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Individual contributors to classical liberalism and political liberalism are associated with philosophers of the Enlightenment. Liberalism as a specifically named ideology begins in the late 18th century as a movement towards self-government and away from aristocracy. It included the ideas of self-determination, the primacy of the individual and the nation as opposed to the state and religion as being the fundamental units of law, politics and economy.

Since then liberalism broadened to include a wide range of approaches from Americans Ronald Dworkin, Richard Rorty, John Rawls and Francis Fukuyama as well as the Indian Amartya Sen and the Peruvian Hernando de Soto. Some of these people moved away from liberalism while others espoused other ideologies before turning to liberalism. There are many different views of what constitutes liberalism, and some liberals would feel that some of the people on this list were not true liberals. It is intended to be suggestive rather than exhaustive. Theorists whose ideas were mainly typical for one country should be listed in that country's section of liberalism worldwide. Generally only thinkers are listed whereas politicians are only listed when they also made substantial contributions to liberal theory beside their active political work.

Classical contributors to liberalism


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Aristotle (Athens, 384–322 BC) is revered among political theorists for his seminal work Politics. He made invaluable contributions to liberal theory through his observations on different forms of government and the nature of man.

He begins with the idea that the best government provides an active and "happy" life for its people. Aristotle then considers six forms of government: Monarchy, Aristocracy, and Polity on one side as 'good' forms of government, and Tyranny, Oligarchy, and Democracy as 'bad' forms. Considering each in turn, Aristotle rejects Monarchy as infantilizing of citizens, Oligarchy as too profit-motivated, Tyranny as against the will of the people, Democracy as serving only to the poor, and Aristocracy (known today as Meritocracy) as ideal but ultimately impossible. Aristotle finally concludes that a polity—a combination between democracy and oligarchy, where most can vote but must choose among the rich and virtuous for governors—is the best compromise between idealism and realism.

In addition, Aristotle was a firm supporter of private property. He refuted Plato's argument for a collectivist society in which family and property are held in common: Aristotle makes the argument that when one's own son or land is rightfully one's own, one puts much more effort into cultivating that item, to the ultimate betterment of society. He references barbarian tribes of his time in which property was held in common, and the laziest of the bunch would always take away large amounts of food grown by the most diligent.


Further information: Laozi § Influence

Laozi was a Chinese philosopher and writer, considered the founder of Taoism. Arguing that Laozi is a libertarian, James A. Dorn wrote that Laozi, like many 18th-century liberals, "argued that minimizing the role of government and letting individuals develop spontaneously would best achieve social and economic harmony."[1]

From Machiavelli to Spinoza

See also: List of Renaissance humanists

Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò Machiavelli (Florence, 1469–1527), best known for his Il Principe was the founder of realist political philosophy, advocated republican government, citizen armies, protection of personal property, and restraint of government expenditure as being necessary to the liberties of a republic. He wrote extensively on the need for individual initiative—virtu—as an essential characteristic of stable government. He argued that liberty was the central good which government should protect, and that "good people" would make good laws, whereas people who had lost their virtue could maintain their liberties only with difficulty. His Discourses on Livy outlined realism as the central idea of political study and favored "Republics" over "Principalities".

Machiavelli differed from true liberal thinking however, in that he still noted the benefits of princely governance.[2] He states that republican leaders need to "act alone" if they want to reform a republic, and offers the example of Romulus, who killed his brother and co-ruler to found a great city.[3] Republics need to refer to arbitrary and violent measures if it is necessary to maintain the structure of the government, as Machiavelli says that they have to ignore thoughts of justice and fairness.[4]

Anti-statist liberals consider Machiavelli's distrust as his main message, noting his call for a strong state under a strong leader, who should use any means to establish his position, whereas liberalism is an ideology of individual freedom and voluntary choices.


Desiderius Erasmus

Desiderius Erasmus (Netherlands, 1466–1536) was an advocate of humanism, critic of entrenched interests, irrationality and superstition. Erasmusian societies formed across Europe, to some extent in response to the turbulence of the Reformation. In his De libero arbitrio diatribe sive collatio (1524), he analyzes the Lutheran exaggeration of the obvious limitations on human freedom.

