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This article gives an overview of Liberalism (Korean자유주의; Hanja自由主義; RRJayujuui) in South Korea. It is limited to liberal parties with substantial support, mainly proven by having had a representation in parliament. The current ruling Democratic Party of Korea is a "centrist-liberal" party and is sometimes considered a centre-left party.[1][2]

Introduction

The word "liberal" in South Korea is often used in its traditional sense.[note 1][5] In South Korea, conservatives also call themselves "liberal" (Korean자유 or 자유주의; RRJayu) and "liberal democracy" (Korean자유민주주의; Hanja自由民主主義; RRJayuminjujuui) in a similar sense to economic liberalism and anti-communism.[note 2][6][7] "Liberals" in the general sense often refer to themselves as "Democrats" or "Democratic Camps"(Korean민주진영).[8] In South Korea, those close to "liberal" in the American sense tend to refer to themselves as "rightist social democratic" or "progressive" instead. (For example, the Progressive Party (1956) defined themselves as "social democrats" rather than "liberals" because the term "liberal" at the time meant right-wing anti-communists.)[note 3] South Korea's "liberal" (Mainly Minjudangkye, mostly DPK and PP) is a political force that distinguishes itself from "progressive" (mostly JP and MP).[17] However, the JP belongs to the "liberal" in the international context.[18][19][20]

In addition, in South Korea, the terms "liberal," "liberty," "libertarian," and "freedom" all tend to be translated into Jayu (Korean자유; Hanja自由). For example, in South Korea, both Canada's "Liberal Party", Netherland's "Party for Freedom" and the United States' "Liberarian Party" are read as Jayudang (Korean자유당; Hanja自由黨) in Korean. Also, conservative media in South Korea regard the American tradition of right-libertarianism as progressive because it is culturally liberal.[21][22][23][24]

There has been a tradition of liberal parties since 1955, often organized around persons. Presently the Democratic Party of Korea and the People Party is the main successor of the liberal parties' tradition. South Korean liberals place their identity on the Korean independence movement.

South Korean major liberals mainly criticize mainstream conservatives, clear their heritage during military dictatorship, insist on political reform, supports the foreign policy of reconciliation with North Korea, and eventual reunification of the two countries. They are distinguished from progressives and cultural liberals. Therefore, South Korean some liberals tend to be socially conservative in LGBT rights, Disability rights, abortion and minority rights issues. (The socially conservative tendency of South Korean liberals is not traditional conservatism based on Confucianism, but is more influenced by Christianity, which is part of Western culture.)[25] They also tend to distance themselves from the (Including social democracy) "socialism" or fundamental "left-wing".

History

During the colonial period, Marxist historian Paek Nam-un evaluated Silhak as "pioneer of early modern period liberalism," while Ahn Jae-hong, a liberal nationalist, evaluated Silhak and Silhak scholar Jeong Yak-yong as "the origin of late modern period liberalism by presenting elimination of (feudal) class and support for equality". Silhak criticized the existing Confucian conservatism and Sadaejuui, aiming for political reform and pragmatism, and also argued for the superiority of Western science and technology. Some Silhak scholar also believed in Christianity.[26]

Korea's first classical liberal and Enlightenmentists party was the Gaehwa Party, which appeared in 1874. They aimed for radical political and social reform, cut off unequal relations with the powerful Qing Dynasty and tried to create a completely independent Joseon Dynasty, and led by Seo Jae-pil in 1896 was a practical successor to the Gaehwa Party. Influenced by Japanese liberalism, they showed pro-Japanese tendencies, but at the same time insisted on independent and independent Korea. In the 1900s, classical liberals and Enlightenmentists in Korea were largely divided into two groups. Some became Chinilpa who cooperated with Japan, and others who devoted themselves to the Korean independence movement.[6][27]

During the colonial era, Korean liberalism is closely related to the Korean independence movement. South Korean historians say that the March 1st Movement, which took place in 1919, affected democracy and liberalism in South Korea as a movement involving many Koreans regardless of gender, religion, or occupation.[28] The Republic of Korean Provisional Government, established thanks to the value of the March 1st Movement, has established a modern national system in name and reality by introducing the separation of powers of government, parliament, and judiciary based on freedom and equality, and common elections including women. (However, since it was located in Shanghai, China, it was more of an korean independence movement organization than a korean government.)[29]

