Hatam
Native toPapua
RegionEastern Bird's Head
Native speakers
(16,000 cited 1993)[1]
Dialects
  • Moi (Moire)
  • Tinam
  • Miriei
  • Adihup
  • Uran
Language codes
ISO 639-3had
Glottologhata1243
ELPHatam
Approximate location where Hatam is spoken
Approximate location where Hatam is spoken
Hatam
Approximate location where Hatam is spoken
Approximate location where Hatam is spoken
Hatam
Approximate location where Hatam is spoken
Approximate location where Hatam is spoken
Hatam
Coordinates: 1°08′S 134°02′E / 1.14°S 134.04°E / -1.14; 134.04

Hatam (also spelled Hattam, Atam) is a divergent language spoken on the island of New Guinea, specifically in the Indonesian province of West Papua.

Classification

Apart from Mansim (Borai), formerly listed as a dialect, Hatam is not closely related to any other language, and though Ross (2005) tentatively assigned it to the West Papuan languages, based on similarities in pronouns, Ethnologue and Glottolog list it as a language isolate[1] or small independent family.[2]

Distribution

Hatam is spoken on the island of New Guinea in the following regencies in the Indonesian province of West Papua:[3]

Phonology

The phonology of the Hatam language is listed below. In free form, both consonant and vowel phonemes can range to different sounds.[4]

Consonants
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless p t c k
voiced b d ɟ ɡ
geminated
Nasal voiced m n ɲ ŋ
geminated
Fricative s h
Liquid ɾ
Semivowel w j
Phoneme Allophones
/p/ [p, pʰ, pɸ, ɸ]
/t/ [t, tʰ]
/c/ [c, cʰ]
/k/ [k, kʰ, kx]
/ɡ/ [ɡ, k, ɡː]
/ɟ/ [ɟ, ɟː]
/d/ [d, t]
/b/ [b, p, bː]
/ɾ/ [ɾ, l, lː]
Vowels
Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid ɛ ɔ
Open a
Phoneme Allophones
/i/ [i, ɪ, ə]
/ɛ/ [ɛ, e]
/a/ [ä, a, ɐ]
/ɔ/ [ɔ, o]

References

  1. ^ a b Hatam at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forke, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2020). "Hatam". Glottolog 4.3.
  3. ^ Ronsumbre, Adolof (2020). Ensiklopedia Suku Bangsa di Provinsi Papua Barat. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kepel Press. ISBN 978-602-356-318-0.
  4. ^ Reesink (1999), pp. 9–13

Further reading