Newark Liberty International Airport
Newark Liberty International Airport in 2009
Summary
Airport typePublic
Owner/OperatorPort Authority of New York and New Jersey
ServesNew York metropolitan area
LocationNewark and Elizabeth, New Jersey, U.S.
OpenedOctober 1, 1928; 95 years ago (1928-10-01)
Hub for
Focus city forJetBlue[1]
Coordinates40°41′33″N 074°10′07″W / 40.69250°N 74.16861°W / 40.69250; -74.16861
Websitenewarkairport.com
Maps
FAA diagram
FAA diagram
Map
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
4L/22R 11,000 3,353 Asphalt/concrete
4R/22L 10,000 3,048 Asphalt
11/29 6,726 2,050 Asphalt
Helipads
Number Length Surface
ft m
H1 54 16 Asphalt
Statistics (2023)
Aircraft operations426,874
Total Passengers49,160,546
Total cargo (metric tons)780,295

Newark Liberty International Airport (IATA: EWR, ICAO: KEWR, FAA LID: EWR), originally Newark Metropolitan Airport and later Newark International Airport (or simply Newark Airport), is an international airport straddling the boundary between the cities of Newark in Essex County and Elizabeth in Union County, New Jersey, in the United States. Located about 4.5 miles (7.2 km) south of downtown Newark and 9 miles (14 km) west-southwest of Manhattan in New York City, it is a major gateway to points in Europe, South America, Asia, and Oceania. It is jointly owned by the cities and leased to its operator, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.[4] It is the second-busiest airport in the New York airport system behind John F. Kennedy International Airport but far ahead of LaGuardia Airport.

The airport is near the Newark Airport Interchange, the junction between Interstate 95 and Interstate 78, both of which are components of the New Jersey Turnpike, and U.S. Routes 1 and 9, which has junctions with U.S. Route 22, Route 81, and Route 21. AirTrain Newark connects the terminals with the Newark Liberty International Airport Station. The station is served by NJ Transit's Northeast Corridor Line and North Jersey Coast Line. Amtrak's Northeast Regional and Keystone Service trains also stop at the station.

The City of Newark built the airport on 68 acres (28 ha) of marshland in 1928, and the Army Air Corps operated the facility during World War II. The airport was constructed adjacent to Port Newark and U.S. Route 1. After the Port Authority took it over in 1948, an instrument runway, a terminal building, a control tower, and an air cargo center were added. The airport's Building One from 1935 was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places in 1980.

During 2022, the airport served 43.4 million passengers, which made it the 13th-busiest airport in the nation and the 23rd-busiest airport in the world. The busiest year to date was 2019 when it served 46.3 million passengers. Newark serves 50 carriers and is the largest hub for United Airlines by available seat miles. The airline serves about 63% of passengers at EWR making it the largest tenant at the airport. United and FedEx Express, its second-largest tenant, operate in three buildings on 2 million square feet (0.19 km2) of airport property.

History

In the 1920s, Newark, New Jersey, was the site of two airfields, Heller Field, which opened in 1919,[5] and Hadley Field, which opened in 1924,[6] that were used by the United States airmail service.

In May 1921, Heller Field was closed and all air mail services moved to Hadley Field, which by 1927 also served four airlines. The U.S. Postal Service, however, desired to have an airfield closer to New York City.[7] In 1927, people and organizations both national and local in scope began calling for a new airport in the area of Newark,[7][8][9][10] including Newark's mayor, Thomas Raymond.[11]

On August 3, 1927, Raymond ordered plans for a new airport.[12] Construction, which was estimated to cost $6 million (equivalent to $101,080,460 in 2022),[12][13] began on April 1, 1928, along US Route 1 and Port Newark.[14] The construction involved a land reclamation project to create 68 acres (28 ha) of level ground, 6 feet (1.8 m) above sea level to prevent flooding, upon which a 1,600-foot (490 m) runway was laid. In addition to the 6,735,000 cubic yards (181,800,000 cu ft; 5,149,000 m3) of earth required for the reclamation, 7,000 Christmas trees and 200 bank safes donated by a local junk vendor were used.[15] The airport opened on October 1, 1928, as the Newark Metropolitan Airport.[16] It was the first major airport to serve the New York metropolitan area,[17] and the first commercial airport in the United States with a paved airstrip.[18]

