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Madurese
bhâsa Madhurâ
بْاْسا مادْوراْ
Native toIndonesia
RegionIsland of Madura, Sapudi Islands, Java, Singapore and Malaysia (as Boyanese)
Ethnicity
Native speakers
6.7 million (2011)[1]
Dialects
Latin script
Carakan script
Pegon alphabet
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-2mad
ISO 639-3
mad – Standard Madurese
Glottologmadu1247
Madurese in Javanese script
Madurese in Javanese script

Madurese (bhâsa Madhurâ; Pegon: بْاْسا مادْوراْ) is a language of the Madurese people, native to the Madura Island and Eastern Java, Indonesia; it is also spoken by migrants to other parts of Indonesia, namely the eastern salient of Java (comprising Pasuruan, Surabaya, Malang to Banyuwangi), the Masalembu Islands and even some on Kalimantan. It was traditionally written in the Javanese script, but the Latin script and the Pegon script (based on Arabic script) is now more commonly used. The number of speakers, though shrinking, is estimated to be 8–13 million, making it one of the most widely spoken languages in the country. Bawean Madurese, which is a dialect of Madurese, also spoken by Baweanese descendants in Malaysia and Singapore.

Madurese is a Malayo-Sumbawan language of the Malayo-Polynesian language family, a branch of the larger Austronesian language family. Thus, despite apparent geographic spread, Madurese is more related to Balinese, Malay, Sasak and Sundanese, than it is to Javanese, the language used on the island of Java just across Madura Island.

Links between Bali–Sasak languages and Madurese are more evident with the vernacular form (common form).[citation needed]

Phonology

Latin letters are given according to the 2008 orthography.[2]

Vowels

Madurese vowels
Front Central Back
unrounded rounded
Close /i/
⟨i⟩
/ɨ/
⟨e⟩
/u/
⟨u⟩
Mid /ɛ/
⟨è⟩
/ə/
ꦄꦼ ⟨e⟩
/ɤ/
ꦄꦼꦴ ⟨â⟩
/ɔ/
⟨o⟩
Open /a/
⟨a⟩

Consonants

Madurese consonants
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal /m/
⟨m⟩
//
⟨n⟩
/ɳ/
⟨ṇ⟩
/ɲ/
⟨ny⟩
/ŋ/
⟨ng⟩
Plosive voiceless /p/
⟨p⟩
//
⟨t⟩
/ʈ/
⟨ṭ⟩
/c/
⟨c⟩
/k/
⟨k⟩
/ʔ/
⟨'⟩
voiced /b/
⟨b⟩
//
⟨d⟩
/ɖ/
⟨ḍ⟩
/ɟ/
⟨j⟩
/ɡ/
⟨g⟩
aspirated //
⟨bh⟩
/t̪ʰ/
⟨dh⟩
/ʈʰ/
⟨ḍh⟩
//
⟨jh⟩
//
⟨gh⟩
Fricative /s/
⟨s⟩
/h/
⟨h⟩
Trill /r/
⟨r⟩
Approximant central /j/
⟨y⟩
/w/
⟨w⟩
lateral /l/
⟨l⟩

Madurese has more consonants than its neighboring languages due to it having voiceless unaspirated, voiceless aspirated, and voiced unaspirated, voiced aspirated. Similar to Javanese, it has a contrast between dental and alveolar (even retroflex) stops.[3][4]

The letters ⟨f⟩, ⟨q⟩, ⟨v⟩, ⟨x⟩, and ⟨z⟩ are used in loanwords.[5]

Morphology

Madurese nouns are not inflected for gender and are pluralized via reduplication. Its basic word order is subject–verb–object. Negation is expressed by putting a negative particle before the verb, adjective or noun phrase. As with other similar languages, there are different negative particles for different kinds of negation.[6]

Common words

Madurese Indonesian English
lakè’ لاكَيء laki-laki male
binè’ بينَيء perempuan female
iyâ إياْ iya yes
enja′ أٓنجاْء tidak no
aèng [aèŋ] أأَيڠ air water
arè أرَي matahari sun
mata ماتا mata eye
sèngko' سَيڠكَوء aku/saya I/me
bâ'na باْءنا kamu/engkau you

Numerals

Madurese Indonesian English
sèttong سَيتَّوڠ satu one
duwâ' دوواْء dua two
tello' تٓلَّوء tiga three
empa' أٓمڤاء empat four
lèma’ لَيماء lima five
ennem أٓنّٓم enam six
pètto’ ڤَيتَّوء tujuh seven
bâllu’ باْلّوء delapan eight
sanga′ ساڠاء sembilan nine
sapolo ساڤَولَو sepuluh ten

Sample text

From Article 1 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Sâdhâjâna orèng lahèr mardhika èsarengè dhrâjhât klabân ha'-ha' sè padâ. Sâdhâjâna èparèngè akal sareng nurani bân kodhu areng-sareng akanca kadhi tarètan.
ساْدْاْجاْنا أَورَيڠ لاهَير ماردْيكا أَيسارٓڠي دْراْجْاْت كلاباْن هاء-هاء سَي ڤاداْ. ساْدْاْجاْنا أَيڤارَيڠي أكال سارٓڠ نوراني باْن كَودْو أرٓڠ-سارٓڠ أكانچا كادْي تارَيتان

"All Human Beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights, they are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."

References

  1. ^ Standard Madurese at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
  2. ^ see Davies (2010), p. 59
  3. ^ Davies (2010), p. 59
  4. ^ Stevens, Alan (2001). "Madurese". In Garry, J.; Rubino, C. (eds.). Facts About the World's Languages. New York: H. W. Wilson.
  5. ^ Ejaan Bahasa Madura yang Disempurnakan (in Indonesian). Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, Pusat Bahasa, Balai Bahasa Surabaya. 2008. p. 3.
  6. ^ see Davies (2010), p. 273-275

Bibliography

  • Davies, W. D. (2010). A Grammar of Madurese. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
  • Kiliaan, H. N. (1897). Madoereesche Spraakkunst (in Dutch). Batavia: Landsdrukkerij.