136472 Makemake
Low-resolution image of Makemake by the Hubble Space Telescope, April 2015
Discovered by
Discovery dateMarch 31, 2005
(136472) Makemake
PronunciationUK: /ˌmækiˈmæki/, US: /ˌmɑːkiˈmɑːki/ or /ˌmɑːkˈmɑːk/ [a]
Named after
2005 FY9
Dwarf planet
Symbol🝼 (mostly astrological)
Orbital characteristics[8]
Epoch May 31, 2020
(JD 2458900.5)
Earliest precovery dateJanuary 29, 1955
Aphelion52.756 AU (7.8922 Tm)
Perihelion38.104 AU (5.7003 Tm)
45.430 AU (6.7962 Tm)
306.21 yr (111,845 d)
4.419 km/s
17 November 2186[9]
Known satellites1
Physical characteristics
 × projected (1420+18
Mean radius
6.42×106 km2[d][11]
Volume1.53×109 km3[d][12]
Mass≈ 3.1×1021 kg[13]
Mean density
≈ 1.7 g/cm3 (using Ortiz et al. 2012 radius)
≈ 2.1 g/cm3 (using Brown 2013 radius[10])[13]
Equatorial surface gravity
< 0.57 m/s2
Equatorial escape velocity
< 0.91 km/s
22.8266±0.0001 h[14]
0.82±0.02 geometric[14]
0.74±0.06 Bond[15]
Temperature32–36 K (single-terrain model)
40–44 K (two-terrain model)[16]
B−V=0.83, V−R=0.5[17]
17.0 (opposition)[18][19]

Makemake[e] (minor-planet designation: 136472 Makemake) is a dwarf planet and the second-largest of what is known as the classical population of Kuiper belt objects,[b] with a diameter approximately that of Saturn's moon Iapetus, or 60% that of Pluto.[24][25] It has one known satellite.[26] Its extremely low average temperature, about 40 K (−230 °C), means its surface is covered with methane, ethane, and possibly nitrogen ices.[21] Makemake shows signs of geothermal activity and thus may be capable of supporting active geology and harboring an active subsurface ocean.[27]

Makemake was discovered on March 31, 2005 by a team led by Michael E. Brown, and announced on July 29, 2005. It was initially known as 2005 FY9 and later given the minor-planet number 136472. In July 2008, it was named after Makemake, a creator god in the Rapa Nui mythology of Easter Island, under the expectation by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) that it would prove to be a dwarf planet.[25][28][29][30]



Makemake was discovered on March 31, 2005, by a team at the Palomar Observatory, led by Michael E. Brown,[8] and was announced to the public on July 29, 2005. The team had planned to delay announcing their discoveries of the bright objects Makemake and Eris until further observations and calculations were complete, but announced them both on July 29 when the discovery of another large object they had been tracking, Haumea, was controversially announced on July 27 by a different team in Spain.[31]

The earliest known precovery observations of Makemake have been found in photographic plates of the Palomar Observatory's Digitized Sky Survey from January 29, 1955 to May 1, 1998.[32]

Despite its relative brightness (a fifth as bright as Pluto),[f] Makemake was not discovered until after many much fainter Kuiper belt objects. Most searches for minor planets are conducted relatively close to the ecliptic (the region of the sky that the Sun, Moon, and planets appear to lie in, as seen from Earth), due to the greater likelihood of finding objects there. It probably escaped detection during the earlier surveys due to its relatively high orbital inclination, and the fact that it was at its farthest distance from the ecliptic at the time of its discovery, in the northern constellation of Coma Berenices.[19]

