The timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their natural satellites charts the progress of the discovery of new bodies over history. Each object is listed in chronological order of its discovery (multiple dates occur when the moments of imaging, observation, and publication differ), identified through its various designations (including temporary and permanent schemes), and the discoverer(s) listed.

Historically the naming of moons did not always match the times of their discovery. Traditionally, the discoverer enjoys the privilege of naming the new object; however, some neglected to do so (E. E. Barnard stated he would "defer any suggestions as to a name" [for Amalthea] "until a later paper"[1] but never got around to picking one from the numerous suggestions he received) or actively declined (S. B. Nicholson stated "Many have asked what the new satellites [Lysithea and Carme] are to be named. They will be known only by the numbers X and XI, written in Roman numerals, and usually prefixed by the letter J to identify them with Jupiter."[2]). The issue arose nearly as soon as planetary satellites were discovered: Galileo referred to the four main satellites of Jupiter using numbers while the names suggested by his rival Simon Marius gradually gained universal acceptance. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) eventually started officially approving names in the late 1970s. With the explosion of discoveries in the 21st century, new moons have once again started to be left unnamed even after their numbering, beginning with Jupiter LI and Jupiter LII in 2010.

Key info

In the following tables, planetary satellites are indicated in bold type (e.g. Moon) while planets and dwarf planets, which directly circle the Sun, are in italic type (e.g. Earth). The Sun itself is indicated in roman type. The tables are sorted by publication/announcement date. Dates are annotated with the following symbols:

In a few cases, the date is uncertain and is then marked "(?)".

* Note: Moons marked by an asterisk (*) had complicated discoveries. Some took years to be confirmed, and in several cases were actually lost and rediscovered. Others were found in Voyager photographs years after they were taken.

Color legend

The Sun, the planets, dwarf planets, and their natural satellites are marked in the following colors:

It is not known precisely how many objects in the Solar System are dwarf planets; the nine objects listed in the third column are those agreed on by most astronomers, corresponding to a threshold of about 900 km diameter. There may be more; here, all objects with estimated diameter over 700 km are included as dwarf planet candidates, listed in the fourth column. In particular, Salacia and Varda each have a rather large moon, and current estimates for their densities still leave open the possibility that they are dwarf planets.

Designations

If a satellite is named, its name is bolded; if it is unnamed, but has a permanent designation, then its permanent designation is bolded; and if it has neither, then its temporary designation is bolded.

Prehistorically discovered

Prehistory
Name Image Other designation Notes
Sun
Star In the geocentric model, developed in Ancient Greece, then standardized by Ptolemy in the 2nd century, the Earth was believed to be at the center of the cosmos. Seven planets were placed in orbit around it in an order of increasing distance from the Earth, as established by the Greek Stoics: the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. This list included two objects, the Sun and the Moon, which are now not generally considered planets.

In the 5th century BCE, the Greek philosophers Philolaus and Hicetas speculated separately that the Earth was a sphere revolving daily around some mystical "central fire" that regulated the universe. Anaxagoras proposed that the Sun is a star around 450 BCE. In the 3rd century BCE, Aristarchus of Samos extended this idea by proposing that the Earth and other planets moved around a definite central object, which he believed to be the Sun though this was not widely accepted until the 17th century and not proven until the 19th.[3]

Earth
3rd Planet Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the subject of historical misconception for centuries.[4][5] Earth was never formally 'discovered' because it was never an unrecognized entity by humans. However, its shared identity with other bodies as a "planet" is a historically recent discovery.

The Earth's position in the Solar System was correctly described in the heliocentric model proposed by Aristarchus of Samos.[6]

Moon
Earth I In the Copernican system, the Moon was considered to be no longer a planet but a natural satellite of the Earth, and was originally thought to be the only body in that system whose revolution was not centered on the Sun.
Mercury
1st Planet Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were identified by ancient Babylonian astronomers in the 2nd millennium BC.[7] They were correctly identified as orbiting the Sun by Aristarchus of Samos, and later in Nicolaus Copernicus' heliocentric system[8] (De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, 1543)
Venus
2nd Planet
Mars
4th Planet
Jupiter
5th Planet
Saturn
6th Planet

17th century

17th century
Date Name Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
1610s
o: 7 January 1610
p: 13 March 1610
Ganymede
Jupiter III Galileo[9][10] discovered the Galilean moons. These satellites were the first celestial objects that were confirmed to orbit an object other than the Sun or Earth. Galileo saw Io and Europa as a single point of light on 7 January 1610; they were seen as separate bodies the following night.[11]
Callisto
Jupiter IV
o: 8 January 1610
p: 13 March 1610
Io
Jupiter I
Europa
Jupiter II
1650s
o: 25 March 1655
p: 5 March 1656
Titan
Saturn VI
Saturn II (1673–1684), Saturn IV (1686–1789)
Huygens[12] first "published" his discovery as an anagram, sent out on 13 June 1655; later published in pamphlet form as De Saturni luna Observatio Nova and in full in Systema Saturnium[13] (July 1659).
1670s
o: 25 October 1671
p: 1673
Iapetus
Saturn VIII
Saturn III (1673–1684), Saturn V (1686–1789), Saturn VII (1789–1848)
Cassini[14]
o: 23 December 1672
p: 1673
Rhea
Saturn V
Saturn I (1673–1684), Saturn III (1686–1789)
1680s
o: 21 March 1684
p: 22 April 1686
Tethys
Saturn III
Saturn I (1686–1789)
Cassini[15]

Together with his previous two discoveries, Cassini named these satellites Sidera Lodoicea. In his work Kosmotheôros[16] (published posthumously in 1698), Christiaan Huygens relates "Jupiter you see has his four, and Saturn his five Moons about him, all plac’d in their Orbits."

