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Gorontalo
Bahasa Hulontalo
Native toIndonesia
Region
Native speakers
1 million (2000 census)[1]
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-2gor
ISO 639-3gor
Glottologgoro1259
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The Gorontalo language (also called Hulontalo) is a language spoken in Gorontalo Province, Sulawesi, Indonesia by the Gorontalo people.[2]

Considerable lexical influence comes from Malay, Arabic, Portuguese, Dutch,[3] and the North Halmahera languages.[3][4] Manado Malay and Indonesian are also spoken in the area.[3][5]

Dialects

Musa Kasim et al. (1981) give five main dialects of Gorontalo: east Gorontalo, Limboto, Gorontolo City, west Gorontalo, and Tilamuta.

Phonology

Consonants

Gorontalo consonants
labial alveolar palatal velar glottal
nasal m n ɲ ŋ
plosive voiceless p t c k ʔ
voiced b d ɟ ɡ
implosive ɓ ɗ
sonorant plain w r j h
lateral l

Consonant sequences include NC (homorganic nasal–plosive), where C may be /b d t ɟ ɡ k/. Elsewhere, /b d/ are relatively rare and only occur before high vowels. /d̠/, written ⟨ḓ⟩ in the literature, is a laminal post-alveolar coronal stop that is indeterminate as to voicing. The phonemic status of [ʔ] is unclear; if [VʔV] is interpreted as vowel sequences /VV/, then this contrasts with long vowels (where the two V's are the same) and vowel sequences separated by linking glides (where the two V's are different).

Vowels

Gorontalo has five vowels.[6]

Gorontalo vowels
front central back
high i u
mid e o
low a

Notes

  1. ^ Gorontalo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ "The Gorontalo Language". The linguist list. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  3. ^ a b c Little (1995), p. 521
  4. ^ Henley (1996), p. 28
  5. ^ Zakariya, Ulfa; Lustyantie, Ninuk; Emzir (2021). "The Gorontalo Language in Professional Communication: its Maintenance and Native Speakers' Attitudes". Professional Discourse & Communication. 3 (3): 39–51. doi:10.24833/2687-0126-2021-3-3-39-51. ISSN 2687-0126.
  6. ^ Little (1995), p. 523

References

  • Steinhauer, H. (1991). "Problems of Gorontalese Phonology". In Poeze, H. A.; Schoorl, P. (eds.). Excursies in Celebes: Een Bundel Bijdragen bij het Afscheid van J. Noorduyn als Directeur-Secretaris van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkendkunde. KITLV Uitgeverij. pp. 325–338.
  • Little, John A. Jr. (1995). "Gorontalo". In Tryon, Darrell T. (ed.). Comparative Austronesian Dictionary: An Introduction to Austronesian Studies. Vol. 1. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 521–527. doi:10.1515/9783110884012.1.521. ISBN 978-3-11-088401-2. OCLC 868970232.
  • Kasim, M. Musa; Wahidji, Habu; Pateda, Mansoer; Junus, Husain; Hasan, Kartin; Koem, A. P. (1981). Geografi Dialek Bahasa Gorontalo (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa – via repositori.kemdikbud.go.id.
  • Joest, Wilhelm (1883). Das Holontalo: Glossar und grammatische Skizze (in German). Berlin: A. Asher & Company – via archive.org.
  • Henley, David (1996). Nationalism and regionalism in a colonial context: Minahasa in the Dutch East Indies. Leiden: KITLV Press. doi:10.1163/9789004486928. ISBN 9789067180801. OCLC 35113123.