|2021 Canadian census|
|Total population||36,991,981 ( 5.2%)|
|Most populous ||Ontario (14,223,942)|
|Least populous ||Nunavut (36,858)|
The 2021 Canadian census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population with a reference date of May 11, 2021. It follows the 2016 Canadian census, which recorded a population of 35,151,728. The overall response rate was 98%, which is slightly lower than the response rate for the 2016 census. It recorded a population of 36,991,981, a 5.2% increase from 2016.
Consultation on census program content was from September 11 to December 8, 2017. The census was conducted by Statistics Canada, and was contactless as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada. The agency had considered delaying the census until 2022.
About 900 supervisors and 31,000 field enumerators were hired to conduct the door-to-door survey of individuals and households who had not completed the census questionnaire by late May or early June. Canvassing agents wore masks and maintained a physical distance to comply with COVID-19 safety regulations.
In early May 2021, Statistics Canada began sending mailings to households throughout Canada containing instructions for completing the census questionnaire. The questionnaires could be completed by returning the paper questionnaire, or by phone or online by using an access code provided in the mailing. Statistics Canada expected about 80% of households to complete the questionnaire online. It was also available in large-print, braille, audio, and video formats. The questionnaire questions were available in a number of languages (Arabic, simplified and traditional Chinese, Italian, Korean, Persian, Portuguese, Punjabi, Russian, Spanish, Urdu, and Vietnamese) and indigenous languages (Atikamekw, Denesuline, Nunavik and Nunavut Inuktitut, Mohawk, Montagnais, Naskapi, Northern Quebec Cree, Ojibwe, Oji-Cree, Plains Cree, Swampy Cree, and Tłı̨chǫ), but the questionnaire had to be completed in either English or French.
The standard short-form questionnaire was to be completed by 75% of households. The other 25% completed a long-form questionnaire to collect data about the household's economic and social state, information about the occupied dwelling, and other data in addition to age, languages spoken, marital status, religious affiliation, and other basic data collected in the short-form questionnaire.
Those who completed the census questionnaire online could listen to a number of soundtracks on Spotify and YouTube prepared by Statistics Canada.
Completing the questionnaire is a legal requirement, and those who refuse to do so may be fined up to $500. It must be completed by citizens of Canada, permanent residents, refugee claimants, and those with a study or work permit.
The release dates for data by release topic from the 2021 census are:
Statistics Canada links income and related information obtained from the Canada Revenue Agency, and immigration status obtained from Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada, to the census responses.
The 2021 Canadian census included new questions "critical to measuring equity, diversity and inclusivity". For the first time, questions were asked about commuting methods and the census counted transgender people and people of non-binary gender. Canada has been noted in this instance to be the first country to provide census data on transgender and non-binary people.
|Rank||Province or territory||Population as of
|Population as of
|9||Newfoundland and Labrador||510,550||519,716||−9,166||−1.8%|
|10||Prince Edward Island||154,331||142,907||11,424||8.0%|