Makemake is the brightest trans-Neptunian object after Pluto,[34] with an apparent magnitude of 16.2 in late 1930,[35] it is theoretically bright enough to have been discovered by Clyde Tombaugh, whose search for trans-Neptunian objects was sensitive to objects up to magnitude 17. Indeed, in 1934 Tombaugh reported that there were no other planets out to a magnitude of 16.5 and an inclination of 17 degrees, or of greater inclination but within 50 degrees of either node.[36] And Makemake was there: At the time of Tombaugh's survey (1930–1943), Makemake varied from 5.5 to 13.2 degrees from the ecliptic,[35] moving across Auriga, starting near the northwest corner of Taurus and cutting across a corner of Gemini.[g] The starting position, however, was very close to the galactic anticenter, and Makemake would have been almost impossible to find against the dense background of stars.[dubious ] Tombaugh continued searching for thirteen years after his discovery of Pluto (and Makemake, though growing dimmer, was still magnitude 16.6 in early 1943, the last year of his search),[35] but by then he was searching higher latitudes and did not find any more objects orbiting beyond Neptune.[37]

Name and symbol

The provisional designation 2005 FY9 was given to Makemake when the discovery was made public. Before that, the discovery team used the codename "Easterbunny" for the object, because of its discovery shortly after Easter.[1]

In July 2008, in accordance with IAU rules for classical Kuiper belt objects, 2005 FY9 was given the name of a creator deity.[38] The name of Makemake, the creator of humanity and god of fertility in the myths of the Rapa Nui, the native people of Easter Island,[29] was chosen in part to preserve the object's connection with Easter.[1]

Planetary symbols are no longer much used in astronomy. A Makemake symbol 🝼 is included in Unicode as U+1F77C:[39] it is mostly used by astrologers,[40] but has also been used by NASA.[41] The symbol was designed by Denis Moskowitz and John T. Whelan; it is a traditional petroglyph of Makemake's face stylized to resemble an 'M'.[42] The commercial Solar Fire astrology software uses an alternative symbol (),[40] a crossed variant of a symbol () created by astrologer Henry Seltzer for his commercial software.

Orbit and classification

Orbits of Makemake (blue), Haumea (green), contrasted with the orbit of Pluto (red) and the ecliptic (grey). The perihelia (q) and the aphelia (Q) are marked with the dates of passage. The positions in April 2006 are marked with the spheres illustrating relative sizes and differences in albedo and colour.
Makemake's orbit outside of Neptune is similar to Haumea's. The positions are as of 1 January 2018.

As of April 2019, Makemake was 52.5 AU (7.85 billion km) from the Sun,[18][19] almost as far from the Sun as it ever reaches on its orbit.[21] Makemake follows an orbit very similar to that of Haumea: highly inclined at 29° and a moderate eccentricity of about 0.16.[43] But still, Makemake's orbit is slightly farther from the Sun in terms of both the semi-major axis and perihelion. Its orbital period is 306 years,[8] more than Pluto's 248 years and Haumea's 283 years. Both Makemake and Haumea are currently far from the ecliptic (at an angular distance of almost 29°). Makemake will reach its aphelion in 2033,[19] whereas Haumea passed its aphelion in early 1992.[44]

Makemake is a classical Kuiper belt object (KBO),[5][b] which means its orbit lies far enough from Neptune to remain stable over the age of the Solar System.[45][46] Unlike plutinos, which can cross Neptune's orbit due to their 2:3 resonance with the planet, the classical objects have perihelia further from the Sun, free from Neptune's perturbation.[45] Such objects have relatively low eccentricities (e below 0.2) and orbit the Sun in much the same way the planets do. Makemake, however, is a member of the "dynamically hot" class of classical KBOs, meaning that it has a high inclination compared to others in its population.[47] Makemake is, probably coincidentally, near the 13:7 resonance with Neptune.[48]

Physical characteristics

Brightness, size, and rotation

Makemake (apparent magnitude 16.9) with edge-on galaxy IC 3587

Makemake is currently visually the second-brightest Kuiper belt object after Pluto,[34] having a March opposition apparent magnitude of 17.0[18] it will pass from its present constellation Coma Berenices to Boötes in December 2027.[19] It is bright enough to be visible using a high-end amateur telescope.