After the end of Japanese colonial rule, with the inauguration of the Republic of Korea government, the word "liberal" has been used in South Korea for a while in a similar sense to anti-communism and anti-socialism. That's why not only ideological liberals but also hard-line conservatives and far-right anti-communists called themselves "liberal." A case in point was the "Liberal Party", a South Korean far-right national-conservative party influenced by Shōwa Statism, German and Italian fascism.[30] In particular, Syngman Rhee, the first president of the Liberal Party, committed authoritarian rule and election fraud based on Ilminism, an anti-liberal individual worship ideology from 1948 to 1960, and liberals and students who opposed it caused April Revolution. This was the first successful liberal revolution in South Korea.[31]

Due to the April Revolution (1960), Syngman Rhee stepped down from his presidency, the first liberal democratic government in South Korea was established, and the presidential system was converted to a parliamentary cabinet system. However, South Korean liberal democracy collapses in less than a year in a 1961 military coup caused by Major Park Chung-hee. Since then, South Korea has suffered from more than 20 years of military dictatorship. Until South Korea was fully democratized in 1988, there have been several democratization movements, including Bu-Ma Democratic Protests and Gwangju Uprising.

South Korea was democratized in 1987, but it was in 1998 that liberals changed their regime. Since the Kim Dae-jung administration in 1998, South Korean liberals are actively supporting the Sunshine Policy, to promote peace and reconciliation through economic aid and co-operation, or “South-North economic co-operation” (남북경협).[32]

Liberal parties

The political party that once were ruling party are in bold.

Minjudangkye tradition

In South Korea, South Korean's unique liberal and korean nationalist parties are often referred to as Minjudangkye parties (Korean민주당계 정당; Hanja民主黨系政黨; lit. Democratic-line political parties). In South Korea, usually "liberal" political parties mean "Minjudangkye" parties.[17][33][34]

Mainstream parties

Minor parties

Non-Minjudangkye

In South Korea, these political parties are not often referred to as general "liberal" in Korean language, but in an international context, they are clearly referred to as "liberal" political parties.

Liberal media in South Korea

Liberal presidents in South Korea

Major liberal parties election results of South Korea

Presidential elections

Election Candidate Total votes Share of votes Outcome Party Name
1952 Yi Si-yeong 764,715 10.9% Defeated Red XN Democratic National Party
1956 Shin Ik-hee 0 0.0% died before election Democratic Party (1955)
March 1960 Chough Pyung-ok 0 (electoral vote) 0.0% died before election Democratic Party (1955)
August 1960 Yun Bo-seon 208 (electoral vote) 82.2% Elected Green tickY Democratic Party (1955)
1963 Yun Bo-seon 4,546,614 45.1% Defeated Red XN Civil Rule Party
1967 Yun Bo-seon 4,526,541 40.9% Defeated Red XN New Democratic Party
1971 Kim Dae-jung 5,395,900 45.3% Defeated Red XN New Democratic Party
1981 Yu Chi-song 1,778,007 (College election)
404 (electoral vote)
11.7%
7.7%
Defeated Red XN Democratic Korea Party
1987 Kim Dae-jung 6,113,375 27.0% Defeated Red XN Party for Peace and Democracy
1992 Kim Dae-jung 8,041,284 33.8% Defeated Red XN Democratic Party (1991)
1997 Kim Dae-jung 10,326,275 40.3% Elected Green tickY National Congress for New Politics
2002 Roh Moo-hyun 12,014,277 48.9% Elected Green tickY Millennium Democratic Party
2007 Chung Dong-young 6,174,681 26.1% Defeated Red XN United New Democratic Party
2012 Moon Jae-in 14,692,632 48.0% Defeated Red XN Democratic United Party
2017 Moon Jae-in 13,423,800 41.1% Elected Green tickY Democratic Party of Korea
2022 Lee Jae-myung Democratic Party of Korea