20th century

Albert Einstein at Newark Airport in April 1939

The first lease for space at Newark Airport was signed by Canadian Colonial Airways in April 1928.[19][20]

The nation's first air traffic control tower and airport weather station opened at Newark in 1930, and it became the first airport to allow nighttime operations after installing runway lights in 1952.[21] The Art Deco style Newark Metropolitan Airport Administration Building, adorned with murals by Arshile Gorky,[22] was built in 1934 and dedicated by Amelia Earhart in 1935.[23] It served as the terminal until the opening of the North Terminal in 1953.[24]

Construction of the Brewster Hangar began in 1937 and continued through 1938. This hangar was the most advanced of its time. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979 and is now a museum and Port Authority Police headquarters.[25][21]

Despite this, critics said the airport was poorly designed because there was no separation of incoming and outbound passengers and no thought given to future expansion, though this did not stop Newark from being the busiest commercial airport. United Airlines, American Airlines, Eastern Airlines, and TWA signed 10-year leases with the airport which ended in 1938. Then they would pay on a month-to-month basis until LaGuardia Airport opened in December 1939;[26][27] by mid-1940, all passenger airlines had left Newark, no longer making it the world's busiest airport.[28]

During World War II, the field was closed to commercial aviation while it was taken over by the United States Army for logistics operations. In 1945, captured German aircraft brought from Europe on HMS Reaper for evaluation under Operation Lusty were off-loaded at Newark and then flown or shipped to Freeman Field in Indiana or Naval Air Station Patuxent River in Maryland. The airlines returned to Newark in February 1946. In 1948, the city of Newark leased the airport to the Port of New York Authority, now the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. As part of the lease agreement, Port Authority took operational control of the airport and began investing heavily in capital improvements, including new hangars, a new terminal, and runway 4/22.[29]

On December 16, 1951, a Miami Airlines C-46 bound for Tampa, lost a cylinder on takeoff from runway 28 and crashed in Elizabeth, killing 56.[30] On January 22, 1952, an American Airlines CV-240 crashed in Elizabeth while on approach to Runway 6, killing all 23 aboard and seven on the ground.[31]

On February 11, 1952, a National DC-6 crashed in Elizabeth following takeoff from runway 24, killing 29 of 63 on board and four on the ground.[32][33]

Much of Newark Airport's traffic shifted to Idlewild, since renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport, after Newark was temporarily closed in February 1952; flights were shifted to LaGuardia Airport and to Idlewild, which allowed for planes to takeoff and land over the water rather than over the densely populated areas surrounding Newark Airport.[34] The airport remained closed in Newark until November 1952, with new flight patterns that took planes away from Elizabeth.[35] The continued unpopularity and the New York area's growing air traffic led to searches for new airport sites. Port Authority's proposal to build a new airport at what is now the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge was defeated by local opposition.[36]

Through the early 1970s, Newark had a single terminal building located on the north side of the field by what is now Interstate 78.[37] A new control tower opened in 1960,[38] and the terminal was expanded from 26 to 32 gates in 1965.[39] A $200 million expansion of the airport, which was to include three terminals, began in 1967 after three years of planning.[40] In 1973, the airport became Newark International Airport.[41] Former Terminal A and present Terminal B opened in 1973, although some charter and international flights requiring customs clearance remained at the North Terminal. The main building of Terminal C was completed at the same time, but only metal framing work was completed for the terminal's satellites. It lay dormant until the mid-1980s, when for a brief time the west third of the terminal was equipped for international arrivals and used for People Express transcontinental flights. Terminal C was finally completed and opened in June 1988.[42]

Underutilized in the 1970s, Newark expanded dramatically in the 1980s. People Express struck a deal with the Port Authority to use the North Terminal as its air terminal and corporate office in 1981 and began operations at Newark that April. It grew quickly, increasing Newark's traffic through the 1980s.[43] Virgin Atlantic began service between Newark and London in 1984, challenging JFK's status as New York's international gateway. Federal Express (now known as FedEx Express) opened its second hub at the airport in 1986.[44]

Scandinavian Airlines at Newark Airport in 1991

When People Express merged into Continental Airlines in 1987, operations (including corporate office operations) at the North Terminal were reduced and the building was demolished to make way for cargo facilities in the early 1997. This merger started the dominance of Continental Airlines, and later United Airlines, at Newark Airport.[45]