Étienne de La Boétie

Étienne de La Boétie

Étienne de La Boétie (France, 1530–1563) was a French writer, magistrate and political theorist. According to Etienne the chief question of political philosophy was the question of how people come to accept the will of tyrants.

Hugo Grotius

Hugo Grotius

Hugo Grotius (Netherlands 1583–1645)

Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (England, 1588–1679) theorized that government is the result of individual actions and human traits, and that it was motivated primarily by "interest", a term which would become crucial in the development of a liberal theory of government and political economy, since it is the foundation of the idea that individuals can be self-governing and self-regulating. His work Leviathan, did not advocate this viewpoint, but instead that only a strong government could restrain unchecked interest: it did, however, advance a proto-liberal position in arguing for an inalienable "right of nature," the right to defend oneself, even against the state.[citation needed] Though his own ideological position is open to debate, his work influenced Spinoza, Locke, Hamilton, Jefferson, Madison and many other liberals.[5]


Portrait of Baruch Spinoza, 1665.

Baruch Spinoza (Netherlands, 1632–1677) in his Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (TTP) (1670) and Tractatus Politicus (1678) defends the importance of separation of church and state as well as forms of democracy. In the TTP, Spinoza articulates a strong critique of religious intolerance and a defense of secular government against the power of religious authorities.[6][7] Spinoza laid the philosophical groundwork for the emancipation of Jews, putting them on an equal footing as other citizens.[8]

From Locke to Tocqueville

John Locke

John Locke

John Locke's (England, 1632–1704) notion that a "government with the consent of the governed" and man's natural rightslife, liberty, and estate (property) as well on tolerance, as laid down in A letter concerning toleration and Two treatises of government—had an enormous influence on the development of liberalism. Locke developed a theory of property resting on the actions of individuals, rather than on descent or nobility.

John Trenchard

John Trenchard (United Kingdom, 1662–1723) was co-author, with Thomas Gordon of Cato's Letters. These newspaper essays condemned tyranny and advanced principles of freedom of conscience and freedom of speech and were a main vehicle for spreading the concepts that had been developed by John Locke.

Charles de Montesquieu


Charles de Montesquieu (France, 1689–1755) In The Spirit of Law, Montesquieu expounded the separation of powers in government and society. In government, Montesquieu encouraged division into the now standard legislative, judicial and executive branches; in society, he perceived a natural organization into king, the people and the aristocracy, with the latter playing a mediating role. "I do not write to censor that which is established in any country whatsoever," Montesquieu disclaimed in the Laws; however, he did pay special attention to what he felt was the positive example of the constitutional system in England, which in spite of its evolution toward a fusion of powers, had moderated the power of the monarch, and divided Parliament along class lines.

Montesquieu's work had a seminal impact on the American and French revolutionaries. Ironically, the least liberal element of his thought—his privileging of the aristocracy—was belied by both revolutions. Montesquieu's system came to fruition in America, a country with no aristocracy; in France, political maneuvering by the aristocracy led to the convocation of the 1789 Estates-General and popular revolt. [9]

Thomas Gordon

Thomas Gordon (United Kingdom, 169?–1750) was co-author, with John Trenchard of Cato's Letters. These newspaper essays condemned tyranny and advanced principles of freedom of conscience and freedom of speech and were a main vehicle for spreading the concepts that had been developed by John Locke.

François Quesnay

François Quesnay (France, 1694–1774)

François Quenay



Voltaire (France, 1694–1778)

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Switzerland, 1712–1778)

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Denis Diderot

Denis Diderot (France, 1713–1784)

Denis Diderot

Jean le Rond d'Alembert

Jean le Rond d'Alembert (France, 1717–1783)

Richard Price

Richard Price (United Kingdom, 1723–1791)

Adam Smith

Adam Smith

Adam Smith (Great Britain, 1723–1790), often considered the founder of modern economics, was a key figure in formulating and advancing economic doctrine of free trade and competition. In his Wealth of Nations Adam Smith outlined the key idea that if the economy is basically left to its own devices, limited and finite resources will be put to ultimately their most efficient use through people acting purely in their self-interest. This concept has been quoted out of context by later economists as the invisible hand of the market.