Combining the detection in infrared by the Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Telescope with the similarities of Pluto's spectrum yielded an estimated diameter from 1,360 to 1,480 km.[24] From the 2011 stellar occultation by Makemake, its dimensions had initially been measured at (1,502 ± 45) × (1,430 ± 9) km. However, the occultation data was later reanalyzed,[10] leading to an estimate of (1434+48
) × (1420+18
without a pole-orientation constraint.[10] Makemake was the fourth dwarf planet recognized, because it has a bright V-band absolute magnitude of 0.05.[14] Makemake has a highly reflective surface with a geometrical albedo of 0.82±0.02.[14]

The rotation period of Makemake is estimated at 22.83 hours.[14] A rotation period of 7.77 hours published in 2009[49] later turned out to be an alias of the actual rotation period. The possibility of this had been mentioned in the 2009 study, and the data from that study agrees well with the 22.83-hour period.[14] This rotation period is relatively long for a dwarf planet. Part of this may be due to tidal acceleration from Makemake's satellite. It has been suggested that a second large, undiscovered satellite might better explain the dwarf planet's unusually long rotation.[14]

Makemake's lightcurve amplitude is small, only 0.03 mag.[10][14] This was thought to be due to Makemake currently being viewed pole on from Earth; however, S/2015 (136472) 1's orbital plane (which is probably orbiting with little inclination relative to Makemake's equator due to tidal effects) is edge-on from Earth, implying that Makemake is being viewed equator-on.[50]

Spectra and surface

Like Pluto, Makemake appears red in the visible spectrum, and significantly redder than the surface of Eris (see colour comparison of TNOs).[51] The near-infrared spectrum is marked by the presence of the broad methane (CH4) absorption bands. Methane is observed also on Pluto and Eris, but its spectral signature is much weaker.[51]

Spectral analysis of Makemake's surface revealed that methane must be present in the form of large grains at least one centimetre in size.[21] Large amounts of ethane and tholins, as well as smaller amounts of ethylene, acetylene, and high-mass alkanes (like propane), may be present, most likely created by photolysis of methane by solar radiation.[21][52] The tholins are probably responsible for the red color of the visible spectrum. Although evidence exists for the presence of nitrogen ice on its surface, at least mixed with other ices, there is nowhere near the same level of nitrogen as on Pluto and Triton, where it composes more than 98 percent of the crust. The relative lack of nitrogen ice suggests that its supply of nitrogen has somehow been depleted over the age of the Solar System.[21][53][54]

An artist's interpretation of the dwarf planet Makemake, depicted with its reddish surface and its moon

The far-infrared (24–70 μm) and submillimeter (70–500 μm) photometry performed by Spitzer and Herschel telescopes revealed that the surface of Makemake is not homogeneous. Although the majority of it is covered by nitrogen and methane ices, where the albedo ranges from 78 to 90%, there are small patches of dark terrain whose albedo is only 2 to 12%, and that make up 3 to 7% of the surface.[24] These studies were made before S/2015 (136472) 1 was discovered; thus, these small dark patches may have instead been the dark surface of the satellite rather than any actual surface features on Makemake.[55]

However, some experiments have refuted these studies. Spectroscopic studies, collected from 2005 to 2008 using the William Herschel Telescope (La Palma, Spain) were analyzed together with other spectra in the literature, as of 2014. They show some degree of variation in the spectral slope, which would be associated with different abundance of the complex organic materials, byproducts of the irradiation of the ices present on the surface of Makemake. However, the relative ratio of the two dominant icy species, methane, and nitrogen, remains quite stable on the surface revealing a low degree of inhomogeneity in the ice component.[56] These results were recently confirmed when the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo acquired new visible and near infra-red spectra for Makemake, between 2006 and 2013, that covered nearly 80% of its surface; this study found that the variations in the spectra were negligible, suggesting that Makemake's surface may indeed be homogenous.[57] Based on optical observations conducted between 2006 and 2017, Hromakina et al. concluded that Makemake's lightcurve was likely due to heterogeneities across its surface, but that the variations (of the order of 3%) were too small to have been detected spectroscopically.[14]

More research shows that Eris, Pluto and Makemake show signs of noticeable geothermal activity and could likely harbor active subsurface oceans. Rebuking the earlier speculations about distant celestial objects being uninhabitable.[58]