On July 22, 1981, a railroad tank car carrying ethylene oxide caught fire at the freight yard in Port Newark, causing the evacuation of a one-mile radius including an evacuation of the North Terminal building of the airport.[46]

In late 1996, the airport's monorail system opened, connecting the three terminals, the overflow parking lots and garages, and the rental car facilities. A new International Arrivals Facility also opened in Terminal B that year.[17] The monorail was expanded to the new Newark Airport train station on Amtrak's Northeast Corridor line in 2001 and was renamed AirTrain Newark.[47]

21st century

Newark Airport's historic Building One after its move and restoration in 2000

In 2000, the Port Authority moved the historic Building 51 and renamed it to Building One. The building, which weighs more than 7,000 short tons (6,200 long tons; 6,400 t), was hydraulically lifted, placed atop dollies and rolled about 0.75 miles (1.21 km). It now is where the airport's administrative offices are.[21][48]

September 11 attacks

An American flag flies over the airport's departure gate A17 (old Terminal A), where al-Qaeda terrorists boarded United Airlines Flight 93 during the September 11 attacks. Although the terminal has been demolished as of 2022, the jetway for Gate A17 has been preserved.

Further information: United Airlines Flight 93

After the hijacking and subsequent crash of United Airlines Flight 93 in the September 11 attacks in 2001 while en route from Newark to San Francisco, the airport's name was changed from Newark International Airport to Newark Liberty International Airport in 2002. This name was chosen over the initial proposal, Liberty International Airport at Newark, and pays tribute to the victims of the September 11 attacks and to the landmark Statue of Liberty, lying 7 miles (11 km) east of the airport.[49][50]

International traffic expansion

In October 2015, Singapore Airlines announced intentions to resume direct nonstop service between Newark and its main hub at Singapore Changi Airport, which had ended in November 2013.[51] The airline announced that service would resume some time in 2018, and the Airbus A350-900ULR was chosen as the aircraft for the route.[52][53] On May 30, 2018, Singapore Airlines officially announced that nonstop service between Newark and Singapore would begin on October 11, 2018, and Newark Liberty once again became host to what was then the world's longest non-stop flight.[54][55]

Continental Airlines, (now merged with United Airlines as of 2010), began flying from Newark to Beijing-Capital on June 15, 2005, and to Delhi on November 1, 2005. The airline soon started flights to Mumbai. On July 16, 2007, Continental announced it would seek government approval for nonstop flights between Newark and Shanghai-Pudong in 2009. Continental began flights to Shanghai from Newark on March 25, 2009, using a Boeing 777-200ER aircraft. Newark was the only New York area airport used by Philippine Airlines (PAL) until financial problems in the late 1990s caused the airline to terminate this service.[56]

In June 2008, flight caps were put in place to restrict the number of flights to 81 per hour. The flight caps, in effect until 2009, were intended to be a short-term solution to Newark's congestion. After the cap expired, the FAA embarked on a seven-year-long project to reduce congestion in all three New York area airports and the surrounding flight paths.[57]

Newark is a major hub for United Airlines (Continental Airlines before the 2010 merger). United has its Global Gateway at Terminal C, having completed a major expansion project that included a new, third concourse and a new Federal Inspection Services facility. With its Newark hub, United has the most service of any airline in the New York area. On March 6, 2014, United opened a new 132,000-square-foot (12,300 m2), $25 million hangar on a 3-acre (1.2 ha) parcel to accommodate their wide-body aircraft during maintenance.[58] In 2015, the airline announced plans to leave JFK altogether and streamline its transcontinental operations at Newark.[59] On July 7, 2016, the United States Department of Transportation announced that Newark was one of ten cities to first operate flights to José Martí International Airport in Havana, Cuba.[60]

Southwest Airlines began service at the airport in 2011, flying to ten cities. It ended all Newark service in November 2019, primarily due to the Boeing 737 MAX groundings, low demand, and inadequate facilities, and consolidated its New York–area operations to Long Island and LaGuardia.[61]

