Betawi
basè Betawi, basa Betawi
Native toIndonesia
Australia
RegionJakarta
West Java
Banten
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Ethnicity
Native speakers
5 million (2000 census)[1]
Dialects
  • Bekasi
  • Cikarang
  • Depok
  • Parung
  • Serpong
  • Tangerang
Language codes
ISO 639-3bew
Glottologbeta1252

Betawi, also known as Betawi Malay, Jakartan Malay, or Batavian Malay, is the spoken language of the Betawi people in Jakarta, Indonesia. It is the native language of perhaps 5 million people; a precise number is difficult to determine due to the vague use of the name.

Betawi Malay is a popular informal language in contemporary Indonesia, used as the base of Indonesian slang and commonly spoken in Jakarta TV soap operas and some animated cartoons (e.g. Adit Sopo Jarwo).[2] The name "Betawi" stems from Batavia, the official name of Jakarta during the era of the Dutch East Indies. Colloquial Jakarta Indonesian, a vernacular form of Indonesian that has spread from Jakarta into large areas of Java and replaced existing Malay dialects, has its roots in Betawi Malay. According to Uri Tadmor, there is no clear border distinguishing Colloquial Jakarta Indonesian from Betawi Malay.[3]

Background

Distribution map of languages spoken in Java, Madura, and Bali. Betawi language spoken in and around modern Jakarta (blue) is traditionally registered as Malay.

The origin of Betawi is of debate to linguists; many consider it to be a Malay dialect descended from Proto-Malayic, while others consider it to have developed as a creole. It is believed that descendants of Chinese men and Balinese women in Batavia converted to Islam and spoke a pidgin that was later creolized, and then decreolized incorporating many elements from Sundanese and Javanese (Uri Tadmor 2013).[4]

Betawi has large amounts of Hokkien Chinese, Arabic, Portuguese, and Dutch loanwords. It replaced the earlier Portuguese creole of Batavia, Mardijker. The first-person pronoun gua ('I' or 'me') and second-person pronoun lu ('you') and numerals such as cepek ('a hundred'), gopek ('five hundred'), and seceng ('a thousand') are from Hokkien, whereas the words ane ('I' or 'me') and ente ('you') are derived from Arabic. Cocos Malay, spoken in the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Australia and Sabah, Malaysia is believed to have derived from an earlier form of Betawi Malay.

Dialects

Suburban Betawi dialect used at St. Servatius Church

Betawian Malay is divided into two main dialects;

Another Suburban Betawi variant is called Betawi Ora, which was highly influenced by Sundanese.

Betawi is still spoken by the older generation in some locations on the outskirts of Jakarta, such as Kampung Melayu, Pasar Rebo, Pondok Gede, Ulujami, and Jagakarsa.[5]

There is a significant Chinese community which lives around Tangerang, called Cina Benteng, who have stopped speaking Chinese and now speak Betawian Malay with noticeable influence of Chinese (mostly Hokkien) loanwords.

Examples:

The ending of every Betawi word that ends with an "a" is pronounced "e" like in the English word net. The "e" is pronounced in a way different from the way Johor and Riau Malays pronounce it.

Sample

Mark 1:9-11 in Middle Betawi dialect
A sample of a man speaking in Middle Betawi dialect

English

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Malay

Semua manusia dilahirkan bebas dan samarata dari segi kemuliaan dan hak-hak. Mereka mempunyai pemikiran dan perasaan hati dan hendaklah bertindak di antara satu sama lain dengan semangat persaudaraan.

Betawi

Kabèhan orang tu dilairin bèbas èn adè punyè mertabat serènta samè punya hak. Diè padè tu dikasi akal èn ati, serènta kudu begaul semuè-muènyè dalem girang-girang seduluran.

See also

References

  1. ^ Betawi at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Bowden, John. Towards an account of information structure in Colloquial Jakarta Indonesian. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Information Structure of Austronesian Languages, 10 April 2014. Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. p. 194.
  3. ^ Kozok, Uli (2016), Indonesian Native Speakers – Myth and Reality (PDF), p. 15
  4. ^ Tadmor, Uri (2013). "On the Origin of the Betawi and their Language" (PDF). ISMIL 17 conference talk.
  5. ^ "Documentation of Betawi". Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig. Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. Retrieved 2021-02-06.

Bibliography