Dione
Saturn IV
Saturn II (1686–1789)
Date Name Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

The numbering of Saturn's moons was adjusted with each new discovery until 1848, in order to continue reflecting their order from their parent planet.

18th century

18th century
Date Name Image Other/Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
1780s
o: March 13, 1781
p: April 26, 1781
Uranus
7th Planet Herschel first reported the discovery of Uranus on April 26, 1781, initially believing it to be a comet.[17]
o: January 11, 1787
p: February 15, 1787
Titania
Uranus III
Uranus I (1787–1797)
Herschel.[18][19] He later reported four more spurious satellites.[20]
Oberon
Uranus IV
Uranus II (1787–1797)
o: August 28, 1789[21]
p: November 12, 1789
Enceladus
Saturn II Herschel[22]
o: September 17, 1789
p: November 12, 1789
Mimas
Saturn I
Date Name Image Other/Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

The numbering of Titania and Oberon underwent some confusion, because in 1797, Herschel reported four more satellites of Uranus[23] that turned out not to exist. Before any more Uranian moons were discovered, William Lassell sometimes adopted Herschel's numbers where Titania and Oberon are respectively Uranus II and IV,[24] and sometimes called them respectively Uranus I and II.[25] After he discovered Ariel and Umbriel in 1851, Lassell numbered the four real Uranian satellites then known outward from their parent planet as I (Ariel), II (Umbriel), III (Titania), and IV (Oberon), and this finally stuck.[26]

19th century

19th century
Date Name Image Other/Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
1800s
o: January 1, 1801
p: January 24, 1801
Ceres
8th Planet (1801)
Asteroid (1851)
Dwarf planet (2006)
Giuseppe Piazzi. He first announced his discovery on January 24, 1801, in letters to fellow astronomers.[27] The first formal publication was the September 1801 issue of the Monatliche Correspondenz.[28]
1840s
o: September 23, 1846
p: November 13, 1846
Neptune
13th Planet (1846)[a]
8th Planet (1851)
Galle and Le Verrier[29][30]
o: October 10, 1846
p: November 13, 1846
Triton
Neptune I Lassell[31]
o: September 16, 1848
p: October 7, 1848
Hyperion
Saturn VII Bond, Bond,[32] Lassell[33]
1850s
o: October 24, 1851 Ariel
Uranus I Lassell[26]
Umbriel
Uranus II
1870s
o: August 12, 1877 Deimos
Mars II Hall[34][35][36]
o: August 18, 1877 Phobos
Mars I
1890s
o: September 9, 1892
p: October 4, 1892
Amalthea
Jupiter V Barnard[1][37]
i: August 16, 1898
o: March 17, 1899
Phoebe
Saturn IX Pickering[38][39]
Date Name Image Other/Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
  1. ^ At the time of Neptune's discovery, dwarf planet Ceres and asteroids Pallas, Juno, Vesta, and Astraea were counted as planets.

The discovery of Amalthea marks the first time the Roman numerals were not adjusted with the discovery of a new satellite; from then on they reflected order of discovery rather than distance from the parent planet.

20th century

1901–1950

Early 20th century
Date Name Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
1900s
i: December 3, 1904
p: January 6, 1905
Himalia
Jupiter VI Perrine[37][40][41]
i: January 2, 1905
p: February 27, 1905
Elara
Jupiter VII Perrine[37][41][42]
i: January 27, 1908
o: February 28, 1908
p: March 1–6, 1908
Pasiphae
Jupiter VIII Melotte[37][43][44]
1910s
i: July 21, 1914
p: September 17, 1914
Sinope
Jupiter IX Nicholson[37][45]
1930s
i: January 23, 1930
o: February 18, 1930
p: March 13, 1930
Pluto
9th Planet (1930)
Dwarf planet (2006)
Tombaugh[46]
i: July 6, 1938
p: August 1938
Lysithea
Jupiter X Nicholson[37][47]
i: July 30, 1938
p: August 1938
Carme
Jupiter XI
1940s
i: February 16, 1948
p: June 1949
Miranda
Uranus V Kuiper[37][48]
i: May 1, 1949
p: August 1949
Nereid
Neptune II Kuiper[37][49][50]
Date Name Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