View of the Manhattan and Jersey City Skyline from Newark Airport in 2014

In 2016, the Port Authority approved and announced a redevelopment plan to replace Terminal A, set to fully open in 2022.[62] A $2.7 billion investment, the new terminal was expected to increase passenger flow and gate flexibility between airlines, and would also be accompanied by a replacement for the AirTrain Newark monorail system, scheduled for completion in 2024. The new Terminal A officially opened on December 8, 2022. The new Terminal A has 33 gates, increasing Newark's gate total to 125, including 16 international gates that can be alternated so that 2 narrow-body aircraft or 1 wide-body aircraft can occupy a space.[62][63]

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States across the New York City area, aircraft operations in Terminal A drastically changed with only 15,892,892 passengers in 2020, despite having 46,336,452 the previous years, the most in its history.[64] Alaska Airlines trimmed its Newark schedule to three daily flights and leased their gates (A30 and A31) to JetBlue to accommodate their increased operations.[65] In June 2022, United Airlines announced they would cut about 50 domestic flights from Newark in an effort to reduce delays.[66][67] On January 11, 2023, the FAA system outage across the United States caused 103 flights from Newark to be grounded, the third-most grounded flights across the country.[68]

In October 2022, PANYNJ announced their EWR Vision which will cover short- and long-term development through 2065. Officials named Arup, a global top aviation planning and design firm, to partner with SOM, who has done several projects with the Port Authority and EWR prior.[69] The start of the vision included finishing the new Terminal A, which was completed in January 2023,[63] and replacing the old AirTrain which is expected to be completed in 2026.[70] Goals for the project include creating a World Class Gateway for New Jersey, creating long-term economic growth, and creating a phasable plan that will not affect the airport's operations while expanding it to accommodate passenger and cargo growth in that time.[71][69]

As of 2023, Newark serves 50 carriers and is the third-largest hub for United Airlines after Chicago O'Hare and Houston George Bush Intercontinental.[72] During a 12-month period ending in March 2022, over 63% of all passengers at the airport were carried by United Airlines. The second-busiest airline is JetBlue Airways, which carries 11.4%, and then American Airlines, which carries 5.6%.[73] The second largest tenant is FedEx, which operates in 3 buildings on around two million square feet of the airport's property.[74]

Facilities

Runway 11/29 at the airport with Foreign Trade Zone No. 49 (in background) in February 2016

Runways and taxiways

The airport covers 2,027 acres (820 ha) and has three runways and one helipad:[75][76]

Runway 11/29 is one of the three runways built during World War II. In 1952, Runways 1/19 and 6/24 were closed and a new Runway 4/22 (now 4R/22L) opened at a length of 7,000 ft (2,100 m). After 1970, this runway was extended to 9,800 feet (3,000 m), shortened for a while to 9,300 ft (2,800 m) and finally reaching its present length by 2000. Runway 4L/22R opened in 1970 at a length of 8,200 ft (2,500 m) and was extended to its current length by 2000.[77]

The airport has more than 12 miles of 75-foot-wide taxiways. In 2014, the Port Authority completed a $97 million rehabilitation project of Runway 4L/22R while adding four new taxiways to reduce delays. Three of the new taxiways allow multiple planes to stage for departure at the end of the runway, reducing takeoff delays, while the other new taxiway will allow arriving planes to exit the runway faster and get to the gates quicker.[74][78]

A map of the three major international airports in the New York metropolitan area: JFK (1), LGA (2), and EWR (3)

All approaches except Runway 29 have Instrument Landing Systems and Runway 4R is certified for Category III approaches. Runway 22L had been upgraded to CAT III approach capability.[57]

Runway 4L/22R is primarily used for takeoffs while 4R/22L is primarily used for landings, and 11/29 is used by smaller aircraft or when there are strong crosswinds on the two main runways. Newark's parallel runways (4L and 4R) are 950 feet (290 m) apart, the fourth smallest separation of major airports in the U.S., after San Francisco International Airport, Los Angeles International Airport and Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.[45] Helipad H1 is used by Blade, a helicopter service that goes to EWR and JFK from their heliport on East 34th street in New York City with the purpose of going to and from the airport in under 5 minutes.[79][80] They use the Bell 407 helicopter.[81]

Unlike the other two major New York–area airports, JFK and LaGuardia, which are located directly next to large bodies of water (Jamaica Bay and the East River, respectively) and whose runways extend at least partially out into them, Newark Airport and its runways are completely land-locked. While located just across Interstate 95 from Newark Bay and not far from the Hudson River, the airport does not directly front upon either body of water.[82]