Smith also advanced property rights and personal civil liberties, including stopping slavery, which today partly form the basic liberal ideology. He was also opposed to stock-holding companies, what today is called a "corporation", because he predicated the self-policing of the free market upon the free association of moral individuals.

Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (Germany, 1724–1804)

Anne Robert Jacques Turgot

Anne Robert Jacques Turgot (France, 1727–1781)

Anne Robert Jacques Turgot

Joseph Priestley

Joseph Priestley (United Kingdom/United States, 1733–1804)

August Ludwig von Schlözer

August Ludwig von Schlözer (Germany, 1735–1809)

Patrick Henry

Patrick Henry (United States, 1736–1799)

Thomas Paine

Thomas Paine

Thomas Paine (United Kingdom/United States, 1737–1809) was a Founding Father , political activist, philosopher, political theorist, and revolutionary. His ideas reflected Enlightenment-era ideals of human rights. Following the American Revolution he returned to England then fled to France, to avoid arrest because advocated the right of the people to overthrow their government. In the Age of Reason, he advocated Deism, promoted reason and freethought, and argued against religion in general and Christian doctrine in particular. In Agrarian Justice, opposed to Agrarian Law, and to Agrarian Monopoly sought the origins of poverty, locating them in inequitable distribution of land, "a violation of humankind's natural rights," which could be remedied through an estate tax.[10]

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson (United States, 1743–1826) was the third President of the United States and author of the Declaration of Independence. He also wrote Notes on the State of Virginia and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. Ideologically, he was a champion of inalienable individual rights, although excluded women from his formulation, and as a Virginia planter, he held many enslaved persons. He advocated the separation of church and state. His ideas were repeated in many other liberal revolutions around the world, including the (early) French Revolution.


Marquis de Condorcet

Marquis de Condorcet

Marquis de Condorcet (France, 1743–1794) advocated for a liberal economy, free and equal public instruction, constitutional government, and equal rights for women and people of all races, which embody the ideals of the Age of Enlightenment.

Some literature:

Olympe de Gouges

Olympe de Gouges

Olympe de Gouges (French, 1748–1793) is best known as an advocate of women's rights, writing Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen, in response to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789); she was executed during the French Revolution. Prior to the outbreak of the revolution, she authored Réflexions sur les hommes nègres (1788), calling for better treatment of black slaves. Her most famous quote is “A woman has the right to mount the scaffold. She must possess equally the right to mount the speaker's platform.”[11]


Jeremy Bentham

Jeremy Bentham (United Kingdom, 1748–1832)

Jeremy Bentham

An early advocate of utilitarianism, animal welfare and women's rights. He had many students all around the world, including John Stuart Mill and several political leaders. Bentham demanded economic and individual freedom, including the separation of the state and church, freedom of expression, completely equal rights for women, the end of slavery and colonialism, uniform democracy, the abolition of physical punishment, also on children, the right for divorce, free prices, free trade and no restrictions on interest. Bentham was not a libertarian: he supported inheritance tax, restrictions on monopoly power, pensions, health insurance and other social security, but called for prudence and careful consideration in any such governmental intervention.

Adamantios Korais

Adamantios Korais

Adamantios Korais (Smyrna, 1748–1833) A major figure of the Greek Enlightenment, Korais helped shape the modern Greek state with his theories on classical education, language, religion, secular law and constitutional government, with passionate views on the necessity of democracy. He corresponded with leading figures of the American republic, especially with Thomas Jefferson.

Emmanuel Sieyès

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès '(France, 1748–1836) played an important role in the opening years of the French Revolution, drafting the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, expanding on the theory of national sovereignty, popular sovereignty, and representation implied in his pamphlet What is the Third Estate?.

Charles James Fox

Charles James Fox by Joshua Reynolds

Charles James Fox (United Kingdom, 1749–1806) a Whig politician and member of parliament who spent most of his career in opposition. He opposed tyranny of any sort or the threat of it. For this reason he was a staunch critic of King George III whom he regarded as an aspiring tyrant. He was an abolitionist and supporter of American Patriots and of the French Revolution. He attacked Pitt's wartime legislation and defended the liberty of religious minorities and political radicals. After Pitt's death in January 1806, Fox served briefly as Foreign Secretary in the 'Ministry of All the Talents' of William Grenville.