Makemake was expected to have an atmosphere similar to that of Pluto but with a lower surface pressure. However, on 23 April 2011, Makemake passed in front of an 18th-magnitude star and abruptly blocked its light.[59] The results showed that Makemake presently lacks a substantial atmosphere and placed an upper limit of 0.4–1.2 millipascals on the pressure at its surface.[16]

The presence of methane and possibly nitrogen suggests that Makemake could have a transient atmosphere similar to that of Pluto near its perihelion.[51] Nitrogen, if present, will be the dominant component of it.[21] The existence of an atmosphere also provides a natural explanation for the nitrogen depletion: because the gravity of Makemake is weaker than that of Pluto, Eris and Triton, a large amount of nitrogen was probably lost via atmospheric escape; methane is lighter than nitrogen, but has significantly lower vapor pressure at temperatures prevalent at the surface of Makemake (32–36 K),[16] which hinders its escape; the result of this process is a higher relative abundance of methane.[60] However, studies of Pluto's atmosphere by New Horizons suggest that methane, not nitrogen, is the dominant escaping gas, suggesting that the reasons for Makemake's absence of nitrogen may be more complicated.[61][62]


Two images of Makemake and its satellite taken by Hubble two days apart in April 2015

Main article: S/2015 (136472) 1

Makemake has a single discovered moon, S/2015 (136472) 1 and nicknamed MK2. It was seen 21,000 km (13,000 mi) from the dwarf planet, and its diameter is estimated at 175 km (110 mi) (for an assumed albedo of 4%).[7]

Makemake System
Name Diameter (km) Discovery Date
Makemake ≈ 1430 March 31, 2005
S/2015 (136472) 1 ≈ 175 April 27, 2015


Makemake, indicated with red bars, as imaged by the New Horizons spacecraft in October 2007

Makemake was observed from afar by the New Horizons spacecraft in October 2007 and January 2017, from distances of 52 AU and 70 AU, respectively.[15] The spacecraft's outbound trajectory permitted observations of Makemake at high phase angles that are otherwise unobtainable from Earth, enabling the determination of the light scattering properties and phase curve behavior of Makemake's surface.[15]

It has been calculated that a flyby mission to Makemake could take just over 16 years using a Jupiter gravity assist, based on a launch date of 21 August 2024 or 24 August 2036. Makemake would be approximately 52 AU from the Sun when the spacecraft arrives.[63]

See also


  1. ^ The Rapa Nui pronunciation is [ˈmakeˈmake], which is anglicized as /ˈmækiˈmæki/ in the UK and /ˈmɑːkiˈmɑːki/[1] as well as /ˈmɑːkˈmɑːk/ in the US.[2][3] The distinction between /ɑː/ and /æ/ reflect how the US and UK handle the Polynesian 'a' (parallel to the first 'a' in Italian 'pasta'); the // pronunciation attempts to approximate the Polynesian 'e', and is used by Brown and his students.[4]
  2. ^ a b c Astronomers Mike Brown, David Jewitt and Marc Buie classify Makemake as a near scattered object but the Minor Planet Center, from which Wikipedia draws most of its definitions for the trans-Neptunian population, places it among the main Kuiper belt population.[20][21][22][23]
  3. ^ Calculated using (a−b)/a and the dimensions from Brown[10]
  4. ^ a b Calculated using the dimensions from Brown[10] assuming an oblate spheroid.
  5. ^ Pronounced as four syllables, with stress on the a's. Values of the vowels vary; see info-box.
  6. ^ It has an apparent magnitude at opposition of 16.7 vs. 15.1 for Pluto.[33]
  7. ^ Based on Minor Planet Center online Minor Planet Ephemeris Service: March 1, 1930: RA: 05h51m, Dec: +29.0.


