Native toPhilippines
Regioneastern Palawan
Native speakers
30,000 (2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3cgc
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The Kagayanen language is spoken in the province of Palawan in the Philippines. It belongs to the Manobo subgroup of the Austronesian language family and is the only member of this subgroup that is not spoken on Mindanao or nearby islands.


Kagayanen is spoken in the following areas:[2]


Kagayanen consonant phonemes[3]
Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d k g ʔ
Fricative s (h)
ð̞ j w
Rhotic r

[h] occurs only in loan words, proper names, or in words that have [h] in the cognates of neighboring languages.[4] Outside of loanwords, /d/ becomes [r] between vowels.[5]

Comparative and historical evidence suggests that /ð̞/ and /l/ were in complementary distribution before a split occurred likely with pressure from contact with English, Spanish, and Tagalog.[6]

Vowels of Kagayanen[7]
Front Central Back
Close i ə u
Open a

/i/ ranges between [i] and [e], except in unstressed syllables (as well as before consonant clusters) where it lowers to [ɪ] or [ɛ].[8] Similarly, /u/ lowers to [ʊ] in unstressed syllables, before consonant clusters, and word-finally. It is otherwise [u].[9]


  1. ^ Kagayanen at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Ethnologue
  3. ^ Olson et al. (2010:206)
  4. ^ Olson et al. (2010:206), citing MacGregor (1995:365)
  5. ^ Olson et al. (2010:207)
  6. ^ Olson et al. (2010:207–209)
  7. ^ Olson & Mielke (2007)
  8. ^ Olson & Mielke (2007:845)
  9. ^ Olson & Mielke (2007:847)