Kaure
Native toIndonesia
RegionPapua: Aurina, Harna, Lereh, Masta, and Wes villages on the Nawa River
Native speakers
(450 cited 1995)[1]
Dialects
  • Narau
Language codes
ISO 639-3bpp
Glottologkaur1271
ELP
Kaure-Kapori languages.svg
Map: The Kaure, Kapori, and Kosare languages of New Guinea
  The Kaure, Kapori, and Kosare languages
  Other Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages
  Uninhabited

Kaure is a Papuan language of West Papua. It is spoken in the villages of Lereh, Harna, Wes, Masta, and Aurina.[2][3]

Narau is either a dialect or a closely related language. It is known from a short word list in Giël (1959).[4] Texts include Auri et al. (1991).[5]

Phonology

Consonants

The Kaure consonants are:[6]: 456 

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive voiceless p t k
voiced ᵐb ⁿd ʤ
Fricative s h
Liquid l
Semivowel w j

Vowels

The Kaure vowels are:[6]: 456 

Front Back
Close i, y
Mid e o
Open a

Tone

Like the Lakes Plain languages, Kaure is a tonal language. There are two tones, namely high and low.[6]: 456 

Monosyllabic minimal pairs showing phonemic tone contrast include:

In multisyllabic words, only one stressed syllable carries full tone contrasts, while the other syllables are "neutral" or toneless.[6]: 456 

Multisyllabic minimal sets include:

Pronouns

Attested pronouns are 1sg wẽ, 2sg hane, 1pl nene. The 2sg form resembles Mek *ka-n, and 1pl resembles Pauwasi numu~nin, but apart from that little can be said.

Kaure pronouns listed by Foley (2018) are:[6]

Independent Possessive prefixes
1excl wen na-
1incl nene nene-
2 hane ha-
3 nene ne-

Kaure pronouns are not specified for number, just like in Nimboran.[6]

Kaure–Kapori hypothesis

Voorhoeve (1975) suggested that Kaure was related to Kapori and Kosare, two otherwise unclassified languages. However, subsequent evaluations have not found any significant connections (Rumaropen 2006, Wambaliau 2006).

References

  1. ^ Kaure at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ http://papuaweb.org/bib/hays/loc/KAURE.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  3. ^ "Kaure | Ethnologue".
  4. ^ Giël, R. 1959. Exploratie Oost-Meervlakte [Exploration of the Eastern Lakes Plain Area]. Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Ministerie van Koloniën: Kantoor Bevolkingszaken Nieuw-Guinea te Hollandia: Rapportenarchief, 1950–1962, nummer toegang 2.10.25, inventarisnummer 13.
  5. ^ Auri, Piter, Peter R. Dommel and Markus Pokoko. 1991. Kaureki a Opoksel (Percakapan-percakapan Dalam Bahasa Kaure: Kaure Conversations). Jayapura: University of Cenderawasih and Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Foley, William A. (2018). "The languages of Northwest New Guinea". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. Vol. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 433–568. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.

Further reading