1951–2000

Late 20th century
Date Name Temporary Designation Image Permanent Designation Discoverer(s) and notes
1950s
i: September 28, 1951
p: December 1951
Ananke
Jupiter XII Nicholson[51][52]
1960s
i: December 15, 1966
p: January 3, 1967
Janus* S/1966 S 2
Saturn X Dollfus[51][53][54][55][56]
(Dollfus may have seen either Janus or Epimetheus)
i: December 18, 1966
p: January 6, 1967
Epimetheus* S/1980 S 3
Saturn XI Walker[51][57]
1970s
i: September 11, 1974
p: September 20, 1974
Leda
Jupiter XIII Kowal[37][58]
i: September 30, 1975
p: October 3, 1975
Themisto* S/1975 J 1
Jupiter XVIII Kowal and Roemer[37][59]
(Discovered and then lost)
i: April 13, 1978
o: June 22, 1978
p: July 7, 1978
Charon S/1978 P 1
Pluto I Christy[60][61]
i: July 8, 1979
p: November 23, 1979
Adrastea S/1979 J 1
Jupiter XV Jewitt, Danielson, Voyager 2[54][62][63][64][65][66]
1980s
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: February 26, 1980
p: March 6, 1980
Epimetheus* S/1980 S 3
Saturn XI [51][56][67][68][69][70]
(Confirmed by Voyager 1)
i: March 1, 1980
p: March 6, 1980
Helene S/1980 S 6
Saturn XII Laques, Lecacheux[37][67][68][69][70]
i: April 8, 1980
p: April 10, 1980
Telesto S/1980 S 13
Saturn XIII Smith, Reitsema, Larson, Fountain, Voyager 1[51][70][71]
i: March 5, 1979
p: April 28, 1980
Thebe S/1979 J 2
Jupiter XIV Synnott, Voyager 1[51][63][64]
i: February 19, 1980
p: June 6, 1980
Janus* S/1980 S 1
Saturn X [54][56][68][69][70]
(Confirmed by Voyager 1)
i: March 13, 1980
p: July 31, 1980
Calypso S/1980 S 25
Saturn XIV Pascu, Seidelmann, Baum, Currie[51][69][70]
i:March 4, 1979
p: August 26, 1980
Metis S/1979 J 3
Jupiter XVI Synnott, Voyager 1[51][64]
o: October 1980
p: October 31, 1980
Prometheus S/1980 S 27
Saturn XVI Collins, Voyager 1[72]
Pandora S/1980 S 26
Saturn XVII Collins, Voyager 1[37][72]
o: October 1980
p: November 13, 1980
Atlas S/1980 S 28
Saturn XV Terrile, Voyager 1[51][73]
i: May 24, 1981
p: May 29, 1981
Larissa* S/1981 N 1
S/1989 N 2
Neptune VII Reitsema, Hubbard, Lebofsky, Tholen, Voyager 2[37][74][75]
i: December 30, 1985
p: January 9, 1986
Puck S/1985 U 1
Uranus XV Synnott, Voyager 2[37][76]
i: January 3, 1986
p: January 16, 1986
Juliet S/1986 U 2
Uranus XI Synnott, Voyager 2[37][77][78]
Portia S/1986 U 1
Uranus XII
i: January 9, 1986
p: January 16, 1986
Cressida S/1986 U 3
Uranus IX
i: January 13, 1986
p: January 16, 1986
Desdemona S/1986 U 6
Uranus X
Rosalind S/1986 U 4
Uranus XIII
Belinda S/1986 U 5
Uranus XIV
i: January 20, 1986
p: January 27, 1986
Cordelia S/1986 U 7
Uranus VI Terrile, Voyager 2[37][79]
Ophelia S/1986 U 8
Uranus VII
i: January 23, 1986
p: January 27, 1986
Bianca S/1986 U 9
Uranus VIII Smith, Voyager 2[37][79]
i: June 16, 1989
p: July 7, 1989
Proteus S/1989 N 1
Neptune VIII Synnott, Voyager 2[37][80]
i: July 28, 1989
p: August 2, 1989
Despina S/1989 N 3
Neptune V Synnott, Voyager 2[37][75]
Galatea S/1989 N 4
Neptune VI
i: September 18, 1989
p: September 29, 1989
Thalassa S/1989 N 5
Neptune IV Terrile, Voyager 2[37][81]
Naiad S/1989 N 6
Neptune III
1990s
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: August 22, 1981
p: July 16, 1990
Pan* S/1981 S 13
Saturn XVIII Showalter, Voyager 2[37][82]
i: August 23, 1981
p: April 14, 1995
Pallene*
(see below)
S/1981 S 14
Saturn XXXIII Gordon, Murray and Beurle[37][83][84]
i: September 6, 1997
p: October 31, 1997
Caliban S/1997 U 1
Uranus XVI Gladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars[37][85]
Sycorax S/1997 U 2
Uranus XVII Gladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars[85]
i: January 18, 1986
p: May 18, 1999
Perdita* S/1986 U 10
Uranus XXV Karkoschka, Voyager 2[37][86]
i: July 18, 1999
p: July 27, 1999
Setebos S/1999 U 1
Uranus XIX Kavelaars, Gladman, Holman, Petit, Scholl[37][87]
Stephano S/1999 U 2
Uranus XX Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl[37][87]
i: July 18, 1999
p: September 4, 1999
Prospero S/1999 U 3
Uranus XVIII Holman, Kavelaars, Gladman, Petit, Scholl[37][88]
2000s
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: October 6, 1999
p: July 20, 2000
Callirrhoe S/1999 J 1
Jupiter XVII Scotti, Spahr, McMillan, Larsen, Montani, Gleason, Gehrels[37][89][90]
i: August 7, 2000
p: October 25, 2000
Ymir S/2000 S 1
Saturn XIX Gladman[37][91][92]
Paaliaq S/2000 S 2
Saturn XX
i: September 23, 2000
p: October 25, 2000
Siarnaq S/2000 S 3
Saturn XXIX Gladman, Kavelaars[37][93][94]
Tarvos S/2000 S 4
Saturn XXI Kavelaars, Gladman[37][93][94]
i: August 7, 2000
p: November 18, 2000
Kiviuq S/2000 S 5
Saturn XXIV Gladman[37][94][95]
i: September 23, 2000
p: November 18, 2000
Ijiraq S/2000 S 6
Saturn XXII Kavelaars, Gladman[37][94][95]
i: November 21, 2000
p: November 25, 2000
Themisto* S/2000 J 1
Jupiter XVIII Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier (Rediscovered)[37][96][97]
i: September 23, 2000
p: December 7, 2000
Thrymr S/2000 S 7
Saturn XXX Gladman, Kavelaars[37][92][98]
Skathi S/2000 S 8
Saturn XXVII Kavelaars, Gladman[37][92][98]
Mundilfari S/2000 S 9
Saturn XXV Gladman, Kavelaars[37][92][98]
Erriapus S/2000 S 10
Saturn XXVIII Kavelaars, Gladman[37][94][99]
i: November 9, 2000
p: December 19, 2000
Albiorix S/2000 S 11
Saturn XXVI Holman, Spahr[37][100][101]
i: September 23, 2000
p: December 22, 2000
Suttungr S/2000 S 12
Saturn XXIII Gladman, Kavelaars[37][102][103]
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