Antoine Destutt de Tracy

Antoine Destutt de Tracy (1754–1836)

Stanisław Staszic

Stanisław Staszic (Poland-Lithuania, 1755–1826) was a Catholic priest, philosopher, geologist, writer, poet, translator and statesman. A physiocrat, monist, pan-Slavist (after 1815) and an advocate of laissez-faire, he supported many reforms in Poland. He is particularly remembered for his political writings during the "Great (Four-Year) Sejm" (1788–92) and for his support of the Constitution of 3 May 1791.

Friedrich Schiller

Friedrich Schiller (Germany, 1759–1805)

Mary Wollstonecraft

Mary Wollstonecraft

Mary Wollstonecraft (United Kingdom, 1759–1797) is best known for A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men but appear to be only because they lack education. She suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason. Works:

Anne Louise Germaine de Staël

Madame de Staël

Anne Louise Germaine de Staël (France, 1766–1817)

Benjamin Constant

Benjamin Constant

Benjamin Constant (France, 1767–1830) Regarded by some as one of the fathers of modern liberalism, he was initially a republican during the French Revolution, but utterly rejected The Jacobins as an instance of the tyranny of the majority.[13]

Jean-Baptiste Say

Jean-Baptiste Say (France, 1767–1832)

Wilhelm von Humboldt

Wilhelm von Humboldt

Wilhelm von Humboldt (Germany, 1767–1835)

Adam Czartoryski

Adam Czartoryski (Poland-Lithuania 1770–1867) was a statesman, and international politician. He began as a foreign minister to the Russian Tsar Alexander I and built an anti-Napoleon coalition. He became a leader of the Polish government in exile, and an enemy of Russian Tsar Nicholas I. In exile he was an activist on the Polish Question across Europe, and stimulated early Balkan independence.

David Ricardo

David Ricardo (United Kingdom, 1772–1823)

James Mill

James Mill (United Kingdom, 1773–1836)

Antoine-Elisée Cherbuliez

Antoine-Elisée Cherbuliez (Switzerland, 1797–1869)

Johan Rudolf Thorbecke

The Dutch statesman Johan Rudolf Thorbecke (Netherlands, 1798–1872) was the main theorist of Dutch liberalism in the nineteenth century, outlining a more democratic alternative to the absolute monarchy, the constitutional monarchy. The constitution of 1848 was mainly his work. His main theoretical article specifically labeled as 'liberal' was 'Over het hedendaagsche staatsburgerschap' (On Modern Citizenship) from 1844. He became prime minister in 1849, thus starting numerous fundamental reforms in Dutch politics.

Frédéric Bastiat

Frédéric Bastiat (France, 1801–1850)

Claude Frédéric Bastiat was a French classical liberal theorist, political economist, and member of the French assembly.

Rifa'a al-Tahtawi

Rifa'a al-Tahtawi (Egypt, 1801–1873)

Rifa'a al-Tahtawi (also spelt Tahtawy) was an Egyptian writer, teacher, translator, Egyptologist, renaissance intellectual and one of the early adapters to Islamic Modernism. In 1831, Tahtawi was part of the statewide effort to modernize the Egyptian infrastructure and education.[14] Three of his published volumes were works of political and moral philosophy. They introduced his Egyptian audience to Enlightenment ideas such as secular authority and political rights and liberty; his ideas regarding how a modern civilized society ought to be and what constituted by extension a civilized or "good Egyptian"; and his ideas on public interest and public good.[15] Tahtawi's work was the first effort in what became an Egyptian renaissance (nahda) that flourished in the years between 1860 and 1940.[16]

Harriet Martineau

Harriet Martineau (United Kingdom, 1802–1876)

Harriet Martineau

Alexis de Tocqueville

Alexis de Tocqueville (France, 1805–1859)

Mill and further

For the development of American liberalism after World War II, see Liberalism in the United States. American liberal theorists who also had influence on liberalism outside the United States are included in this section.

John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill (United Kingdom, 1806–1873) is one of the first champions of modern "liberalism." As such, his work on political economy and logic helped lay the foundation for advancements in empirical science and public policy based on verifiable improvements. Strongly influenced by Bentham's utilitarianism, he disagrees with Kant's intuitive notion of right and formulates the "highest normative principle" of morals as: Actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.