Cargo

Port Newark, adjacent to the airport, in May 2014

In 1997, the North Terminal was torn down to make a new air cargo facility.[45] EWR now has almost 1 million square feet of total cargo facility space, and 290 acres (120 ha) are dedicated to cargo operations. The airport is in both Newark, Essex County and Elizabeth, Union County, and is adjacent to Port Newark–Elizabeth Marine Terminal and Foreign-Trade Zone No. 49. It serves more than 45 air carriers with nearly 1,200 daily arrivals and departures to domestic and international destinations. Climate-controlled warehouse areas and cold storage accommodate perishable items.[74][83]

Aeroterm operates buildings 339 and 340, and the designated United Airlines cargo facility was constructed in 2001. The FedEx Cargo Complex is a $60-million sort facility at its Newark Hub which includes Buildings 347, 156 and most of 155. Building 157 is a cargo building used by several tenants. Construction of it was completed in 2003. UPS completed construction of their new cargo building in 2019.[74]

Air traffic control

Newark Liberty International Airport's Air Traffic Control Tower next to the Marriott Hotel in November 2014

In December 1935, the airport's first air control station came into existence following a flight that crashed outside of Kansas City, killing five people, including a U.S. senator. The airport's original terminal, or Building 51, also known as the Administration Building housed the first air traffic control tower for the airport, and was designed by John Homlish in the 1930s.[48][84][85] A concrete brutalist-styled and toothbrush-shaped control tower was built in 1960, and opened on January 18 of that year, designed by architect Allan Gordon Lorimer;[86] the cost of the construction was estimated to be $1.5 million.[87] In 2002, this control tower closed and was replaced by a new and taller control tower, and was demolished in 2004. The current air traffic control tower is 325 feet tall (99 m).[88] The current tower is located next to a Marriott hotel, which is located on the airport's property.[89][90] The current tower overlooks the Manhattan Skylines and the George Washington Bridge.[91]

Other facilities

There are several hotels adjacent to Newark Liberty International Airport. Hotels such as Courtyard by Marriott and the Holiday Inn are located on the airport's property.[92][93] Signature Flight Support is the only fixed-base operator at the airport, providing various services to private aircraft.[94] Terminals A, B, and C all have short-term parking lots. Garage P4 can access the AirTrain directly. Economy Parking P6 can be accessed from the terminals using the Port Authority shuttle bus.[95] An Exxon gas station with a 7-Eleven store (both with street address 100 Lindbergh Road) is located on the airport's property.[96][97]

Terminals

Across the airport's three terminals, there are 125 gates: Terminal A has 33 gates, Terminal B has 24 gates, and Terminal C has 68 gates.[98]

Gate numbering starts in Terminal A with Gate A1 and ends in Terminal C at C138. Wayfinding signage throughout the terminals was designed by Paul Mijksenaar, who also designed signage for LaGuardia and JFK Airports.[99]

Terminal A

The upper floor of Terminal A

The Port Authority approved the project to build a new Terminal A, replacing the original terminal, which opened in 1973. Built on a site once occupied by United Parcel Service and the United States Postal Service,[62] the new terminal cost around $2.7 billion and includes redesigned roadways with 8 new bridges, a new six-level, 2,700-car parking garage and rental center,[100][101] 33 gates, and a walkway to connect the AirTrain station, parking garage, and terminal building.[101] The terminal officially opened on December 8, 2022.[63][102] However, due to continued testing of the fire alarm and security system as well as a hesitance from the PANYNJ to open a brand new terminal ahead of the 2022 holiday season, the grand opening was delayed to January 12, 2023, at which 17 of the total 33 gates opened- all on the south side of the terminal.[103] The rest of the 33 gates opened in August 2023.[104]

Designed by Grimshaw Architects,[105][106] the redevelopment offers more traffic lanes at pickup and drop-off points, closer check-in counters and security areas to the entrance, and more gate flexibility to allow planes to park at any gate in a "common-use" system.[100][62] The new Terminal A has four levels: the departures level, the mezzanine level for offices, the arrivals level, and the ground floor, where baggage claim is located.[62] The terminal is operated as EWR Terminal One LLC by Munich Airport International, a subsidiary of Munich Airport, which manages the terminal's operations, maintenance, and concessions in the 1 million square feet of retail space.[107] The redevelopment also comes with plans to replace the existing AirTrain monorail system, scheduled to open in 2024, and was not opened along with the new Terminal A.[62]