21st century

2000s

2000s
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

i: November 23, 2000
p: January 5, 2001

Kalyke S/2000 J 2
Jupiter XXIII Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans[37][104][105][106]
Iocaste S/2000 J 3
Jupiter XXIV
Erinome S/2000 J 4
Jupiter XXV
Harpalyke S/2000 J 5
Jupiter XXII
Isonoe S/2000 J 6
Jupiter XXVI
Praxidike S/2000 J 7
Jupiter XXVII
i: November 25, 2000
p: January 5, 2001
Megaclite S/2000 J 8
Jupiter XIX Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans[37][104][106]
Taygete S/2000 J 9
Jupiter XX
i: November 26, 2000
p: January 5, 2001
Chaldene S/2000 J 10
Jupiter XXI
i: December 5, 2000
p: January 5, 2001
Dia S/2000 J 11
Jupiter LIII
i: May 22, 2001
p: July 1, 2001
Ixion (28978) 2001 KX76
Dwarf planet candidate? Elliot, Wasserman, Buie, Millis, Kern, Qu, Pate[107]
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: December 9, 2001
p: May 16, 2002
Hermippe S/2001 J 3
Jupiter XXX Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[37][108][109]
Eurydome S/2001 J 4
Jupiter XXXII
Sponde S/2001 J 5
Jupiter XXXVI
Kale S/2001 J 8
Jupiter XXXVII
i: December 10, 2001
p: May 16, 2002
Autonoe S/2001 J 1
Jupiter XXVIII
i: December 11, 2001
p: May 16, 2002
Thyone S/2001 J 2
Jupiter XXIX
Pasithee S/2001 J 6
Jupiter XXXVIII
Euanthe S/2001 J 7
Jupiter XXXIII
Orthosie S/2001 J 9
Jupiter XXXV
Euporie S/2001 J 10
Jupiter XXXIV
Aitne S/2001 J 11
Jupiter XXXI
i: January 10, 2002
p: July 20, 2002
(unnamed dwarf planet candidate) (55565) 2002 AW197
Dwarf planet candidate? Brown, Trujillo, Helin, Hicks, Lawrence, Pravdo[110]
i: August 13, 2001
p: September 30, 2002
Trinculo S/2001 U 1 Uranus XXI Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic[37][111][112]
i: June 4, 2002
o: June 5, 2002
p: October 7, 2002
Quaoar (50000) 2002 LM60
Dwarf planet Trujillo, Brown[113]
i: June 18, 2002
p: November 21, 2002
(unnamed dwarf planet candidate) (307261) 2002 MS4
Dwarf planet candidate? Trujillo, Brown[114]
i: October 31, 2002
p: December 18, 2002
Arche S/2002 J 1
Jupiter XLIII Sheppard, Meech, Hsieh, Tholen, Tonry[37][115][116]
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: July 23, 2002
p: January 13, 2003
Sao S/2002 N 2
Neptune XI Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic[37][117][118]
i: August 10, 2002
p: January 13, 2003
Halimede S/2002 N 1
Neptune IX
i: August 11, 2002
p: January 13, 2003
Laomedeia S/2002 N 3
Neptune XII
i: January 13, 2003
p: January 26, 2003
(unnamed dwarf planet candidate) (208996) 2003 AZ84
Dwarf planet candidate? Trujillo, Brown[119]
i: February 5, 2003
p: March 4, 2003
Eukelade S/2003 J 1
Jupiter XLVII Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh[37][120][121]
(unnamed moon of Jupiter) S/2003 J 2
Eupheme S/2003 J 3
Jupiter LX
(unnamed moon of Jupiter) S/2003 J 4
i: February 6, 2003
p: March 4, 2003
Eirene S/2003 J 5 Jupiter LVII
Helike S/2003 J 6
Jupiter XLV
i: February 8, 2003
p: March 4, 2003
Aoede S/2003 J 7 Jupiter XLI
i: February 8, 2003
p: March 6, 2003
Hegemone S/2003 J 8 Jupiter XXXIX Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández[37][122][123]
i: February 6, 2003
p: March 7, 2003
(unnamed moons of Jupiter) S/2003 J 9
Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández[37][124][125]
S/2003 J 10
Kallichore S/2003 J 11 Jupiter XLIV
i: February 8, 2003
p: March 7, 2003
(unnamed moon of Jupiter) S/2003 J 12
i: February 9, 2003
p: April 2, 2003
Cyllene S/2003 J 13 Jupiter XLVIII Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[37][126][127]
i: February 8, 2003
p: April 3, 2003
Kore S/2003 J 14
Jupiter XLIX Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[37][126][128]
i: February 6, 2003
p: April 3, 2003
Philophrosyne S/2003 J 15 Jupiter LVIII Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández[126][129]
(unnamed moon of Jupiter) S/2003 J 16
Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen[126][130]
i: February 8, 2003
p: April 3, 2003
Herse S/2003 J 17 Jupiter L Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen[37][126][131]
i: February 6, 2003
p: April 4, 2003
(unnamed moon of Jupiter) S/2003 J 18
Jupiter LV Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[37][126][132]
i: February 5, 2003
p: April 8, 2003
Narvi S/2003 S 1
Saturn XXXI Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[37][126][133]
i: February 6, 2003
p: April 12, 2003
(unnamed moon of Jupiter) S/2003 J 19 Jupiter LXI Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen[134][135]
i: February 9, 2003
p: April 14, 2003
Carpo S/2003 J 20
Jupiter XLVI Sheppard, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen, Jewitt, Kleyna[37][134][136]
i: February 6, 2003
p: May 29, 2003
Mneme S/2003 J 21
Jupiter XL Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen[37][137][138]
i: January 18, 1986
p: September 3, 2003
Perdita* S/1986 U 10
Uranus XXV Karkoschka (Recovered by the Hubble Space Telescope)[37][86][139]
i: August 29, 2003
p: September 3, 2003
Psamathe S/2003 N 1
Neptune X Jewitt, Kleyna, Sheppard, Holman, Kavelaars[37][140][141]
i: August 25, 2003
p: September 25, 2003
Mab S/2003 U 1
Uranus XXVI Showalter, Lissauer[142]
Cupid S/2003 U 2
Uranus XXVII
i: August 13, 2001
p: September 30, 2003
Ferdinand* S/2001 U 2