Some consider Mill as the founder of Social liberalism. Although Mill was mainly for free markets, he accepted interventions in the economy, such as a tax on alcohol, if there were sufficient utilitarian grounds. Mill was also a champion of women's rights.

José María Luis Mora

José María Luis Mora

José María Luis Mora (New Spain/Mexico 1794 – 1850) was a priest, lawyer, historian, politician and liberal ideologist. Considered one of the first supporters of liberalism in Mexico, he fought for the separation of church and state. Mora has been deemed "the most significant liberal spokesman for his generation [and] his thought epitomizes the structure and the predominant orientation of Mexican liberalism." Some works:

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Ralph Waldo Emerson (United States, 1803–1882) was an American philosopher who argued that the basic principles of government were mutable, and that government is required only insofar as people are not self-governing. Proponent of Democracy, and of the idea that a democratic people must have a democratic ethics.

William Lloyd Garrison

William Lloyd Garrison (United States, 1805–1879)

Juan Bautista Alberdi

Juan Bautista Alberdi (Argentina, 1810–1884)

Juan Bautista Alberdi

Henry David Thoreau

Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862)

Jacob Burckhardt

Jacob Burckhardt (Switzerland, 1818–1897) State as derived from cultural and economic life.

Jocob Burckhardt

Herbert Spencer

Herbert Spencer (United Kingdom, 1820–1903), philosopher, psychologist, and sociologist, advanced what he called the "Law of equal liberty" and argued against liberal theory promoting more activist government, which he dubbed "a new form of Toryism." He supported a state limited in its duties to the defense of persons and their property. For Spencer, voluntary cooperation was the hallmark of the most vibrant form of society, accommodating the widest diversity of members and the greatest diversity of goals. Spencer's evolutionary approach has been characterized as an extension of Adam Smith's "invisible hand" explanation of economic order; his extensive work on sympathy (in psychology as well as the foundation of ethics, particularly in The Data of Ethics) explicitly carried on Smith's approach in The Theory of Moral Sentiments. Spencer is frequently characterized as a leading Social Darwinist.

İbrahim Şinasi

İbrahim Şinasi (Ottoman Empire, 1826–1871), author, journalist, translator, and newspaper editor. He was the innovator of several fields: he wrote one of the earliest examples of an Ottoman play, he encouraged the trend of translating poetry from French into Turkish, he simplified the script used for writing the Ottoman Turkish language, and he was one of the first of the Ottoman writers to write specifically for the broader public. Şinasi used his newspapers, Tercüman-ı Ahvâl and Tasvîr-i Efkâr, to promote the proliferation of European Enlightenment ideals during the Tanzimat period,[17] and he made the education of the literate Ottoman public his personal vocation. Though many of Şinasi's projects were incomplete at the time of his death, "he was at the forefront of a number of fields and put his stamp on the development of each field so long as it contained unsolved problems." Şinasi, influenced by Enlightenment thought, saw freedom of expression as a fundamental right and used journalism in order to engage, communicate with, and educate the public. By speaking directly to the public about government affairs, Şinasi declared that state actions were not solely the interest of the government.[18]

Thomas Hill Green

Thomas Hill Green (United Kingdom, 1836–1882)

Auberon Herbert

Auberon Herbert (United Kingdom, 1838–1906)

Carl Menger

Carl Menger (Austria, 1840–1921)

William Graham Sumner

William Graham Sumner

William Graham Sumner (United States, 1840–1910)

Lester Frank Ward

Lester Frank Ward (United States, 1841–1913)

Lester Frank Ward

Lester Ward was a botanist, paleontologist, and sociologist. He served as the first president of the American Sociological Association. Ward was a fierce and unrelenting critic of the laissez-faire policies advocated by Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner.

Ward's major works can be found here: [10]

Lujo Brentano

Ludwig Joseph Brentano (Germany, 1844–1931)

Tomáš Masaryk

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (Czechoslovakia, 1850–1937)

Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk

Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk (Austria, 1851–1914)

Louis Brandeis

Louis Brandeis (1856–1941)

Thorstein Veblen

Thorstein Veblen (1857–1926) is best known as the author of Theory of the Leisure Class. Veblen was influential to a generation of American liberalism searching for a rational basis for the economy beyond corporate consolidation and "cut throat competition". Veblen's central argument was that individuals require sufficient non-economic time to become educated citizens. He caustically attacked pure material consumption for its own sake, and the idea that utility equalled conspicuous consumption.