  1. ^ a b c Brown, Mike (2008). "Mike Brown's Planets: What's in a name? (part 2)". California Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 2020-05-13. Retrieved 2008-07-14.
  2. ^ Brown, Mike (2008). "Mike Brown's Planets: Make-make". California Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 2008-07-17. Retrieved 2008-07-14.
  3. ^ "Makemake". Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary.
  4. ^ Podcast Dwarf Planet Haumea Archived 2012-02-20 at the Wayback Machine (Darin Ragozzine, at 3′11″)
  5. ^ a b "MPEC 2009-P26 :Distant Minor Planets (2009 AUG. 17.0 TT)". IAU Minor Planet Center. 2009-08-07. Archived from the original on 2018-10-02. Retrieved 2009-08-28.
  6. ^ Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum, no. 3-5 (1953)
  7. ^ a b Parker, A. H.; Buie, M. W.; Grundy, W. M.; Noll, K. S. (2016-04-25). "Discovery of a Makemakean Moon". The Astrophysical Journal. 825 (1): L9. arXiv:1604.07461. Bibcode:2016ApJ...825L...9P. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/825/1/L9. S2CID 119270442.
  8. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 136472 Makemake (2005 FY9)". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (2019-05-12 last obs). Archived from the original on 2019-06-16. Retrieved 2020-02-20.
  9. ^ "Horizons Batch for 136472 Makemake (2005 FY9) on 2186-Nov-17" (Perihelion occurs when rdot flips from negative to positive). JPL Horizons. Archived from the original on 2021-09-25. Retrieved 2021-09-25.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h M.E. Brown (2013). "On the size, shape, and density of dwarf planet Makemake". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 767 (1): L7(5pp). arXiv:1304.1041v1. Bibcode:2013ApJ...767L...7B. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/767/1/L7. S2CID 12937717.
  11. ^ "surface ellipsoid 717x717x710 – Wolfram-Alpha". Archived from the original on 2019-12-22. Retrieved 2019-12-22.
  12. ^ "volume ellipsoid 717x717x710 – Wolfram-Alpha". Archived from the original on 2019-12-22. Retrieved 2019-12-22.
  13. ^ a b Parker et al. (2018) The Mass, Density, and Figure of the Kuiper Belt Dwarf Planet Makemake
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j T. A. Hromakina; I. N. Belskaya; Yu. N. Krugly; V. G. Shevchenko; J. L. Ortiz; P. Santos-Sanz; R. Duffard; N. Morales; A. Thirouin; R. Ya. Inasaridze; V. R. Ayvazian; V. T. Zhuzhunadze; D. Perna; V. V. Rumyantsev; I. V. Reva; A. V. Serebryanskiy; A. V. Sergeyev; I. E. Molotov; V. A. Voropaev; S. F. Velichko (2019-04-09). "Long-term photometric monitoring of the dwarf planet (136472) Makemake". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 625: A46. arXiv:1904.03679. Bibcode:2019A&A...625A..46H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201935274. S2CID 102350991.
  15. ^ a b c Verbiscer, Anne J.; Helfenstein, Paul; Porter, Simon B.; Benecchi, Susan D.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Lauer, Tod R.; et al. (April 2022). "The Diverse Shapes of Dwarf Planet and Large KBO Phase Curves Observed from New Horizons". The Planetary Science Journal. 3 (4): 31. Bibcode:2022PSJ.....3...95V. doi:10.3847/PSJ/ac63a6. 95.
  16. ^ a b c Ortiz, J. L.; Sicardy, B.; Braga-Ribas, F.; Alvarez-Candal, A.; Lellouch, E.; Duffard, R.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ivanov, V. D.; Littlefair, S. P.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Assafin, M.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Jehin, E.; Morales, N.; Tancredi, G.; Gil-Hutton, R.; De La Cueva, I.; Colque, J. P.; Da Silva Neto, D. N.; Manfroid, J.; Thirouin, A.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Lecacheux, J.; Gillon, M.; Maury, A.; Colas, F.; Licandro, J.; Mueller, T.; Jacques, C.; Weaver, D. (2012). "Albedo and atmospheric constraints of dwarf planet Makemake from a stellar occultation". Nature. 491 (7425): 566–569. Bibcode:2012Natur.491..566O. doi:10.1038/nature11597. hdl:2268/142198. PMID 23172214. S2CID 4350486. Archived from the original on 2023-02-08. Retrieved 2019-07-01. (ESO 21 November 2012 press release: Dwarf Planet Makemake Lacks Atmosphere Archived 2017-01-18 at the Wayback Machine)
