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Central Dusun
Boros Dusun
Bunduliwan
Native toMalaysia, Brunei
RegionSabah and Federal Territory of Labuan
EthnicityDusun people, Kadazan people
Native speakers
(140,000 Central Dusun cited 1991)[1]
100,000 ethnic population other dialects (1981–2000)[1][may need to subtract 15k Sugut and Minokok]
Language codes
ISO 639-3dtp
Glottologcent2100

Central Dusun, also known as Bunduliwan (Dusun: Boros Dusun), is one of the more widespread languages spoken by the Dusun (including Kadazan) peoples of Sabah, Malaysia.

Kadazandusun language standardisation

What is termed as "Central Dusun" (or simply, "Dusun") and "Coastal Kadazan" (or simply, "Kadazan") are deemed to be highly mutually intelligible to one other; many consider these to be part of a single language.

Under the efforts of the Kadazandusun Cultural Association Sabah, in 1995, the central Bundu-Liwan dialect was selected to serve as the basis for a standardised "Kadazandusun" language.[2][3] This dialect, spoken in the Bundu and Liwan valleys of the Crocker Range (now parts of the present-day districts of Ranau, Tambunan and Keningau), was selected as it was deemed to be the most mutually intelligible when conversing with other "Dusun" or "Kadazan" dialects.

Alphabet and pronunciation

Dusun is written using the Latin alphabet using 22 characters (the letters C, E, F, Q, and X are used in loanwords):

A B D G H I K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z

These characters together are called Pimato.

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive voiceless p t k ʔ
voiced b d ɡ
Fricative s h
Rhotic r
Lateral l
Approximant w j

Semivowels /w j/ and rhotic /r/ only occur in most of the other dialects of the Dusun/Kadazan languages. Forschner (1978) and Antonissen (1958) list two fricatives /v z/ for the Rungus and Penampang Kadazan dialects. [x] is also listed as an allophone of /k/ in word-medial position.[4]

Vowels

The vowels are divided into:

Simple vowels: /i u a o/

Diphthongs: aa ai (sometimes pronounced /e/) ii oi uu

Some combinations of vowels do not form diphthongs and each vowel retains its separate sound: ao ia iu ui ue. In some words aa is not a diphthong, and this is indicated by an apostrophe between the two vowels: a'a.

Grammar

Personal pronouns

Tindal Dusun[5] has a Philippine-type focus system of syntax that makes one particular noun phrase in a sentence the most prominent. This prominent, focused noun phrase does not need to be the subject or the agent of the clause. In clauses with pronouns, the verbal morphology and the pronoun both indicate focus. If the verb carries actor focus morphology, the actor of the clause will therefore be a nominative pronoun (or, rarely, an emphatic pronoun). Any other noun phrase in the clause will necessarily take pronouns from a different set, as only one noun phrase can be in focus in any given clause.

Tindal pronouns
Gloss Nominative Genitive Oblique Emphatic
1sg oku ku doho yoho
2sg ko nu diaʔ jaʔ
3sg isio disio~dow isio
1in toko jatiʔ
1ex jahaj~jahɛː dahɛː jahɛː
2pl jokow dokow jokow
3pl joloʔ dioloʔ joloʔ
Kadazandusun pronouns[6]
Gloss Emphatic Nominative Genitive Oblique
1sg yoku oku ku doho
1du yato/iyahai kito/iyahai/ikoi dato/dahai
1pl yotokou tokou dotokou
2sg ika/ia' ko/ika/ia' nu dia'/dika
2pl ikoyu kou dikoyu
3sg.m isio disido/dau
3sg.f isido dosido/dau
3pl yolo diolo

Sentence structure

A typical Dusun sentence is VSO.[7]

Poposidang

dry

oku

I

parai.

rice

Poposidang oku parai.

dry I rice

I dry rice.

It is, however, possible for a grammatically-correct Dusun sentence to be SVO.

Oinsanan

all

tangaanak

children

sikul

school

nonuan

given

do uniform.

uniform

Oinsanan tangaanak sikul nonuan {do uniform.}

all children school given uniform

All students have been given uniforms.