Legislative elections

Election Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Status Election leader Party Name
1948
29 / 200
916,322 13.5% new 29 seats; Minority in opposition Kim Seong-su Korea Democratic Party
1950
24 / 210
683,910 9.8% new 24 seats; Minority in opposition Shin Ik-hee Democratic National Party
1954
15 / 203
593,499 7.9% Decrease9 seats; Minority in opposition Shin Ik-hee Democratic National Party
1958
79 / 233
2,914,049 34.0% new 79 seats; Minority in opposition Chough Pyung-ok Democratic Party (1955)
1960
175 / 233
3,786,401 41.7% Increase96 seats; Majority in government Chough Pyung-ok Democratic Party (1955)
1963
41 / 175
1,870,976 20.1% new 41 seats; Minority in opposition Yun Bo-seon Civil Rule Party
14 / 175
1,264,285 13.6% new 14 seats; Minority in opposition Park Soon-cheon Democratic Party (1963)
1967
45 / 175
3,554,224 32.7% new 45 seats; Minority in opposition Yu Jin-o New Democratic Party
1971
89 / 204
4,969,050 44.4% Increase44 seats; Minority in opposition Kim Hong-il New Democratic Party
1973
52 / 219
3,577,300 32.5% Decrease37 seats; Minority in opposition Yu Chin-san New Democratic Party
2 / 219
3,577,300 10.4% new seats; Minority in opposition Yang Il-dong Democratic Unification Party
1978
61 / 231
4,861,204 32.8% Increase9 seats; Minority in opposition Yi Cheol-seung New Democratic Party
3 / 231
1,095,057 7.4% new1 seats; Minority in opposition Yang Il-dong Democratic Unification Party
1981
81 / 276
3,495,829 21.6% new 81 seats; Minority in opposition Yu Chi-song Democratic Korea Party
2 / 276
1,088,847 6.7% new 2 seats; Minority in opposition Civil Rights Party
1985
67 / 276
5,843,827 29.3% new 67 seats; Minority in opposition Lee Min-woo New Korea and Democratic Party
35 / 276
3,930,966 19.7% Decrease46 seats; Minority in opposition Yu Chi-song Democratic Korea Party
1 / 276
3,930,966 19.7% new 1 seats; Minority in opposition Gap-jong Yu New Democratic Party
1988
59 / 299
4,680,175 23.8% new 59 seats; in Coalition (PPD-DRP-NDRP) in opposition Kim Myeong-yun Reunification Democratic Party
70 / 276
3,783,279 19.3% new 70 seats; in Coalition (PPD-DRP-NDRP) in opposition Park Yeong-suk Peace Democratic Party
1992
97 / 299
6,004,577 29.2% new 97 seats; Minority in opposition Kim Dae-jung Democratic Party (1991)
1996
79 / 299
4,971,961 25.3% new 79 seats; in Coalition (NCNP-ULD-Democrats) in opposition (1996-1998) Kim Dae-jung National Congress for New Politics
in government (1998-2000)
15 / 276
2,207,695 11.2% new 15 seats; Minority in opposition Chang Eul-byung United Democratic Party
2000
115 / 299
6,780,625 35.9% new 115 seats; in Coalition (MDP-ULD-DPP) in government Kim Dae-jung Millennium Democratic Party
2004
152 / 299
8,145,824 38.3% new 152 seats; Majority in government Chung Dong-young Uri Party
9 / 299
1,510,178 7.1% Decrease53 seats; Minority in government Choug Soon-hyung Millennium Democratic Party
2008
81 / 299
4,313,111 25.1% new 81 seats; Minority in opposition Son Hak-gyu United Democratic Party
3 / 299
651,993 3.8% new 3 seats; Minority in opposition Moon Kook-hyun Creative Korea Party
2012
127 / 300
7,777,123 36.5% new 127 seats; Minority in opposition Han Myeong-sook Democratic United Party
2016
123 / 300
6,069,744 25.5% new 123 seats; Plurality in opposition (2016-2017) Kim Chong-in Democratic Party
in government (2017-2020)
38 / 300
6,355,572 26.7% new 38 seats; Minority in opposition Ahn Cheol-soo People's Party
6 / 300
1,719,891 (Party-list PR) 7.23% (Party-list PR) new 6 seats; Minority in opposition Sim Sang-jung Justice Party
2020
180 / 300
14,345,425 (Constituency)
9,307,112 (Party-list PR)
49.9% (Constituency)
33.4% (Party-list PR)
Increase52 seats; Majority in government Lee Hae-chan Democratic Party (Constituency)
Platform Party (Party-list PR)
6 / 300
2,697,956 (Party-list PR) 9.7% (Party-list PR) new 6 seats; Minority in opposition Sim Sang-jung Justice Party
3 / 300
1,896,719 (Party-list PR) 6.8% (Party-list PR) new 3 seats; Minority in opposition Ahn Cheol-soo People Party
3 / 300
1,512,763 (Party-list PR) 5.4% (Party-list PR) new 3 seats; Minority in opposition Lee Keun-shik Open Democratic Party

