Capul Sinama
RegionCapul, Northern Samar,
Eastern Visayas
Native speakers
26,000 (2010)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3abx

The Inabaknon language, also known as Abaknon, Abaknon Sama, Capuleño, Kapul, or Capul Sinama, is an Austronesian language primarily spoken in the Island Municipality of Capul of Northern Samar, in the Eastern Visayas Region of the Philippines.[1]

Unlike the other indigenous languages of the Eastern Visayas, namely Waray, Cebuano and Boholano, Inabaknon is not classified as part of the Visayan language family, but is rather grouped with the Sama–Bajaw languages.[2]


Inabaknon is spoken on the island of Capul in the province of Northern Samar. According to oral folk history, due to their not liking the religion of the Moros who ruled over them, a group of people and their leader Abak fled Balabac. They sailed until reaching the island.[3] The language is notable as being the only Sama language to not have had major Arabic influence via Islam.[4]


Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive/Affricate p b t d () k g ʔ
Fricative s (ʃ) h
Nasal m n (ɲ) ŋ
Approximant w l, r j
Front Central Back
High i u
Mid (e) (o)
Low a



  1. ^ a b Abaknon at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forke, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2020). "Inabaknon". Glottolog 4.3.
  3. ^ Summer Institute of Linguistics (1983)
  4. ^ a b c Jacobson & Jacobson (1980), p. 32