  17. ^ Snodgrass, C.; Carry, B.; Dumas, C.; Hainaut, O. (February 2010). "Characterisation of candidate members of (136108) Haumea's family". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 511: A72. arXiv:0912.3171. Bibcode:2010A&A...511A..72S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200913031. S2CID 62880843.
  18. ^ a b c "AstDys (136472) Makemake Ephemerides". Department of Mathematics, University of Pisa, Italy. Archived from the original on 2019-09-25. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  19. ^ a b c d e "Asteroid 136472 Makemake (2005 FY9)". HORIZONS Web-Interface. JPL Solar System Dynamics. Archived from the original on 2016-08-17. Retrieved 2015-12-30.
  20. ^ Marc W. Buie (2008-04-05). "Orbit Fit and Astrometric record for 136472". SwRI (Space Science Department). Archived from the original on 2020-05-27. Retrieved 2008-07-13.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Mike Brown; K. M. Barksume; G. L. Blake; E. L. Schaller; et al. (2007). "Methane and Ethane on the Bright Kuiper Belt Object 2005 FY9" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 133 (1): 284–289. Bibcode:2007AJ....133..284B. doi:10.1086/509734. S2CID 12146168. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-05-24. Retrieved 2018-11-04.
  22. ^ Audrey Delsanti; David Jewitt. "The Solar System Beyond The Planets" (PDF). University of Hawaii. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-10-19. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
  23. ^ "List Of Transneptunian Objects". Minor Planet Center. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Archived from the original on 2010-10-27. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
  24. ^ a b c T.L. Lim; J. Stansberry; T.G. Müller (2010). ""TNOs are Cool": A survey of the trans-Neptunian region III. Thermophysical properties of 90482 Orcus and 136472 Makemake". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 518: L148. arXiv:1202.3657. Bibcode:2010A&A...518L.148L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201014701.
  25. ^ a b International Astronomical Union (2008-07-19). "Fourth dwarf planet named Makemake" (Press release). International Astronomical Union (News Release – IAU0806). Archived from the original on 2008-07-23. Retrieved 2008-07-20.
  26. ^ HubbleSite (2016-04-26). "Hubble Discovers Moon Orbiting the Dwarf Planet Makemake" (Press release). HubbleSite (News Release no. STScI-2016-18). Archived from the original on 2019-09-29. Retrieved 2016-04-26.
  27. ^ https://scitechdaily.com/astronomers-uncover-surprising-activity-on-the-dwarf-planets-eris-and-makemake/
  28. ^ Michael E. Brown. "The Dwarf Planets". California Institute of Technology, Department of Geological Sciences. Archived from the original on 2008-01-29. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
  29. ^ a b "Dwarf Planets and their Systems". Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN). U.S. Geological Survey. 2008-11-07. Archived from the original on 2007-07-14. Retrieved 2008-07-13.
  30. ^ Gonzalo Tancredi; Sofia Favre (June 2008). "Which are the dwarfs in the Solar System?" (PDF). Icarus. 195 (2): 851–862. Bibcode:2008Icar..195..851T. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.12.020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-06-03. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
  31. ^ Thomas H. Maugh II & John Johnson Jr. (2005-10-16). "His Stellar Discovery Is Eclipsed". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2017-02-21. Retrieved 2008-07-14.