John Dewey

John Dewey (United States, 1859–1952)

Friedrich Naumann

Friedrich Naumann (Germany, 1860–1919)

Santeri Alkio

Santeri Alkio

Santeri Alkio (Finland, 1862–1930)

Max Weber

Max Weber (Germany, 1864–1920) was a theorist of state power and the relationship of culture to economics. Argued that there was a moral component to capitalism rooted in "Protestant" values. Weber was along with Friedrich Naumann active in the National Social Union and later in the German Democratic Party.

Leonard Hobhouse

Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (United Kingdom, 1864–1929)

Benedetto Croce

Benedetto Croce (Italy, 1866–1952)

Walther Rathenau

Walther Rathenau (Germany, 1867–1922)

Sir Leo Chiozza Money

Leo Chiozza Money (Britain, 1870–1944) An Italian-born economic theorist who moved to Britain in the 1890s, where he made his name as a politician, journalist and author. In the early years of the 20th century his views attracted the interest of two future Prime Ministers, David Lloyd George and Winston Churchill. After a spell as Lloyd George's parliamentary private secretary, he was a Government minister in the latter stages of the First World War.

Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed

Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed Pasha (Egypt, 1872–1963) An Egyptian intellectual, anti-colonial activist and the first director of Cairo University. He was an influential person in the Egyptian nationalist movement and used his position in the media to strive and gain an independent Egypt from British rule. He was also one of the architects of modern Egyptian nationalism as well as the architect of Egyptian secularism and liberalism. He was fondly known as the "Professor of the Generation". Lutfi was one of the fiercest opponents of pan-Arabism, insisting that Egyptians are Egyptians and not Arabs.[20] He is considered one of the most influential scholars and intellectuals in the history of Egypt.[21]

William Beveridge

William Beveridge (United Kingdom, 1879–1963)

Ludwig von Mises

Ludwig von Mises (Austria/United States, 1881–1973)

José Ortega y Gasset

José Ortega y Gasset (Spain, 1883–1955)

Salvador de Madariaga

Salvador de Madariaga (Spain, 1886–1978). One of the principal authors of the Oxford Manifesto in 1947.

Adolf Berle

Adolf Berle (United States, 1895–1971) was author of The Modern Corporation and Private Property, detailing the importance of differentiating between the management of corporations and the share holders who are the owners. Influential in the theory of New Deal policy.

Wilhelm Röpke

Wilhelm Röpke (Germany, 1899–1966)

Bertil Ohlin

Bertil Ohlin (Sweden, 1899–1979)

Friedrich von Hayek

Friedrich von Hayek

Friedrich Hayek (Austria/United Kingdom/United States/Germany, 1899–1992) In Hayek's view, the central role of the state should be to maintain the rule of law, with as little arbitrary intervention as possible. Also a Nobel Prize winner in economics and predicter of the Great Depression like fellow Austrian School economist and mentor Ludwig von Mises.

Karl Popper

Karl Raimund Popper (Austria/United Kingdom, 1902–1994) developed the idea of the open society, characterized by respect for a wide variety of opinions and behaviors and a preference for audacious but piecemeal political reform over either conservative stasis or revolutionary utopianism. In his view, all simplistic and grandiose theories of history and society shared a common feature he called historicism, which he traces back to Plato, while the open society mirrors the methodological fallibilism pioneered by Popper in his earlier works on philosophy of science.

Alan Paton

Alan Paton (South Africa, 1903–1988) contributed with his book Cry, The Beloved Country to a clear anti-apartheid stand of South African liberalism. His party, the Liberal Party of South Africa was banned by the apartheid government.

Ayn Rand

Ayn Rand (United States, 1905–1982) was a radical and influential moral and political philosopher. Her advocacy of strong self-interest in ethics was influenced, she claimed, by the thinkers Aristotle, Aquinas, and Locke. Her advocacy of pure laissez-faire capitalism was influenced by the classical liberal economists Mises and Hayek.

