Native toIndonesia
Regioncentral Flores
Native speakers
4,000 (2005)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3ror

Rongga is a language of central Flores, in East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Rongga is closely related to Ngadha, and more distantly to Manggarai.[2][3]

Locally, it is considered part of the Manggarai culture;[4] however, its closer linguistic relatives include Ngadha and Lio, both belonging to the Central Flores subgroup.[2] Typologically, it is an isolating language.[4] Like other Central Flores languages, it uses elements of a base-5 numeral system, possibly exhibiting the influence of a hypothetical Papuan linguistic substratum.[5]

When written, it is spelled with Indonesian-like orthographic conventions. Digraphs such as zh, dh and bh are used to record sounds specific to this language.[6][7]


  1. ^ Rongga at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b Arka, I Wayan (2005). ‘Challenges and Prospect of Maintaining Rongga: A Preliminary Ethnographic Report’, in Ilana Mushin (ed.), Proceedings of the (2004) Conference of the Australian Linguistics Society. hdl:2123/138
  3. ^ I Wayan Arka (2016). Bahasa Rongga: Deskripsi, Tipologi dan Teori [Rongga Language: Description, Typology, and Theory] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Atma Jaya University Press. ISBN 978-602-8904-84-1.
  4. ^ a b I Wayan Arka (2010). "Maintaining Vera in Rongga: Struggles over Culture, Tradition, and Language in Modern Manggarai, Flores, Indonesia". In Margaret Florey (ed.). Endangered languages of Austronesia. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 90–109. ISBN 978-0-19-954454-7. OCLC 796288873.
  5. ^ Schapper, Antoinette; Klamer, Marian (2017). "Numeral systems in the Alor-Pantar languages". In Marian Klamer (ed.). The Alor-Pantar languages: History and typology. Berlin: Language Science Press. pp. 277–329. ISBN 978-3-944675-94-7.
  6. ^ I Wayan Arka; Jeladu Kosmas; I Nyoman Suparsa (2007). Bahasa Rongga: Tatabahasa Acuan Ringkas (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Penerbit Universitas Atma Jaya. p. 53.
  7. ^ I Wayan Arka (2010). "Numerals in Rongga". In Andrew Pawley, John Bowden (ed.). A journey through Austronesian and Papuan linguistic and cultural space: Papers in honour of Andrew Pawley. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 319–332. ISBN 978-0-85883-620-4. OCLC 645888379. Retrieved 2021-12-02.