  32. ^ "(136472) Makemake = 2005 FY9". Minor Planet Center. International Astronomical Union. Archived from the original on 2021-12-22. Retrieved 2020-11-01.
  33. ^ David L. Rabinowitz; Bradley E. Schaefer; Suzanne W. Tourtellotte (2007). "The Diverse Solar Phase Curves of Distant Icy Bodies. I. Photometric Observations of 18 Trans-Neptunian Objects, 7 Centaurs, and Nereid". The Astronomical Journal. 133 (1): 26–43. arXiv:astro-ph/0605745. Bibcode:2007AJ....133...26R. doi:10.1086/508931. S2CID 119406900.
  34. ^ a b Brown, M. E.; Van Dam, M. A.; Bouchez, A. H.; Le Mignant, D.; Campbell, R. D.; Chin, J. C. Y.; Conrad, A.; Hartman, S. K.; Johansson, E. M.; Lafon, R. E.; Rabinowitz, D. L. Rabinowitz; Stomski, P. J. Jr.; Summers, D. M.; Trujillo, C. A.; Wizinowich, P. L. (2006). "Satellites of the Largest Kuiper Belt Objects" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 639 (1): L43–L46. arXiv:astro-ph/0510029. Bibcode:2006ApJ...639L..43B. doi:10.1086/501524. S2CID 2578831. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-11-03. Retrieved 2011-10-19.
  35. ^ a b c "HORIZONS Web-Interface". Archived from the original on 2021-02-04. Retrieved 2020-06-30.
  36. ^ Tombaugh, Clyde; Patrick Moore (1980). Out of the Darkness: The Planet Pluto. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-8117-1163-0.
  37. ^ "Clyde W. Tombaugh". New Mexico Museum of Space History. Archived from the original on 2019-09-25. Retrieved 2008-06-29.
  38. ^ "Makemake Becomes the Newest Dwarf Planet". Slashdot. July 13, 2008. Archived from the original on June 10, 2019. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
  39. ^ "Proposed New Characters: The Pipeline". Archived from the original on 2022-01-29. Retrieved 2022-01-29.
  40. ^ a b Miller, Kirk (26 October 2021). "Unicode request for dwarf-planet symbols" (PDF). unicode.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 6 August 2022.
  41. ^ JPL/NASA (April 22, 2015). "What is a Dwarf Planet?". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Archived from the original on 2021-01-19. Retrieved 2021-09-24.
  42. ^ Anderson, Deborah (4 May 2022). "Out of this World: New Astronomy Symbols Approved for the Unicode Standard". unicode.org. The Unicode Consortium. Archived from the original on 6 August 2022. Retrieved 6 August 2022.
  43. ^ S. C. Tegler; W. M. Grundy; W. Romanishin; G. J. Consolmagno; et al. (2007-01-08). "Optical Spectroscopy of the Large Kuiper Belt Objects 136472 (2005 FY9) and 136108 (2003 EL61)". The Astronomical Journal. 133 (2): 526–530. arXiv:astro-ph/0611135. Bibcode:2007AJ....133..526T. doi:10.1086/510134. S2CID 10673951.
  44. ^ "Asteroid 136108 (2003 EL61)". HORIZONS Web-Interface. JPL Solar System Dynamics. Archived from the original on 2008-07-18. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
  45. ^ a b David Jewitt (February 2000). "Classical Kuiper Belt Objects (CKBOs)". University of Hawaii. Archived from the original on August 5, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
  46. ^ Jane X. Luu & David C. Jewitt (2002). "Kuiper Belt Objects: Relics from the Accretion Disk of the Sun" (PDF). Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40 (1): 63–101. Bibcode:2002ARA&A..40...63L. doi:10.1146/annurev.astro.40.060401.093818. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-08-09. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
  47. ^ Levison, H. F.; Morbidelli, A. (2003-11-27). "The formation of the Kuiper belt by the outward transport of bodies during Neptune's migration". Nature. 426 (6965): 419–421. Bibcode:2003Natur.426..419L. doi:10.1038/nature02120. PMID 14647375. S2CID 4395099.
  48. ^ "The 2009-02-04 nominal (non-librating) rotating frame for Makemake". Archived from the original on 2018-09-28. Retrieved 2009-04-06.