The new Terminal A handles flights by Air Canada, American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, JetBlue (except for International Arrivals from non-cleared flights where it is handled at Terminal B), and any United flights not in Terminal C (where most gates are in this terminal operate).[108] Multiple technologies in the terminal, such as check-in and security, have been partly-automated.[108] The terminal's design has been noted for its use of art from local artists, art on digital columns, a new variety of restaurants and stores, and easy access to power outlets. The terminal was designed to fit New Jersey's "Garden State" (the state's nickname) image.[105] The new terminal also has a designated section for ridesharing company pickups, public transportation, and taxis.[108][63]

Terminal B

Terminal B viewed from the front

Terminal B, like the original Terminal A, was completed in 1973 and has four levels. Terminal B is the only passenger terminal directly operated by the Port Authority. It handles most foreign carriers, such as British Airways, Lufthansa, and Aer Lingus, ultra-low cost regional operators like Spirit Airlines, Sun Country Airlines, and Allegiant Air, and some of United's international arrivals.[109]

In 2008, Terminal B was renovated to increase capacity for departing passengers and passenger comfort. The renovations included expanding and updating the ticketing areas, building a new departure level for domestic flights and building a new arrivals hall.[110] In January 2012, Port Authority executive director Patrick Foye said $350 million would be spent on Terminal B, addressing complaints by passengers that they cannot move freely.[111] Further developments were made to Terminal B when the Port Authority installed new LED fixtures in 2014. The LED fixtures, developed by Sensity Systems, use wireless network capabilities to collect and feed data into the software that can spot long lines, recognize license plates, and identify suspicious activity and alert the appropriate staff.[112] The full renovation of Terminal B was complete by May 2014.[111]

Terminal C

An aerial view of Terminal C in January 2017

Terminal C, designed by Grad Associates,[113] was completed in 1988. Terminal C is exclusively operated by and for United Airlines and its regional carrier United Express for their global hub. The main terminal building for Terminal C was built alongside Terminals A and B in the 1970s, but lay dormant until People Express Airlines took it over as a replacement for the former North Terminal when the airline's hub there outgrew the old facility.[114]

From 1998 to 2003, Terminal C was rebuilt and expanded in a $1.2 billion program known as the Continental Airlines Global Gateway Project.[115][116] The project, which was designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill,[115] doubled the available space for outbound travelers as the former baggage claim/arrivals hall was remodeled and turned into a second departures level.

The exterior of the Global Bazaar in Terminal C

International Concourse C-3, a new facility with capacity for a maximum of 19 narrow-body aircraft (or 12 wide-body planes), was added as well.[115] Completion of this new concourse increased Terminal C's mainline jet gates to 57. Accompanying Concourse C-3 was a new international arrivals facility.[116] Also included in the project were an airside corridor connecting Concourses C-1, C-2, and C-3, a President's Club (now United Polaris Lounge) for international business class passengers between C-2 and C-3, and new baggage processing facilities, including reconstruction of the former underground parking area into a new baggage claim and arrivals hall.[117][118]

In November 2014, airport amenity manager OTG announced a $120 million renovation plan for Terminal C that included installing 6,000 iPads and 55 new restaurants headed by celebrity chefs, with the first new restaurants opening in summer of 2015 and the whole project completed in 2016.[119] In 2019, Terminal C was named 'Best for Foodies' in the nation by Fodor's Travel Awards.[120]

Former terminals

North Terminal (1953–1997)

The North Terminal opened in 1953.[24] Former Terminal A and present Terminal B opened in 1973, although some charter and international flights requiring customs clearance remained at the North Terminal prior to the opening of two new terminals.[42] Following significant expansion at EWR, People Express Airlines made a deal with the Port Authority to use the North Terminal as its air terminal and corporate office in 1981 and began operations at Newark that April.[43] When People Express merged with Continental Airlines in 1987, operations at the North Terminal were reduced. In 1997, the North Terminal was closed and then demolished making place for new cargo facilities.[45]

