The first teaching hospital where students were authorized to methodically practice on patients under the supervision of physicians, was reportedly the Academy of Gundishapur in the Persian Empire during the Sassanid era. Some of the earliest teaching hospitals were the Islamic Bimaristans, which included the Al-Adudi Hospital founded in Baghdad in 981 and the Al-Fustat Hospital in Cairo founded in 872.
The following definitions are commonly used in connection with teaching hospitals:
Medical student–A person enrolled in a medical degree program at a medical school. In the graduate medical education model used in the United States, medical students must first complete an undergraduate degree from a university or college before being accepted to a medical school. In the undergraduate model traditionally used in countries such as the United Kingdom or Australia, medicine is an undergraduate university degree which students directly enter from high school. In more recent years, the graduate model has increasingly been adopted in the UK and Australia as well, without entirely displacing the traditional undergraduate model–both graduate entry and undergraduate entry programs coexist. (Historically, the undergraduate model used to exist in the US as well, but had been abandoned by the mid-19th century.)
Physicians assistant– Medical professionals who have completed training at the Masters level. They are trained to practice medicine alongside physicians on a population level allowing them to work in a wide range of specialties. This profession is not traditionally found in most countries outside North America, but in recent years there have been attempts to establish it in some of them, with mixed success.
Intern–A person that has a doctorate of medicine from a graduate medical school, or a Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery (in the British undergraduate model), that only practices with guidance and supervision of a physician/consultant.
Residency or post-graduate program–In the US and Canada, individuals that have completed their first year of a medical internship. Residencies may last anywhere from two to seven years, depending on the specialty. In most Commonwealth countries, the role of specialist registrar is roughly equivalent
Specialist registrar–In the British system, a doctor who is receiving advanced training in a medical specialty in a hospital setting; after four to six years as a specialist registrar, the doctor may then undertake a post-training fellowship, before becoming a consultant
Grand rounds–Grand rounds is a methodology of medical education and inpatient care, consisting of presenting the medical problems and treatment of a particular patient to an audience consisting of doctors, pharmacists, residents, and medical students. It was first conceived by clinicians as a way for junior colleagues to round on patients.
Teaching clinic–A teaching clinic is an outpatient clinic that provides health care for ambulatory patients - as opposed to inpatients treated in a hospital. Teaching clinics traditionally are operated by educational facilities and provide free or low-cost services to patients.
Nurse education–Some teaching hospitals partner with nursing education institutions to provide in-hospital, practical education for nurses, both graduate and undergraduate.
Many teaching hospitals and medical centers are known for the medical research that is performed in their hospitals. Close association with medical colleges and universities enhances the research programs at teaching hospitals. Some of the more notable teaching hospitals include the following:
Aga Khan University Hospital (Aga Khan Hospital and Medical College) is a 721-bed teaching hospital that trains doctors and hospital administrators with support from American and Canadian universities. The hospital also coordinates a network of over 100 health care units primarily in rural or remote areas.
In France, the teaching hospitals are called CHU (Centre hospitalier universitaire). They are regional hospitals with an agreement within a university, or possibly several universities. A part of the medical staff are both medical practitioners and teachers under the two institutions agreement, and receive dual compensation.
There are at least one per French administrative region. In the city of Paris and its suburbs, it is the local public hospital system called Assistance publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) which has an agreement with the universities of Paris 5, Paris 6, Paris 7, Paris 11, Paris 12 and Paris 13. However, it is divided into small groups of hospitals and universities which are commonly called CHU as if they were separate CHU.
There are 32 teaching hospitals in France. Amongst these are 30 University hospitals and only two Regional teaching hospitals.
Teaching hospitals rose to prevalence in the United States beginning the early 1900s and they largely resembled those established by Johns Hopkins University, the University of Pennsylvania and the Lakeside Hospital in Cleveland. The hospitals that followed the example of these universities were all very large, technologically sophisticated and aimed to have a global impact through both patient care and scientific research. Additionally, these hospitals had large patient bases, an abundant financial resources, and renowned physicians, advisors and staff. Many of the medical schools that ensued the prospect of being associated to a nearby hospital tended to be private institutions that received philanthropic support.
While some funding comes from Medicaid for the GME process, teaching hospitals must consider paying residents and fellows within their budgets. These additional costs vary between hospitals based on funding by Medicaid and their general salary for residents and fellows. Despite these costs, they are often offset by the prices of procedures which are elevated in comparison to most non-teaching hospitals. Teaching hospitals often justify this additional cost factor by boasting that their quality of care rises above non-teaching hospitals, or ensuring the patient that they are improving medicine of the future by having their procedure done with medical trainees present.
According to the Medical Journal of Australia, Australian teaching hospitals typically receive less funding for research than they do in similarly-situated countries. The late 1800s and early 1900s saw several attempts at instituting a teaching hospital to be affiliated with a medical school, but plans fell through until 1928, when Royal Prince Alfred Hospital became Australia's first teaching hospital, to educate students of the University of Sydney.