Local elections

Election Metropolitan mayor/Governor Provincial legislature Municipal mayor Municipal legislature Party Name
1995
4 / 15
353 / 875
84 / 230
Democratic Party (1991)
1998
6 / 16
271 / 616
84 / 232
National Congress for New Politics
0 / 16
0 / 616
1 / 232
New People Party
2002
4 / 16
33 / 682
16 / 227
Millennium Democratic Party
2006
1 / 16
52 / 733
19 / 230
630 / 2,888
Uri Party
2 / 16
80 / 733
20 / 230
276 / 2,888
Democratic Party (2005)
2010
8 / 16
360 / 761
92 / 228
1,025 / 2,888
Democratic Party (2008)
2014
9 / 17
349 / 789
80 / 226
1,157 / 2,898
New Politics Alliance for Democracy
2018
14 / 17
647 / 824
151 / 226
1,638 / 2,927
Democratic Party of Korea

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In South Korea, the term "liberal" (자유 or 자유주의) used in the media and the term "liberal" used by politicians and the public are very different in context. "Liberal" in South Korean media usually means "liberal" in the sense of the United States or Europe, but "liberal" in South Korean politicians and the public usually means a form of politics close to the right, such as "economic liberal" or "anti-communist". (Of course, this is generally the case, and it does not mean that South Korean politicians or the public do not use "liberal" word in the American or European sense.)[3][4]
  2. ^ Conservative parties in South Korea often put "liberal" (자유) in their party names. (Example: Liberal Party, Democratic Liberal Party, United Liberal Democrats, Liberty Korea Party, etc.)
  3. ^ In South Korea, when translating "liberal" in the United States into Korean language, it tends to be translated as "progressive"(Korean진보 or 진보주의) rather than "liberal"(Korean자유 or 자유주의). This is because "liberal" in South Korea has a different meaning than "liberal" in the United States.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]
  4. ^ Since 2012, American-style left-liberals (social liberals and some social democrats) within the UPP have fled in large quantities, and far-left (anti-Americanists or left-wing nationalists)[37][38] have since become the main players.[39]
  5. ^ Dawn of Liberty Party is a far-right party aimed at 'alt-right', but it is often described as a "liberal" or "right-liberal" party in the South Korean media because it rejects Confucian conservatism and advocates Western-style classical liberalism.[42]