Uranus XXIV 2001: Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic;
2003: Sheppard, Jewitt[37][143][144]
i: August 14, 2002
p: September 30, 2003
Neso* S/2002 N 4
Neptune XIII Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic[37][143][145]
i: August 13, 2001
p: October 8, 2003
Francisco* S/2001 U 3 Uranus XXII Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic, Gladman[37][146]
i: August 29, 2003
p: October 9, 2003
Margaret S/2003 U 3
Uranus XXIII Sheppard, Jewitt, Holman, Kavelaars[37][147][148]
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: February 9, 2003
p: January 24, 2004
Thelxinoe* S/2003 J 22 Jupiter XLII Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen[37][149][150]
i: February 6, 2003
p: January 31, 2004
(unnamed moon of Jupiter) S/2003 J 23*
Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández[151][152]
i: February 17, 2004
p: February 22, 2004
Orcus (90482) 2004 DW
Dwarf planet Brown, Trujillo, Rabinowitz[153]
i: November 14, 2003
p: March 15, 2004
Sedna (90377) 2003 VB12
Dwarf planet Brown, Trujillo, Rabinowitz[154]
i: June 1, 2004
p: August 16, 2004
Methone S/2004 S 1
Saturn XXXII Cassini–Huygens[37][155][156][157]
Pallene* S/2004 S 2
=S/1981 S 14
Saturn XXXIII
i: October 21, 2004
o: October 24, 2004
p: November 8, 2004
Polydeuces S/2004 S 5
Saturn XXXIV Cassini–Huygens[37][158][159]
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: December 12, 2004
p: May 3, 2005
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2004 S 7 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden[37][160]
Fornjot S/2004 S 8
Saturn XLII
Farbauti S/2004 S 9 Saturn XL
Aegir S/2004 S 10 Saturn XXXVI
Bebhionn S/2004 S 11
Saturn XXXVII
(unnamed moons of Saturn) S/2004 S 12
S/2004 S 13
Hati S/2004 S 14
Saturn XLIII
Bergelmir S/2004 S 15
Saturn XXXVIII
i: December 13, 2004
p: May 3, 2005
Fenrir S/2004 S 16 Saturn XLI
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2004 S 17
Bestla S/2004 S 18
Saturn XXXIX
i: September 22, 2004
p: May 6, 2005
Salacia (120347) 2004 SB60
Dwarf planet candidate? Roe, Brown, Barkume[161]
i: May 1, 2005
p: May 6, 2005
Daphnis S/2005 S 1
Saturn XXXV Cassini–Huygens[162]
i: March 7, 2003
o:July 27, 2005
i: May 6, 2004
o: December 28, 2004
p: July 29, 2005
Haumea (136108) 2003 EL61
Dwarf planet (Ortiz, Aceituno Castro, Santos-Sanz)[37][163] or (Brown, Trujillo, Rabinowitz)[164] (see the Controversy over the discovery of Haumea)
i: October 21, 2003
o: January 5, 2005
p: July 29, 2005
Eris (136199) 2003 UB313
Dwarf planet Brown, Trujillo, Rabinowitz[37][164][165]
o: January 26, 2005
p: July 29, 2005
Hiʻiaka S/2005 (136108) 1
Haumea I Brown, Trujillo, Rabinowitz[37][166]
i: March 31, 2005
p: July 29, 2005
Makemake (136472) 2005 FY9
Dwarf planet Brown, Trujillo, Rabinowitz[164][167]
o: June 30, 2005
p: July 29, 2005
Namaka S/2005 (136108) 2
Haumea II Brown, Trujillo, Rabinowitz[168]
i: September 10, 2005
p: October 3, 2005
Dysnomia S/2005 (136199) 1
Eris I Brown, van Dam, Bouchez, Le Mignant, Campbell, Chin, Conrad, Hartman, Johansson, Lafon, Rabinowitz, Stomski, Summers, Trujillo, Wizinowich[169]
i: May 15, 2005
o: June 15, 2005
p: October 31, 2005
Nix S/2005 P 2
Pluto II Weaver, Stern, Mutchler, Steffl, Buie, Merline,
Spencer, Young, Young[170]
Hydra S/2005 P 1
Pluto III
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: June 21, 2003
p: January 7, 2006
Varda (174567) 2003 MW12
Dwarf planet candidate? Larsen[171]
i: December 12, 2004
o: March 6, 2006 (?)
p: June 26, 2006
Hyrrokkin S/2004 S 19
Saturn XLIV Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[37][172][173]
i: January 4, 2006
o: March 6, 2006 (?)
p: June 26, 2006
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2006 S 1 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[37][173][174]
Kari S/2006 S 2
Saturn XLV
i: January 5, 2006
o: March 6, 2006 (?)
p: June 26, 2006
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2006 S 3
Greip S/2006 S 4
Saturn LI
Loge S/2006 S 5
Saturn XLVI
Jarnsaxa S/2006 S 6 Saturn L
Surtur S/2006 S 7 Saturn XLVIII
Skoll S/2006 S 8
Saturn XLVII
i: July 21, 2006
p: September 19, 2006
Actaea S/2006 (120347) 1
Salacia I Noll, Levison, Stephens, Grundy[175]
i: November 13, 2005
p: February 22, 2007
Vanth S/2005 (90482) 1
Orcus I Brown, Suer[176]
i: December 2, 2005
p: February 22, 2007
(unnamed moon of 2003 AZ84) S/2005 (208996) 1
Brown, Suer[176]
i: February 14, 2006
p: February 22, 2007
Weywot S/2006 (50000) 1
Quaoar I Brown, Suer[176]
i: January 5, 2006
o: January 16, 2007 (?)
p: April 13, 2007
Tarqeq S/2007 S 1
Saturn LII Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[37][177][178]
i: January 18, 2007
o: ?
p: May 1, 2007
(unnamed moons of Saturn) S/2007 S 2 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[178][179]
S/2007 S 3
i: June 2004
o: May 30, 2007
p: July 18, 2007
Anthe S/2007 S 4
Saturn XLIX Cassini–Huygens[37][180]
i: July 17, 2007
p: January 7, 2009
Gonggong (225088) 2007 OR10
Dwarf planet Schwamb, Brown, Rabinowitz[181]
i: August 15, 2008
p: March 3, 2009
Aegaeon S/2008 S 1
Saturn LIII Cassini–Huygens[37][182]
i: July 26, 2009
o: ?
p: November 2, 2009
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2009 S 1
Cassini–Huygens[183]
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