  49. ^ A. N. Heinze; D. deLahunta (2009). "The rotation period and light-curve amplitude of Kuiper belt dwarf planet 136472 Makemake (2005 FY9)". The Astronomical Journal. 138 (2): 428–438. Bibcode:2009AJ....138..428H. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/138/2/428.
  50. ^ Parker, Alex (2016-05-02). "A Moon for Makemake". www.planetary.org. Archived from the original on 2018-10-21. Retrieved 2016-05-02.
  51. ^ a b c J. Licandro; N. Pinilla-Alonso; M. Pedani; E. Oliva; et al. (2006). "The methane ice rich surface of large TNO 2005 FY9: a Pluto-twin in the trans-neptunian belt?". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 445 (3): L35–L38. Bibcode:2006A&A...445L..35L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200500219. S2CID 56343540.
  52. ^ M. E. Brown; E. L. Schaller; G. A. Blake (2015). "Irradiation products on the dwarf planet Makemake" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 149 (3): 105. Bibcode:2015AJ....149..105B. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/149/3/105. S2CID 39534359. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-04-12.
  53. ^ S.C. Tegler; W.M. Grundy; F. Vilas; W. Romanishin; et al. (June 2008). "Evidence of N2-ice on the surface of the icy dwarf Planet 136472 (2005 FY9)". Icarus. 195 (2): 844–850. arXiv:0801.3115. Bibcode:2008Icar..195..844T. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.12.015. S2CID 119113255.
  54. ^ Tobias C. Owen, Ted L. Roush, et al. (1993-08-06). "Surface Ices and the Atmospheric Composition of Pluto" (PDF). Science. 261 (5122): 745–748. Bibcode:1993Sci...261..745O. doi:10.1126/science.261.5122.745. PMID 17757212. S2CID 6039266. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-02-19.
  55. ^ Takács-Farkas, Anikó; Kiss, Csaba; Müller, Thomas; Mommert, Michael (September 2019). Makemake's thermal emission reconsidered (PDF). EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2019. Vol. 13. European Planetary Science Congress. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-08-03. Retrieved 2020-06-16.
  56. ^ Lorenzi, V.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Licandro, J. (2015-05-01). "Rotationally resolved spectroscopy of dwarf planet (136472) Makemake". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 577: A86. arXiv:1504.02350. Bibcode:2015A&A...577A..86L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201425575. ISSN 0004-6361. S2CID 119253105.
  57. ^ Perna, D.; Hromakina, T.; Merlin, F.; Ieva, S.; Fornasier, S.; Belskaya, I.; Epifani, E. Mazzotta (2017-04-21). "The very homogeneous surface of the dwarf planet Makemake" (PDF). Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 466 (3): 3594–3599. Bibcode:2017MNRAS.466.3594P. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw3272. ISSN 0035-8711. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-08-31. Retrieved 2019-07-01.
  58. ^ https://scitechdaily.com/astronomers-uncover-surprising-activity-on-the-dwarf-planets-eris-and-makemake/
  59. ^ "Dwarf Planet Makemake Lacks Atmosphere". ESO Press Release. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
  60. ^ E.L. Schaller; M.E. Brown (2007-04-10). "Volatile Loss and Retention on Kuiper Belt Objects" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 659 (1): L61–L64. Bibcode:2007ApJ...659L..61S. doi:10.1086/516709. S2CID 10782167. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-08-04. Retrieved 2020-04-12.
  61. ^ Keeter, Bill (2016-05-04). "Pluto's Interaction with the Solar Wind is Unique, Study Finds". NASA. Archived from the original on 2017-05-18. Retrieved 2017-05-03.
  62. ^ Beatty, Kelly (2016-03-25). "Pluto's Atmosphere Confounds Researchers". Sky & Telescope. Archived from the original on 2016-04-07. Retrieved 2017-05-03.
  63. ^ McGranaghan, R.; Sagan, B.; Dove, G.; Tullos, A.; Lyne, J. E.; Emery, J. P. (2011). "A Survey of Mission Opportunities to Trans-Neptunian Objects". Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. 64: 296–303. Bibcode:2011JBIS...64..296M.