Vocabulary

Numerals[8]
English Dusun
one iso
two duo
three tolu
four apat
five limo
six onom
seven turu
eight walu
nine siam
ten hopod
hundred hatus
thousand soriong

To form numbers such as fifty or sixty, a multiplier is combined with a positional unit (tens, hundreds, thousands etc), using no.

tolu

five

no

already

hopod

ten

tolu no hopod

five already ten

fifty

Separate units are combined with om.

soriong

1000

om

and

turu

seven

no

already

hatus

100

om

and

duo

two

no

already

hopod

ten

om

and

siam

nine

soriong om turu no hatus om duo no hopod om siam

1000 and seven already 100 and two already ten and nine

one thousand, seven hundred and twenty nine

Months[9]
English Dusun
January Milatok
February Mansak
March Gomot
April Ngiop
May Mikat
June Lumahas
July Madas
August Magus
September Manom
October Gumas
November Milau
December Momuhau

The Dusun name of the months derive from the traditional cycle of paddy harvesting.

Days of the week[9]
English Dusun
Dusun name Numerical[citation needed]
Monday Tontolu Tadau koiso
Tuesday Mirod Tadau koduo
Wednesday Madsa Tadau kotolu
Thursday Tadtaru Tadau kaapat
Friday Kurudu Tadau kolimo
Saturday Kukuak Tadau koonom
Sunday Tiwang Tadau koturu/minggu

The names for the days of the week are mostly based on a simple numerical sequence, which is commonly used for media and newspapers.[citation needed] The names of Dusun days as part of the seven-day week derive from the life cycle of a butterfly.

Interrogatives[6][8]
English Dusun
what nunu/onu
who isai
where hombo/nonggo
when soira
why okuro
how poingkuro
how many piro/songkuro

Examples

Genesis 1:1–5

1 1 Tontok di timpuun i' om wonsoyo' nod Kinorohingan o tawan om pomogunan. 2 Aiso' po suang do pomogunan, om aiso' o poimpasi; om noolitan di rahat dot opuhod, om odondom o kotuongo'. Nga' mintongkop i' i Rusod do Kinorohingan do hiri'd soibau di waig. 3 Om pomoros no o Kinorohingan do poingkaa, ''Nawau no,'' ka – om haro noddi o tanawau. 4 Om kokito nod Kinorohingan dot osonong i tanawau, om potongkiado' no dau i tanawau do mantad id totuong. 5 Om pungaranai nod Kinorohingan do ''Dangadau'' i tanawau, om "Dongotuong" i totuong. Om korikot no sosodopon om korikot nogiddi kosuabon – iri no tadau do koiso'.[10]

Austronesian languages comparison table

Below is a table of Dusun and other Austronesian languages comparing thirteen words.