Raymond Aron

Raymond Aron (France, 1905–1983)

Donald Barkly Molteno

Donald Barkly Molteno (South Africa, 1908–1972), known as Dilizintaba ("He who removes mountains"), was a constitutional lawyer and a parliamentarian but above all, an academic. His work on constitutional law centered on civil rights and his fierce opposition to the segregationalist policies of Apartheid.

John Kenneth Galbraith

John Kenneth Galbraith

John Kenneth Galbraith (Canadian-born economist who worked in the United States, 1908–2006)

Isaiah Berlin

Isaiah Berlin (Latvia/United Kingdom, 1909–1997) is most famous for his attempt to distinguish 'two conceptions of liberty'. Berlin argued that what he called 'positive' and 'negative' liberty were mutually opposing concepts. Positive conceptions assumed that liberty could only be achieved when collective power (in the form of church or state) acted to 'liberate' mankind from its worst aspects. These, Berlin felt, tended towards totalitarianism. Negative conceptions, by contrast, argued that liberty was achieved when individuals were given maximal freedom from external constraints (so long as these did not infringe on the freedom of others to achieve the same condition). Berlin was also a critic of dogmatic Enlightenment rationalism on the grounds that it was unable to accommodate value pluralism.

Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman (United States, 1912–2006), winner of a Nobel Prize in Economics and a self-identified Classical Liberal and libertarian,[22] was known for the Friedman rule, Friedman's k-percent rule, and the Friedman test.

James Buchanan

James Buchanan (United States, 1919–2013) is known for his economic theories of the political process, which were among the first to take seriously the concept of politicians as rational actors that respond to incentives.

John Rawls

John Rawls (United States, 1921–2022) One of the most influential political philosophers of the 20th century, largely responsible for the rebirth of normative political philosophy. He argues for equal basic liberties, equality of opportunity, and facilitating the maximum benefit to the least advantaged members of society in any case where inequalities may occur. Rawls's argument for these principles of social justice uses a thought experiment called the "original position", in which people deliberately select what kind of society they would choose to live in if they did not know which social position they would personally occupy.

Murray Newton Rothbard

Murray Rothbard (United States, 1926–1995) was the originator of modern anarcho-capitalism and an economist and economic historian of the Austrian school. He is widely considered one of the foremost advocates of liberty and freedom in the late 20th century.[citation needed] He was involved with various political movements throughout his life, notably with Ayn Rand and, later, the Libertarian Party of United States. His influence is lasting in the libertarian and anarcho-capitalist movements.

Leszek Kołakowski

Leszek Kołakowski (Poland, 1927–2009), philosopher and historian of ideas. He was a leading inspiration behind Poland's Solidarity movement.

Ralf Dahrendorf

Ralf Dahrendorf (Germany/United Kingdom, 1929–2009 )

Karl-Hermann Flach

The journalist Karl-Hermann Flach (Germany, 1929–1973) was in his book Noch eine Chance für die Liberalen one of the main theorist of the new social liberal principles of the Free Democratic Party (Germany). He places liberalism clearly as the opposite of conservatism and opened the road for a government coalition with the social democrats.

Joseph Raz

Joseph Raz (Israel/United Kingdom, 1939–2022)

Ronald Dworkin

Ronald Dworkin (United States, 1931–2013)

Richard Rorty

Richard Rorty (United States, 1931–2007) was one of the leading contemporary philosophers of liberalism. His fundamental claims, among others, are that liberalism is best defined as the attempt to avoid cruelty to others; that liberals need to accept the historical 'irony' that there is no metaphysical justification for their belief that not being cruel is a virtue; that literature plays a crucial role in developing the empathy necessary to promote solidarity (and therefore lack of cruelty) between humans; and that private philosophising and public political discourse are separate practices and should remain so.

Amartya Sen

Amartya Sen

Amartya Sen (India, 1933– ) is an economist whose early work was based on Kenneth Arrow's General Possibility Theorem, and on the impossibility of both complete pareto optimality and solely procedural based rights. He won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his work on famine, welfare economics and social choice theory. And is an advocate of rationality as the fundamental safe guard of freedom and justice.