References

  1. ^ "Democratic Party of Korea". Britannica. Democratic Party of Korea (DP), Korean Daeburo Minjudang, centrist-liberal political party in South Korea.
  2. ^ Andrew Walter (31 October 2019). "Political Populism: Eroding Asia's Complex Interdependence?" (PDF). Nanyang Technological University. S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies. The South Korean President Moon Jae-in’s centrist-liberal Democratic Party has also reflected and tactically deployed the considerable popular nationalist sentiment in South Korean society as he vowed in early August that in the escalating bilateral trade dispute the country would “never again lose to Japan”.
  3. ^ "윤석열이 22번 언급한 그 단어... 자유주의의 역습" [The word that Yoon Seok Yeol mentioned 22 times... The counterattack of liberalism.]. OhmyNews (in Korean). 8 July 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2021. ... 윤희숙 국민의힘 의원은 민주당 의원들이 발의한 사회적경제기본법을 자유주의의 적이라고 규정했고 ... [... Yoon Hee-sook, a member of the People Power Party National Assembly member, defined the Framework Act on Social Economy proposed by Democratic Party of Korea as an enemy of liberalism ...]
  4. ^ "김종인 "국민 생존 위협 느끼는데 무슨 자유주의 신봉인가"" [Kim Jongin said, "People feel threatened by survival. Why are you a liberal believer?"]. The Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). 6 December 2021. Retrieved 9 December 2021. ... 이어 ‘윤 후보가 자유주의 경제학에 심취했다는 얘기가 있다’는 진행자의 질문에는 “그런 얘기는 좀 나이브한 생각”이라며 “아무리 자유주의에 심취했다 하더라도 지금 상황이 자유주의 경제로는 해결할 수 없는 상황이다. 국민을 보호해야할 의무가 있는 사람이 신봉하는 자유주의땜에 놔두겠다? 그렇게 무책임한 얘기를 할수 있나”라고 말했다. ... [...When asked by the host, "There is a story that candidate Yoon is immersed in liberal economics", Kim Jong-in said, "No matter how much he is absorbed in liberalism, the current situation cannot be solved by a liberal economy." You will leave it because of liberalism believed by someone who is obligated to protect the people? "How can you say such irresponsible things?" ...]
  5. ^ "코로나 이후의 자유주의 / 전범선" [Liberalism after COVID-19 / Chun Beom-sun]. The Hankyoreh (in Korean). 25 April 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2021. ... 코로나는 각국의 위기관리 능력에 대한 시험이다. 성적표는 분명하다. 서양은 실패했고 동양은 선방했다. 미국이 꼴등이고 한국은 우등생이다. 어찌 된 걸까. ... 그런데 서양이야말로 민주주의의 원조 아닌가. 그들이 패배한 원인은 무엇일까. 자유주의다. 신자유주의 경제 체제의 모순도 있지만, 그보다 자유주의적 정치 문화의 영향이 크다. 영국 총리 보리스 존슨이 집단면역을 들먹이던 때부터 알아봤다. ... 트럼프는 더하다. 민주당 주지사들이 펼치는 봉쇄 정책을 비꼬며 지지자들에게 “미시간을 해방하라! 미네소타를 해방하라! 버지니아를 해방하라!” 선동했다. ... 백년 전 대공황 때도 자유주의의 위기가 도래했다. ... 민주주의와 자유주의의 모순을 명심하자. 전자는 국가가 국민의 말을 듣는 것이고 후자는 국민이 국가의 말을 안 듣는 것이다. 둘은 엄연히 다르고 충돌한다. 자유민주주의란 둘의 균형을 잡는 과정이다. ... 대한민국은 이제 명실공히 민주주의 모범국이다. 하지만 진정한 자유주의적 문화를 가져본 적은 없다고 단언한다. 정부의 선진적인 방역정책에 협조하되, 코로나 이후 되찾을 자유, 쟁취할 자유를 끝없이 갈망하자. [... Corona is a test of each country's crisis management capabilities. The report card is obvious. The West failed and the East defended well. The United States is last and Korea is an honor student. What happened? ... But isn't the West the origin of democracy? What is the cause of their defeat? It is liberalism. There are also contradictions in the neoliberal economic system, but the influence of liberal political culture is greater than that. I've been looking into British Prime Minister Boris Johnson since he mentioned collective immunity. ... Trump is more. sarcastically speaking of the containment policies implemented by Democratic governors, he told supporters, "Liberate Michigan! Liberate Minnesota! Liberate Virginia!" agitated ... Even during the Great Depression a hundred years ago, it was a crisis caused by liberalism. ... Let's keep in mind the contradictions between democracy and liberalism. The former is for the state to listen to the people, and the latter is for the people to not listen to the state. The two are distinctly different and collide. Liberal democracy is the process of balancing the two. ... The Republic of Korea is now a model country for democracy in name and reality. But I affirm that we have never had a true liberal culture. Let's cooperate with the government's advanced quarantine policies, but endlessly crave the freedom (liberal) to regain after COVID-19 and the freedom (liberal) to win. ...]
