36..281B. ((cite journal)): Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help))
  5. ^ Rubin, A.E. (2010). "Meteorite and meteoroid: New comprehensive definitions". Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 45 (1): 114–122. Bibcode:2010M&PS...45..114R. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.2009.01009.x. ((cite journal)): Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help))
  6. ^ Povenmire, H. PHYSICAL DYNAMICS OF THE UPSILON PEGASID FIREBLL – EUROPEAN NETWORK 190882A. Florida Institute of Technology
  7. ^ "Report on Orbital Debris". NASA. NASA Technical Reports Server. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
  8. ^ Philip J. Erickson. "Millstone Hill UHF Meteor Observations: Preliminary Results".
  9. ^ "Diagram 2: the orbit of the Peekskill meteorite along with the orbits derived for several other meteorite falls". Uregina.ca. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  10. ^ Williams, David R. (2004-09-01). "Earth Fact Sheet". NASA. Retrieved 2010-08-09.
  11. ^ "MeteorObs Explanations and Definitions (states IAU definition of a fireball)". Meteorobs.org. 1999-07-09. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  12. ^ "International Meteor Organization - Fireball Observations". Imo.net. 2004-10-12. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  13. ^ "Fireball Report: 4589 records found between 2011-01-01 and 2011-12-31". American Meteor Society. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
  14. ^ a b Belton, MJS (2004). Mitigation of hazardous comets and asteroids. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82764-7. ((cite book)): Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help):156
  15. ^ http://www.myetymology.com
  16. ^ Adushkin, Vitaly (2008). Catastrophic events caused by cosmic objects. Springer. ISBN 1-4020-6451-9. ((cite book)): Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help):133
  17. ^ "Climate change: A cosmic connection". Nature (journal). 14 September 2006. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  18. ^ Burdick, Alan (2002). "Psst! Sounds like a meteor: in the debate about whether or not meteors make noise, skeptics have had the upper hand until now". Natural History.
  19. ^ Vaivads, Andris (2002). "Auroral Sounds". Retrieved 2011-02-27.
  20. ^ "Auroral Acoustics". Laboratory of Acoustics and Audio Signal Processing, Helsinki University of Technology. Retrieved 2011-02-17.
  21. ^ Silverman, S.M. (1973). "Auroral Audibility". Advance in Geophysics. 16: 155–259. doi:10.1016/S0065-2687(08)60352-0. ((cite journal)): Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  22. ^ Keay, Colin S.L. (1990). "Chant, C.A. and the Mystery of Auroral Sounds". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 84: 373–382. Bibcode:1990JRASc.84..373K. ((cite journal)): Check |bibcode= length (help)
  23. ^ "Sound of shooting stars". BBC News. 1999-04-21. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  24. ^ "Listening to Leonids". Science.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  25. ^ "Hearing Sensations in Electric Fields". Homepages.tesco.net. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  26. ^ "Human auditory system response to Modulated electromagnetic energy". Homepages.tesco.net. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  27. ^ "Human Perception of Illumination with Pulsed Ultrahigh-Frequency Electromagnetic Energy". Homepages.tesco.net. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  28. ^ Whipple F. L. (1951). A Comet Model. II. Physical Relations for Comets and Meteors. Astrophys. J. 113, 464
  29. ^ "Spring is Fireball Season". Science.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  30. ^ "What's Hitting Earth?". Science.nasa.gov. 2011-03-01. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  31. ^ a b amsmeteors.org The Early Years of Meteor Observations in the USA
  32. ^ a b meteorshowersonline.com The Leonids and the Birth of Meteor Astronomy
  33. ^ Hitchcock, Prof. Edward (January 1834). "On the Meteors of Nov. 13, 1833". The American Journal of Science and Arts. XXV.
  34. ^ astroprofspage.com October's Orionid Meteors
  35. ^ The Peekskill Meteorite October 9, 1992 Videos
  36. ^ Brown, P. et al., 1994. Nature, 367, 6524 - 626
  37. ^ "Meteoritical Bull", by Wlotzka, F. published in "Meteoritics", # 75, 28, (5), 692, 1994
  38. ^ Don Yeomans, Paul Chodas and Steve Chesley (October 23, 2009). "Asteroid Impactor Reported over Indonesia". NASA/JPL Near-Earth Object Program Office. Retrieved 2009-10-30.
  39. ^ "W.L Eccles Observatory, Nov 18 2009, North Camera". Youtube.com. 2009-11-18. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  40. ^ "W.L Eccles Observatory, November 18, 2009, North West Camera". Youtube.com. 2009-11-18. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  41. ^ Patrick Wiggins, private communication
  42. ^ The Oxford Illustrated Dictionary. 1976. Second Edition. Oxford University Press. page 533
  43. ^ "usgs.gov - What is a Bolide?". Woodshole.er.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  44. ^ "The flux of small near-Earth objects colliding with the Earth". Nature (journal). 21 September 2002. Retrieved 2009-06-22.
  45. ^ French, B.M. (1998). Traces of Catastrophe: A Handbook of Shock-Metamorphic Effects in Terrestrial Meteorite Impact Structures; Simthsonian Institution: Washington DC, p. 97. http://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/books/CB-954/CB-954.intro.html.
  46. ^ Meteoritical Bulletin Database www.lpi.usra.edu

Template:Link FA