2010s

2010s
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

i: September 7, 2010
p: June 1, 2011

(unnamed moons of Jupiter) S/2010 J 1
Jupiter LI Jacobson, Brozović, Gladman and Alexandersen[184]
S/2010 J 2
Jupiter LII Veillet[184]

i: June 28, 2011
p: July 20, 2011

Kerberos S/2011 (134340) 1
Pluto IV Showalter[185][186]
i: April 26, 2009
p: September 2011
Ilmarë S/2009 (174567) 1
Varda I Noll et al.[187]

i: September 27, 2011
p: January 29, 2012

(unnamed moons of Jupiter) S/2011 J 1 Jupiter LXXII Sheppard[188]
S/2011 J 2 Jupiter LVI

i: June 26, 2012
p: July 11, 2012

Styx S/2012 (134340) 1
Pluto V Showalter[189]

i: November 6, 2004
o: July 1, 2013
p: July 15, 2013

Hippocamp* S/2004 N 1
Neptune XIV Showalter et al.[190]
i: March 17, 2013
p: March 31, 2014
(unnamed dwarf planet candidate) (532037) 2013 FY27
Dwarf planet candidate? Sheppard, Trujillo[191]

i: April 27, 2015
p: April 25, 2016

(unnamed moon of Makemake) S/2015 (136472) 1
Parker et al.[192][193]
i: September 18, 2010
p: October 17, 2016
Xiangliu S/2010 (225088) 1
Gonggong I Marton, Kiss, Müller[194]
i: March 8, 2016
p: June 2, 2017
(unnamed moons of Jupiter) S/2016 J 1
Jupiter LIV Sheppard et al.[195][196][197]
i: March 23, 2017
p: June 5, 2017
S/2017 J 1
Jupiter LIX
i: March 9, 2016
p: July 17, 2018
Valetudo S/2016 J 2
Jupiter LXII
i: February 5, 2016
o: March 23, 2017
p: July 17, 2018
(unnamed moons of Jupiter) S/2017 J 2
Jupiter LXIII
i: February 5, 2016
o: March 23, 2017
p: July 17, 2018
S/2017 J 3
Jupiter LXIV
i: March 23, 2017
p: July 17, 2018
Pandia S/2017 J 4
Jupiter LXV
i: March 23, 2017
p: July 17, 2018
(unnamed moons of Jupiter) S/2017 J 5 Jupiter LXVI
i: February 24, 2017
o: March 23, 2017
p: July 17, 2018
S/2017 J 6 Jupiter LXVII
i: February 24, 2017
o: March 23, 2017
p: July 17, 2018
S/2017 J 7 Jupiter LXVIII
i: March 23, 2017
p: July 17, 2018
S/2017 J 8
Jupiter LXIX
i: February 24, 2017
o: March 23, 2017
p: July 17, 2018
S/2017 J 9 Jupiter LXX
i: March 25, 2017
o: May 11, 2018
p: July 17, 2018
Ersa S/2018 J 1
Jupiter LXXI
i: January 15, 2018
p: August 10, 2018
(unnamed moon of 2013 FY27) S/2018 (532037) 1
Sheppard[198]
i: December 12, 2004
p: October 7, 2019
Gridr S/2004 S 20 Saturn LIV Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[199]
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2004 S 21
Angrboda S/2004 S 22 Saturn LV
Skrymir S/2004 S 23 Saturn LVI
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2004 S 24
Gerd S/2004 S 25 Saturn LVII
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2004 S 26 Saturn LVIII
Eggther S/2004 S 27 Saturn LIX
(unnamed moons of Saturn) S/2004 S 28
S/2004 S 29 Saturn LX
Beli S/2004 S 30 Saturn LXI
i: December 12, 2004
p: October 8, 2019
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2004 S 31
Gunnlod S/2004 S 32 Saturn LXII
Thiazzi S/2004 S 33 Saturn LXIII
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2004 S 34 Saturn LXIV
Alvaldi S/2004 S 35 Saturn LXV
(unnamed moons of Saturn) S/2004 S 36
S/2004 S 37
Geirrod S/2004 S 38 Saturn LXVI
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2004 S 39
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