Robert Nozick

Robert Nozick (United States, 1938–2002) was a libertarian (or minarchist). He advocated an unapologetically reductionist political philosophy characterized by meticulous analysis of the moral aspects of each social interaction, and did not shy away from addressing hard philosophical issues such as the original appropriation of property. Nozick is best known for providing the justification of a minimal state by showing that it can be established without any unjust steps.

Hernando de Soto

The economist Hernando de Soto (Peru, 1941– ) is an advocate of transparency and private property rights, arguing that intransparent government leads to property not being given proper title, and therefore being "dead capital" which cannot be used as the basis of credit. Argues that laws which allocate property to those most able to use them for economic growth, so called "squatter's rights", are an important innovation.

Michael Meadowcroft

A biography described the British politician Michael Meadowcroft as "the main, indeed very nearly the only, philosopher of applied Liberalism within the old Liberal Party from the late 1960s onwards".[23] On the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party in the UK to form the Liberal Democrats, Meadowcroft initially reconstituted a new Liberal Party with others who did not want to compromise the philosophy of liberalism.[23] However, the new Liberal Party became increasingly Eurosceptic under the leadership of Steve Radford and Meadowcroft joined the Liberal Democrats in 2007.[24] He has regularly argued for the importance of political philosophy and that members of the Liberal Democrats require more conviction in their beliefs.[25][26][27]

Carlos Santiago Nino

Carlos Santiago Nino (Argentina, 1943–1993)

Bruce Ackerman

Bruce Ackerman (United States, 1943– )

Martha Nussbaum

Martha Nussbaum (United States, 1947– ) is a philosopher and the current Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago. She specializes in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, political philosophy, existentialism, feminism, and ethics, including animal rights. She received the 2016 Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy, the 2018 Berggruen Prize, and the 2021 Holberg Prize.

Will Kymlicka

Will Kymlicka (Canada, 1962– ) tries in his philosophy to determine if forms of ethnic or minority nationalism are compatible with liberal-democratic principles of individual freedom, social equality and political democracy. In his book Multicultural Citizenship. A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights he argues that certain "group-differentiated rights" of minority cultures can be consistent with these liberal-democratic principles.


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  2. ^ "Niccolo Machiavelli | Biography, Books, Philosophy, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2016-06-29. Retrieved 2019-02-19.
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  6. ^ Feuer, Lewis. Spinoza and the Rise of Liberalism. New Brunswick: Transaction 1984
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  11. ^ Longman (1989). Chronicle of the French Revolution, p. 235
  12. ^ Fox, Charles James (1853). The Speeches of the Right Honourable Charles James Fox in the House of Commons. Aylott and Company. charles james fox.
  13. ^ Rosen, Frederick (2005). Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. Routledge. p. 251. According to Isaiah Berlin, the most eloquent of all defenders of freedom and privacy [was] Benjamin Constant, who had not forgotten the Jacobin dictatorship.
  14. ^ "Faculty of Al-Alsun: Historical background". Archived from the original on July 5, 2017.
  15. ^ Vatikiotis, pp. 115–116
  16. ^ Vatikiotis, p. 116
  17. ^ "İbrahim Şinasi kimdir?". Archived from the original on 2019-09-25. Retrieved 2019-09-25.
  18. ^ Nergis Ertürk, Grammatology and Literary Modernity in Turkey. Oxford, UK: Oxford UP, 2011. Print.
  19. ^ M. Sükrü Hanioglu, A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire, (Princeton University Press, 2008), 100.
  20. ^ Hourani, Albert. 1962. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age. pg 177.
  21. ^ Wendell, C; P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C. E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W. P. Heinrichs (2011). "Luṭfīal-Sayyid, Aḥmad". Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
  22. ^ Milton Friedman#Public policy positions
  23. ^ a b Smulian, Mark. "Michael Meadowcroft, 1942–". Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  24. ^ Michael Meadowcroft (13 October 2007). "Opinion: Why I joined the Liberal Democrats". Lib Dem Voice. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  25. ^ Meadowcroft, Michael. "Nearer the abyss". Archived from the original on 1 March 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  26. ^ Meadowcroft, Michael. "The Radical Tradition in Liberalism – Leading the Debate Then and Now" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  27. ^ Meadowcroft, Michael. "The Liberal Democrats: A Study for a Relevant Basis of Philosophy and Political Values – And for Reviving and Developing the Party" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 July 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.