  6. ^ a b "신자유주의, 구한말 개화파의 재림". The Hankyoreh. 4 March 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  7. ^ Lee, Hyunchool (2018). "Silver Generation's Counter-Movement in the Information Age: Korea's Pro-Park Rallies". Korea Observer (in Korean). 49 (3): 465–491. doi:10.29152/KOIKS.2018.49.3.465. ISSN 0023-3919. S2CID 159208168.
  8. ^ "이재명 "나 안 찍겠다고 민주 진영 탈퇴할 사람 얼마나 있겠나"". Newsis. 10 September 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  9. ^ ""오바마, 질서 강조하는 진보주의에 기반해 견고"<타임>" ["Obama, progressivism that emphasizes order, it's solid." <Time>]. Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). 16 November 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2021. 버락 오바마 미국 대통령 당선자의 탄생을 낳은 정치적 연합은 과거 한 시대를 풍미했던 루즈벨트나 레이건 대통령을 탄생시킨 정치적 연합보다 더 견고하며 그 이유는 오바마의 지지기반이 진보주의(liberalism)로 무장돼 있기 때문이라는 주장이 제기됐다.
  10. ^ "교수들이 대개 진보적이라고? 그런 사람이 교수가 되기 때문!" [Professors are usually progressive? Because that kind of person becomes a professor!]. The Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). 20 January 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2021. 미국에서 대학교수들은 대부분 진보적인(liberal) 성향을 보이는 것이 사실이다. [In fact, most university professors in the United States tend to be progressive (liberal).]
  11. ^ "더 나은 진보를 향해 나아가자: 미국의 진보주의자 마크 릴라 지음 '더 나은 진보를 상상하라'" [Let's move toward better progressivism: American progressive Mark Lilla wrote, "Imagine better progressive."]. OhmyNews (in Korean). 15 October 2019. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
  12. ^ "소련을 붕괴시키고 미국 보수의 역사가 되다, 레이건 대통령 일대기 I 미국사, 냉전, 소련 해체, 신자유주의, 공산주의 (Timestamp 4:10)". YouTube. 27 August 2021.
  13. ^ "[박찬수 칼럼] '자유'와 민주주의, 리버럴" [[Park Chansoo's column] "Liberal" and democracy, liberalism.]. The Hankyoreh (in Korean). 3 July 2018. Retrieved 30 October 2021. ... ‘자유’라는 말만큼 요즘 그 의미가 새롭게 다가오는 단어도 드물다. 주말마다 광화문에서 열리는 태극기집회에 가면 ‘자유민주주의 수호’란 구호를 귀가 따갑도록 들을 수 있다. 그분들이 말하는 자유는 자유한국당의 ‘자유’와 일맥상통하지만, 1960년 4·19 직후 김수영 시인이 쓴 시의 한 구절 “어째서 자유에는 피의 냄새가 섞여 있는가를”에 나오는 ‘자유’와는 사뭇 다르다 ... 십수년 전 워싱턴특파원 시절, 가장 곤혹스러운 영어단어 중 하나가 ‘리버럴’(liberal)이었다. 미국에선 ‘리버럴’ 하면 보통 민주당 지지자나 진보주의자를 뜻하는데 ... [... Few words have a new meaning these days as much as the word "liberal". If you go to the Taegukgi rallies held at Gwanghwamun every weekend, you can hear the slogan "Guardian of Liberal Democracy." The liberal they say is in line with the Liberty Korea Party's "liberal", but it is clearly different from "liberal" in a verse from a poem written by poet Kim Soo-young shortly after April 19, 1960. ... When I was a Washington correspondent decades ago, one of the most embarrassing English words was "liberal". In the United States, "liberal" usually means a Democratic supporter or progressive, but if it is incorporated into a sentence ...]
  14. ^ "옳은소리 하고도 공화당 주류에게 몰매 맞은 트럼프" [Trump was beaten up by the mainstream Republicans even though he said something right.]. Kyunghyang Shinmun (in Korean). 15 February 2016. Retrieved 31 October 2021. 13일 저녁 사우스캐롤라이나에서 열린 TV 토론회에서 트럼프가 했던 ‘조지 W 부시의 이라크 침공 실패’ 발언은 공화당 주류 정치인들의 격분을 자아냈다. ... 테드 크루즈 상원의원(텍사스)은 트럼프가 보수주의자인 체 하지만 원래는 매우 진보적인(liberal) 생각을 가진 사람이라며 공격했다. ... [... Trump's remarks on "George W. Bush's failure to invade Iraq" at a TV debate in South Carolina on the evening of the 13th aroused outrage among mainstream Republican politicians. ... Senator Ted Cruz (Texas) attacked Trump, saying he pretended to be a conservative but originally had a very progressive (liberal) idea. ...]