2020s

2020s
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: February 5, 2003
p: November 15, 2021
(unnamed moon of Jupiter) S/2003 J 24* Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Gladman, Veillet[200]
i: July 1, 2019
p: November 16, 2021
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2019 S 1
Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[201]
i: September 27, 2011
p: December 20, 2022
(unnamed moons of Jupiter) S/2011 J 3 Sheppard[202][203][204][205][206]
i: May 12, 2018
p: December 20, 2022
S/2018 J 2
i: March 9, 2016
p: January 5, 2023
S/2016 J 3
i: August 12, 2021
p: January 5, 2023
S/2021 J 1
i: May 12, 2018
p: January 19, 2023
S/2018 J 3
i: August 12, 2021
p: January 19, 2023
S/2021 J 2
S/2021 J 3
i: August 14, 2021
p: January 19, 2023
S/2021 J 4
i: September 5, 2021
p: January 19, 2023
S/2021 J 5 Sheppard, Tholen, Trujillo[207]
i: May 11, 2018
p: January 20, 2023
S/2018 J 4 Sheppard[208]
i: September 5, 2021
p: January 20, 2023
S/2021 J 6 Sheppard, Tholen, Trujillo[209]
i: March 9, 2016
p: January 24, 2023
S/2016 J 4 Sheppard[210][211][212][213]
i: August 30, 2022
p: February 22, 2023
S/2022 J 1
i: October 15, 2022
p: February 22, 2023
S/2022 J 2
i: August 30, 2022
p: February 22, 2023
S/2022 J 3
i: June 24, 2020
p: May 3, 2023
(unnamed moons of Saturn) S/2020 S 1 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[214][215][216][217][218]
i: February 1, 2006
p: May 3, 2023
S/2006 S 9
i: January 18, 2007
p: May 3, 2023
S/2007 S 5
i: December 12, 2004
p: May 3, 2023
S/2004 S 40 Jewitt, Sheppard, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[219]
i: July 3, 2019
p: May 3, 2023
S/2019 S 2 Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[220]
S/2019 S 3 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[221]
i: June 27, 2020
p: May 3, 2023
S/2020 S 2 Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[222][223]
i: June 24, 2020
p: May 5, 2023
S/2020 S 3
i: July 3, 2019
p: May 5, 2023
S/2019 S 4 Ashton, Gladman[224]
i: December 12, 2004
p: May 6, 2023
S/2004 S 41 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[225]
i: June 24, 2020
p: May 6, 2023
S/2020 S 4 Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[226][227]
S/2020 S 5
i: January 16, 2007
p: May 6, 2023
S/2007 S 6 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[228][229][230]
i: December 12, 2004
p: May 6, 2023
S/2004 S 42
i: January 5, 2006
p: May 6, 2023
S/2006 S 10
i: July 3, 2019
p: May 6, 2023
S/2019 S 5 Ashton, Gladman[231]
i: December 12, 2004
p: May 7, 2023
S/2004 S 43 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[232]
S/2004 S 44 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman[233]
i: December 13, 2004
p: May 7, 2023
S/2004 S 45 Jewitt, Sheppard, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[234]
i: January 5, 2006
p: May 7, 2023
S/2006 S 11 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[235][236]
S/2006 S 12
i: July 3, 2019
p: May 8, 2023
S/2019 S 6 Ashton, Gladman[237]
i: January 6, 2006
p: May 8, 2023
S/2006 S 13 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[238]
i: July 1, 2019
p: May 8, 2023
S/2019 S 7 Ashton, Gladman[239]
i: July 3, 2019
p: May 8, 2023
S/2019 S 8 Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[240]
i: July 1, 2019
p: May 8, 2023
S/2019 S 9 Sheppard, Jewitt, Ashton, Gladman[241]
i: December 12, 2004
p: May 8, 2023
S/2004 S 46 Sheppard, Jewitt, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[242]
i: July 1, 2019
p: May 8, 2023
S/2019 S 10 Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[243]
i: December 12, 2004
p: May 8, 2023
S/2004 S 47 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[244]
i: July 1, 2019
p: May 8, 2023
S/2019 S 11 Sheppard, Jewitt, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[245]
i: January 5, 2006
p: May 8, 2023
S/2006 S 14 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[246]
i: July 3, 2019
p: May 9, 2023
S/2019 S 12 Ashton, Gladman[247]
i: June 27, 2020
p: May 9, 2023
S/2020 S 6 Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[248][249]
i: July 3, 2019
p: May 9, 2023
S/2019 S 13
i: January 5, 2005
p: May 10, 2023