English one two three four person house dog coconut day new we (inclusive) what fire
Dusun iso duo tolu apat tulun walai tasu piasau tadau wagu tokou onu/nu tapui
Kadazan iso duvo tohu apat tuhun hamin tasu piasau tadau vagu tokou onu tapui
Tombulu (Minahasa) esa zua (rua) telu epat tou walé asu po'po' endo weru kai, kita apa api
Tagalog isa dalawa tatlo apat tao bahay aso niyog araw bago tayo ano apoy
Central Bikol saro duwa tulo apat tawo harong ayam niyog aldaw ba-go kita ano kalayo
Rinconada Bikol əsad darwā tolō əpat tawō baləy ayam noyog aldəw bāgo kitā onō kalayō
Waray usa duha tulo upat tawo balay ayam/ido lubi adlaw bag-o kita anu kalayo
Cebuano usa/isa duha tulo upat tawo balay iro lubi adlaw bag-o kita unsa kalayo
Hiligaynon isa duha tatlo apat tawo balay ido lubi adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Aklanon isaea, sambilog, uno daywa, dos tatlo, tres ap-at, kwatro tawo baeay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kaeayo
Kinaray-a sara darwa tatlo apat tawo balay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Tausug hambuuk duwa tu upat tau bay iru' niyug adlaw ba-gu kitaniyu unu kayu
Maranao isa dowa t'lo phat taw walay aso neyog gawi'e bago tano tonaa apoy
Kapampangan metung adwa atlu apat tau bale asu ngungut aldo bayu ikatamu nanu api
Pangasinan sakey dua, duara talo, talora apat, apatira too abong aso niyog ageo balo sikatayo anto pool
Ilocano maysa dua tallo uppat tao balay aso niog aldaw baro datayo ania apoy
Ivatan asa dadowa tatdo apat tao vahay chito niyoy araw va-yo yaten ango apoy
Ibanag tadday dua tallu appa' tolay balay kitu niuk aggaw bagu sittam anni afi
Yogad tata addu tallu appat tolay binalay atu iyyog agaw bagu sikitam gani afuy
Gaddang antet addwa tallo appat tolay balay atu ayog aw bawu ikkanetam sanenay afuy
Tboli sotu lewu tlu fat tau gunu ohu lefo kdaw lomi tekuy tedu ofih
Malay
(incl. Malaysian and Indonesian)
satu dua tiga empat orang rumah anjing, asu kelapa,
nyior (or nyiur)
hari baru
baharu
kita apa
anu
api
Javanese siji loro telu papat uwong omah asu klapa/kambil hari anyar/enggal kita apa/anu geni
Acehnese sa duwa lhèë peuët ureuëng rumoh/balèë asèë u uroë barô (geu)tanyoë peuë apuy
Lampung sai khua telu pak jelema lamban asu nyiwi khani baru kham api apui
Buginese sedi dua tellu eppa tau bola asu kaluku esso baru idi' aga api
Toba Batak sada dua tolu opat halak jabu biang harambiri ari baru hita aha api
Tetum ida rua tolu haat ema uma asu nuu loron foun ita saida ahi
Samoan tasi lua tolu fa tagata fale taifau niu aso fou matou ā afi
Māori tahi rua toru wha tangata whare kuri kokonati ra hou taua aha ahi
Tuvaluan tasi lua tolu toko fale kuri moku aso fou tāua ā afi
Hawaiian kahi lua kolu kanaka hale 'īlio niu ao hou kākou aha ahi
Banjarese asa duwa talu ampat urang rūmah hadupan kǎlapa hǎri hanyar kita apa api
Malagasy isa roa telo efatra olona trano alika voanio andro vaovao isika inona afo
Iban satu dua tiga empat orang rumah asu nyur ari baru kitai nama api
Melanau satu dua telou empat apah lebok asou nyior lau baew teleu nama apui

References

  1. ^ a b Central Dusun at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ "Official Language & Dialects". Kadazandusun Cultural Association Sabah. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  3. ^ Lasimbang, Rita; Kinajil, Trixie (2004). "Building Terminology in the Kadazandusun Language". Current Issues in Language Planning. 5 (2): 131–141. doi:10.1080/13683500408668253.
  4. ^ Miller, Carolyn (1993). "Kadazan/Dusun Phonology Revisited". In Boutin, Michael E.; Pekkanen, Inka (eds.). Phonological Descriptions of Sabah Languages: Studies from Ten Languages: Bonggi, Ida'an, Kadazan/Dusun, Kalabuan, Kimaragang, Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan, Lotud, Tagal, Tatana', Tombonuwo. Sabah Museum Monograph, Vol. 4. Kota Kinabalu: Sabah State Museum. pp. 1–14.
  5. ^ Robinson, Laura C. (2005). A Sketch Grammar of Tindal Dusun (PDF). Working Papers in Linguistics, 36(5). University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa.
  6. ^ a b Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia (2008). Puralan Boros Kadazandusun id Sikul (in Central Dusun). Putrajaya: Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum.
  7. ^ Minah Sintian (2019). Struktur Binaan Ayat Bahasa Kadazandusun dan Bahasa Melayu: Satu Pengenalan [Kadazandusun and Malay Language Structural Sentence Construction: An Introduction]. Paper presented at the Seminar Antarabangsa Susastera, Bahasa dan Budaya Nusantara (SUTERA) 2019, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Pusat Penyelidikan Langkawi UKM, 1–2 August 2019 (in Malay) – via ResearchGate.
  8. ^ a b Price, Daniel Charles (2007). Bundu Dusun Sketch Grammar (in English and Central Dusun). Crawley: University of Western Australia.
  9. ^ a b Tatak Barambang (18 August 2016). "Ondomo do tikid tadauwulan tulun Kadazandusun". Utusan Borneo (in Central Dusun). Retrieved 22 December 2021 – via PressReader.
  10. ^ Buuk do Kinorohingan: Habar dot Osonong (in Central Dusun). Petaling Jaya: Pertubuhan Bible Malaysia. 2007. ISBN 978-983-030-117-4.