  15. ^ "트럼프 "진보적 할리우드는 최고 수준 인종차별주의자"" [Trump said, "Progressive Hollywood is the best racist".]. Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). 10 August 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2021. 도널드 트럼프 미국 대통령은 9일(현지시간) "진보적(liberal) 할리우드는 엄청난 분노와 증오에 찬 최고 수준의 인종차별주의자"라며 미 영화계 일각을 향해 비난을 쏟아냈다.
  16. ^ "바이든 내각 거센 女風… 라이스·플러노이 '외교안보 양대 축' 예고" [There is a strong female wind blowing in Biden's cabinet... Rice · Flournoy heralded a "two pillars of diplomatic security."]. Maeil Business Newspaper (in Korean). 8 November 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2021. 적극적 대외 개입정책을 지지하는 이른바 '진보적 매파(liberal hawks)'인 그가 국무장관으로 발탁될 경우 대북 정책에 지대한 영향을 미칠 것으로 보인다. [If he is selected as the Secretary of State, the so-called "progressive hawks" (liberal hawks) who support active foreign intervention policies, it is expected to have a profound impact on North Korea's policy.]
  17. ^ a b "[제20대 국회의원 선거] 정당(政黨) 이야기". The Chosun Ilbo. 2016-03-23. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  18. ^ Jesús Velasco (4 July 2019). American Presidential Elections in a Comparative Perspective: The World Is Watching. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 154. ISBN 978-1498557580.
  19. ^ "Will Constitution be revised to allow young president?". The Korea Herald. 6 June 2021. Retrieved 28 September 2021. Kang Min-jin, 26, the leader of the youth chapter of the liberal minor Justice Party, was the first politician to ignite the debate at the 21st National Assembly.
  20. ^ "Political circle in fierce competition to court young voters". The Korea Times. 18 June 2021. Retrieved 11 November 2021. Rep. Jang Hye-young, a 34-year-old lawmaker of the minor liberal opposition Justice Party, which has long been promoting the rights of social minorities and the marginalized including women, said that Lee often distorted feminism when making such outspoken comments on gender-related issues and he needs to be more careful when commenting on feminism as he now has greater responsibility as the party leader.
  21. ^ ""트럼프 유세파워 무시 못해" vs "무당파 줄어 바이든 안정적"" ["Trump's campaign power cannot be ignored" vs "Biden is more stable as the number of no-parties has decreased."]. The Dong-a Ilbo. 31 October 2020. Retrieved 10 October 2021. ... 이때 진보 성향 제3의 후보인 자유당의 게리 존슨, 녹색당의 질 스타인 후보가 얻은 표를 합치면 위스콘신 13만8000표, 펜실베이니아 19만6000표였다. ...
  22. ^ "캐나다 조기 총선, 트뤼도 3선 성공…과반 의석 확보는 실패한 듯" [Canada's early general election, Trudeau won a 3rd term... Securing a majority of seats seems to have failed.]. The Dong-a Ilbo. 21 September 2021. Retrieved 10 October 2021. 20일(현지시간) 캐나다 조기 총선에서 쥐스탱 트뤼도 총리가 3선에 성공할 것으로 예측됐다. 여당 ‘자유당’도 승리가 예상되지만 목표했던 과반 의석 확보는 실패한 것으로 보인다.
  23. ^ "괴짜 '컴퓨터백신 선구자' 존 맥아피 사망" [John McAffy, a nerd and "computer vaccine pioneer," died.]. The Hankyoreh. 24 June 2021. Retrieved 10 October 2021. 1945년 영국 글로스터셔에서 태어난 맥아피는 1987년 컴퓨터 바이러스 백신 회사 ‘맥아피 어소시에이츠’를 창업했다. 그는 1990년대 초 자신의 회사 지분을 매각한 이후 기행에 가까운 생활로 주목과 논란의 인물이 됐다. 2016년 미 자유당 대선 후보 토론에 참여하는 등 대통령 선거에 두번 출마했으며, ...
  24. ^ "네덜란드 반(反)이슬람 정치인, '무함마드 만화대회' 재추진" [Dutch anti-Islamic politician re-promoted the Muhammad Comic Competition.]. Yonhap News Agency. 19 December 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2021. ... 네덜란드의 극우 정치인 헤이르트 빌더르스 자유당(PVV) 대표는 전날 트위터에 "언론의 자유는 폭력과 이슬람 파트와(이슬람 율법 해석·종교지도자의 칙령)보다 우선"이라며 ...
  25. ^ "South Korea After Park". Jacobin magazine. 2017-05-18. Retrieved 2021-02-13. ... At the same time, however, he belongs to the Catholic Church and holds some socially conservative views. When asked during a debate about the military’s persecution of gay soldiers, Moon responded that he opposed homosexuality in general.
  26. ^ "실학(實學)". 한국민족문화대백과사전 (Encyclopedia of Korean Culture) (in Korean). Retrieved 28 September 2021.
  27. ^ ""도산, 다석, 함석헌의 삶과 사상은 21세기에도 유효해"". OhmyNews (in Korean). 21 September 2021. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
  28. ^ ""3·1 운동, 성·종교·직업 구분없어…민주주의 일대 전환"". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). 5 November 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
