Reman Malay
Bahasa Melayu Reman
بهاس ملايو رمان
Cakak Patani/Reman
Native toMalaysia
RegionKedah (Baling, Padang Terap, Sik, Yan), Perak (Hulu Perak District, Batu Kurau)
EthnicityReman Malays
Dialects
  • Baling
  • Gerik
  • Batu Kurau
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Reman Malay (Reman: Cakak Reman/Ulu, Jawi: بهاس ملايو رمان, Malay: Bahasa Melayu Reman), also known by several names such as Patani, Baling, Grik and Tukugho is a Malayic language spoken in the states of Kedah and Perak in northern Peninsular Malaysia. In the state of Kedah it is spoken in the districts of Baling, Padang Terap, Sik and Yan while in Perak it is spoken in Hulu Perak[1] but also in some areas within Kerian and Larut, Matang and Selama especially in the towns of Batu Kurau[2] and Bukit Gantang. Despite being located within these two states, Reman Malay is not closely related to neighbouring Kedahan and Perakian varieties but instead more closely related or an offshoot of Kelantan-Patani Malay.[3][4]

History and Etymology

The name Reman comes from the Malay kingdom of Reman, a semi-independent kingdom which is part of the Greater Patani Confederation. Reman existed from the early 19th century until it was dissolved in 1902. This kingdom once ruled what is now northern Perak (Hulu Perak) as well as southern Yala (now part of Thailand). After the 1909 Treaty, the kingdom was divided into two parts, with the north becoming part of Siam while the south became part of Perak. This divided the Reman Malay community. The name Reman is still used today as a name of a district in Yala province. Continuous conflicts between Siam and Patani in the 18th and 19th century led to many Patani Malays (including those from Reman) migrating westwards, into the state of Kedah. They became a majority in several districts of the state and mixing with Kedahan and Perakian locals, forming the modern Baling and Gerik dialects.[3][5]

Variants

Despite its small geographical and population size, Reman Malay exhibits high dialectal varieties which differs not only between states and districts but also between towns and villages as well.[1] There is no agreement as to how many varieties of Reman are there but they were usually classified based on geographical division that is Baling, Grik or Hulu Perak and Batu Kurau. Each of these varieties have their own unique vocabulary and phonology but are still closely related to each other. Due to its isolation and smaller number of speakers, it is not intelligible to Kedahan and Perakian speakers as well as speakers of Standard Malay language.

Comparison

Below are some of the comparisons between variants of Reman Malay as well as other Malayic languages and dialects in Peninsular Malaysia.

Standard Malay Reman (Gerik/Hulu Perak) Reman (Baling) Kelantan-Patani Terengganu Pahang Kedah Perak
Pergi Gi Gi Gi Gi Gi Pi Pegi, Gi
Mereka Demã Demã Demo Deme Deme Depā, Lepā Deme
Kamu Mikã Mohã, Humã Mung Mung Aok Hampā, Hang Mike, Kome
Kami Khumã Khumã Kami, Kito Kaming, Kite Kome Sepā Keme
Tidak Mahu Tak Moh Tak Mboh Tok Sey Tak Mboh Tak Mboh Tak Mau Tak Sio
Faham Paha Paha Pehe Pahang Paha Paham Paham
Sangat Manis Manih Letting Manih Letting Manih Letting Manih Letting Manih Meletiang Manih Melecaih Manih Meletin

References

  1. ^ a b Nur Habibah C. H.; Rahim Aman (2020). "Varian Hulu Perak Utara: Fenomena Digerik dan Pengkalan Hulu" (PDF). Jurnal Melayu (in Malay). 19 (2): 216–243.
  2. ^ Tajul Aripin Kassin; Tarmiji Masron (2008). Fonologi dialek Melayu Pattani Batu Kurau dan dialek Melayu Pattani Ijok: Satu Analisis Perbandingan. Bahasa dan Pemerkasaan Masyarakat: Seminar Antarabangsa Linguistik dan Pembudayaan Bahasa Melayu ke-4, 11–12 November 2008, Dewan Persidangan Pusat Pendidikan Luar, Universiti Putra Malaysia (in Malay). pp. 390–396. OCLC 843853807.
  3. ^ a b Mohd Noor Aswad (2 November 2019). "Getting to Know the Unique Baling Dialect". New Straits Times. Retrieved 27 January 2022.
  4. ^ Mohd Tarmizi Hasrah; Mohammad Khairulanwar Abdul Ghani. Dialek Melayu Baling: Satu Pemerian Awal (Baling Malay: A Preliminary Description) (in Malay) – via ResearchGate.
  5. ^ Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin (2015). "Penyebaran Dialek Patani di Perak: Analisis Geolinguistik (The Dissemination of Pattani Dialect in Perak: A Geolinguistics Analysis)". Melayu: Jurnal Antarabangsa Dunia Melayu (in Malay). 8 (2): 310–330 – via ResearchGate.