Sulawesi, Indonesia
Linguistic classificationAustronesian

The Badaic languages are a group of three closely related Austronesian languages spoken in the North Lore and South Lore districts in Poso Regency, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, viz. Bada (Bada’), Behoa (Besoa), and Napu. The three languages are 80–91% lexically similar and to a great degree mutually intelligible, but their speakers are culturally distinct.[1]


The classification of the Badaic languages is controversial. While traditionally held to be a branch of the Kaili-Pamona languages,[2][3] they share many features with languages of the Seko branch of the South Sulawesi languages,[1] and may actually prove to be South Sulawesi languages that were strongly influenced by Kaili-Pamona languages.[4][5]

Zobel (2020) classifies Badaic with the Seko languages as part of a Seko–Badaic group within the South Sulawesi branch.[6]


  1. ^ a b Martens, Michael P. (1989). "The Badaic languages of Central Sulawesi". In James N. Sneddon (ed.), Studies in Sulawesi languages, part 1, 19–53. Jakarta: Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya.
  2. ^ Esser, S. J. 1938. "Talen", in Atlas van Tropische Nederland, Sheet 9b. Amsterdam: Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap.
  3. ^ Barr, Donald F., and Sharon G. Barr and C. Salombe. (1979). Languages of Central Sulawesi: checklist, preliminary classification, language maps, wordlists. Ujung Pandang: Hasanuddin University.
  4. ^ Mead, David. (2003). "Evidence for a Celebic supergroup." In John Lynch (ed.), Issues in Austronesian historical phonology. pp. 115–141. PL-550. Canberra: Australian National University.
  5. ^ Laskowske, Tom. (2007). "The Seko languages of South Sulawesi: a reconstruction". In David Mead (ed.), Studies in Philippine languages & cultures: 10-ICAL historical comparative papers, pp. 115–210. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  6. ^ Zobel, Erik (2020). "The Kaili–Wolio Branch of the Celebic Languages". Oceanic Linguistics. University of Hawai'i Press. 59 (1/2): 297–346. doi:10.1353/ol.2020.0014. S2CID 235064564.

Further reading

  • Woensdregt, Jacob (1925). Mythen en sagen der Berg-Toradja's van Midden-Selebes, vertaald en van aanteekeningen voorzien. Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, 65:3. Weltevreden: Kolff.