  29. ^ "독립운동, 근대화를 촉진하다". 이로운넷 (in Korean). 21 February 2020. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
  30. ^ "한국 보수가 사랑한 '자유'···그들이 외친 '자유'는 따로 있었다 :자유주의란 무엇인가?" [Korean conservatives loved "Liberty" but... But there was a separate "Liberty" they shouted. :What is liberalism?]. Joongang Ilbo (in Korean). 19 April 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  31. ^ "자유와 정의의 심판의 날 '4.19 혁명'". SiJung Ilbo (in Korean). 19 April 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  32. ^ https://content.csbs.utah.edu/~mli/Economies%205430-6430/Lee-Competing%20Visions%20of%20North%20Korea%20in%20South%20Korean%20Politics.pdf
  33. ^ "문 대통령 "한반도 문제 해결 주인은 우리"". JoongAng Ilbo. 2017-08-18. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  34. ^ "왜 6번에 붉은 인주 안 찍혔을까". The Hankyoreh. 2020-05-06. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  35. ^ "농지개혁 주도한 조봉암은 左右 통합 추진한 실용주의자" [Cho Bong-am, who led the farmland reform, was a pragmatist who pursued the integration of the left and right.]. The Chosun Ilbo. 25 April 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  36. ^ "UPP's biggest faction denies rigging". Korea JoongAng Daily. 2 May 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2022. The internal strife in the liberal Unified Progressive Party continued with the leader of the party’s largest faction demanding a vote on whether the candidates elected in a rigged primary should step down.
  37. ^ Chung Min Lee, ed. (2016). Fault Lines in a Rising Asia. Brookings Institution Press. p. 323. ISBN 9780870033131. The far-left Unified Progressive Party (UPP) was South Korea's most pro–North Korean political party, and its leadership was in near-perfect alignment with the policies espoused by North Korea, but it was disbanded when the ...
  38. ^ Oul Han, ed. (2021). Polarized Politics in South Korea: Political Culture and Democracy in Partisan Newspapers. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 22. ISBN 9781793635921. ... In 2014 for example, a far-left party (Unified Progressive Party) was dissolved due to pro-North Korean activities that threaten national security.25 Accordingly, ...
  39. ^ "노회찬, 심상정, 유시민 통합진보당 탈당: 민노당 전 최고위원, 지방의원, 참여계 당원 3000여명도 '탈당 러시'" [Roh Hoe-chan, Sim Sang-jung, and Yoo Si-min left the Unified Progressive Party: About 3,000 former supreme council members, local councilors, and participating members of the DLP are also leaving the party.]. 프레시안. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
  40. ^ "How Minecraft became R-rated game in S. Korea". The Korea Herald. 4 July 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021. Rep. Her Euna from the main opposition People Power Party and Rep. Ryu Ho-jeong of the liberal minor Justice Party are scheduled to propose a revision together this month.
  41. ^ "This South Korean Pastor 'Blessed' a Queer Festival. He's Now Being Investigated". Vice. 2 October 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2021. The minor liberal Justice Party is now on its seventh attempt to pass the bill in the National Assembly. Previous attempts failed as conservative Christian groups have been lobbying against it since 2007. Lee believes that the bill’s passing is long overdue.
  42. ^ "새벽당, 정치의 새 그림을 그린다" [Dawn Party, draws a new picture of politics.]. 뉴스프리존 (in Korean). 13 July 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2021. 대한민국 최초의 자유주의 청년 우파정당을 표방하는 '자유의 새벽(약칭 새벽당)'의 창당대회가 최근 마포구 상암동에 위치한 제일라아트홀에서 열렸다. [South Korea's first liberal youth right-wing party, the founding competition of "Freedom Dawn (abbreviated as Dawn Party)," was recently held at Jeila Art Hall in Sangam-dong, Mapo-gu.]
  43. ^ "보수적 자유주의자 이상돈의 엑스파일" [Conservative liberal, Lee Sang-don's X-file.]. JoongAng Ilbo (in Korean). 19 June 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.