S/2005 S 4 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[250]
i: January 16, 2007
p: May 10, 2023
S/2007 S 7 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[251]
i: March 21, 2007
p: May 10, 2023
S/2007 S 8 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[252]
i: June 24, 2020
p: May 10, 2023
S/2020 S 7 Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[253]
i: July 1, 2019
p: May 10, 2023
S/2019 S 14 Ashton, Gladman[254]
i: July 1, 2019
p: May 10, 2023
S/2019 S 15 Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[255]
i: March 9, 2005
p: May 10, 2023
S/2005 S 5 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[256]
i: January 5, 2006
p: May 15, 2023
S/2006 S 15 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman[257]
i: February 1, 2006
p: May 15, 2023
S/2006 S 16 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[258]
i: January 5, 2006
p: May 15, 2023
S/2006 S 17 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman[259]
i: December 12, 2004
p: May 15, 2023
S/2004 S 48 Jewitt, Sheppard, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[260]
i: June 27, 2020
p: May 15, 2023
S/2020 S 8 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[261]
i: December 13, 2004
p: May 15, 2023
S/2004 S 49 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[262]
i: December 12, 2004
p: May 15, 2023
S/2004 S 50 Sheppard, Jewitt, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[263]
i: January 5, 2006
p: May 15, 2023
S/2006 S 18 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[264]
i: July 3, 2019
p: May 15, 2023
S/2019 S 16 Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[265]
i: July 1, 2019
p: May 15, 2023
S/2019 S 17 Sheppard, Jewitt, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[266]
i: July 3, 2019
p: May 15, 2023
S/2019 S 18 Sheppard, Jewitt, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[267]
i: July 3, 2019
p: May 15, 2023
S/2019 S 19 Ashton, Gladman[268]
i: July 1, 2019
p: May 15, 2023
S/2019 S 20 Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[269]
i: January 5, 2006
p: May 15, 2023
S/2006 S 19 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[270][271]
i: December 12, 2004
p: May 15, 2023
S/2004 S 51
i: June 27, 2020
p: May 15, 2023
S/2020 S 9 Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[272]
i: December 12, 2004
p: May 15, 2023
S/2004 S 52 Jewitt, Sheppard, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[273]
i: March 21, 2007
p: May 16, 2023
S/2007 S 9 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman[274]
i: December 12, 2004
p: May 16, 2023
S/2004 S 53 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[275]
i: June 27, 2020
p: May 16, 2023
S/2020 S 10 Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[276]
i: July 3, 2019
p: May 16, 2023
S/2019 S 21 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen[277][278]
i: January 5, 2006
p: May 23, 2023
S/2006 S 20
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

See also

References

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  2. ^ Nicholson, Seth Barnes (April 1939). "The Satellites of Jupiter". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 51 (300): 85–94. Bibcode:1939PASP...51...85N. doi:10.1086/125010.
  3. ^ Louis Strous (2020). "Who discovered that the Sun was a star?". Stanford Solar Center. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  4. ^ Amy Ackerberg-Hastings (2015). "Aristarchus of Samos". Archived from the original on May 7, 2018. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  5. ^ Lindow, John (2002). Norse mythology: a guide to the Gods, heroes, rituals, and beliefs. Oxford University Press. p. 253. The world was a flat disk, with the Earth in the center and the sea all around. Thus the serpent is about as far away from the center, where men and gods lived
  6. ^ Heath, Thomas Little (1913). Aristarchus of Samos, the Ancient Copernicus. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. iii.
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  129. ^ Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 15, MPEC 2003-G17 (April 3, 2003)
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