Terminal A (1973–2023)

The old Terminal A at night in 2005

Terminal A was completed in 1973 and was closed on January 12, 2023, when the new Terminal A opened. It was operated by EWR Terminal One LLC, part of Flughafen München GmbH. Terminal A handled only domestic and Canadian flights served by JetBlue (for domestic flights), Air Canada, Air Canada Express, American Airlines,[121] American Eagle; and some United Express flights.[122][123]

In Terminal A, there was one United Club in Terminal A's second concourse (A2). It also had an Admirals Club for American Airlines and an Air Canada Maple Leaf Lounge.[124] Terminal A was the only terminal that had no immigration facilities; flights arriving from other countries could not use Terminal A without U.S. customs preclearance, although some departing international flights used the terminal.[125] In 2016, the Port Authority approved and announced a redevelopment plan to build a new Terminal A replacing this one.[126]

Part of Terminal A was closed for demolition on September 30, 2021.[127] The remainder of the former Terminal A was closed to the public, and replaced with the new Terminal A on January 12, 2023.[128]

Ground transportation

Train

Further information: AirTrain Newark and Newark Liberty International Airport Station

A New Jersey Transit train at Newark Liberty International Airport Station in June 2017

A monorail system, AirTrain Newark, connects the terminals with Newark Liberty International Airport Station. The station is served by New Jersey Transit's Northeast Corridor Line and North Jersey Coast Line, with connections to regional rail hubs such as Newark Penn Station, Secaucus Junction and New York Penn Station where transfers are available to any rail line in northern New Jersey or Long Island, New York. Amtrak's Northeast Regional and Keystone Service trains also stop at the Newark Liberty International Airport station. Passengers can ride the AirTrain for free between the terminals and the parking lots, parking garages, and rental car facilities.[129]

In September 2012, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey announced that work would commence on a study to explore extending the PATH system to the station.[130] The new station would be located at ground level to the west of the existing NJ Transit station.

AirTrain Newark approaching Terminal A in May 2023

[131] In 2014, the Board of Commissioners approved a formal proposal to extend the PATH to Newark Airport.[132] On January 11, 2017, the Port Authority released its 10-year capital plan that included $1.7 billion for the extension. Under the plan, construction was projected to start in 2020, with service in 2026.[133][134] As of April 2023, the new rail station started planning the preliminary design and planning work for the station.[135]

In January 2019, New Jersey Governor Phil Murphy announced a plan for a $2 billion replacement project for AirTrain Newark. Murphy stated that replacement is necessary because the system is reaching the end of its projected 25-year life and is subject to persistent delays and breakdowns. The Port Authority would be responsible for funding the project.[136] In October 2019, the Port Authority board approved the replacement project with an estimated cost of $2.05 billion.[137] On May 5, 2021, the Port Authority issued requests for proposals to four teams.[138] In December 2023, the Port Authority announced that the Austrian company Doppelmayr had been awarded the contract to replace the current train system with a modern cable car system. The contract includes operating costs for 20 years and is close to 1 billion dollars. It is estimated that the new AirTrain will be operative in 2029.[139]

Bus

NJ Transit

Further information: NJ Transit bus operations

NJT buses operate northbound local service to Irvington, Downtown Newark and Newark Penn Station, where connections are available to the PATH and NJ Transit rail lines. The go bus 28 is a bus rapid transit line to Downtown Newark, Newark Broad Street Station and Bloomfield Station. Southbound service travels to Elizabeth, Lakewood, Toms River and intermediate points.[140][141] NJ transit also operates bus routes 37, 62, 67, 107 and 107X to EWR.[142]

Olympia Trails

Further information: Olympia Trails

Olympia Trails buses en route to Newark Airport

Olympia Trails operates express buses to the Port Authority Bus Terminal, Bryant Park, and Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan,[143] Super-Shuttle and Go-link operate shared taxi services as GO Airport Shuttle.[144][145][146]

Trans-Bridge Lines

Further information: Trans-Bridge Lines

United Airlines' bus service and Trans-Bridge Lines offer shuttles to Lehigh Valley International Airport (ABE) in Hanover Township, Pennsylvania outside Allentown.[147] Continental Airlines, (which later merged into United in 2010), previously operated flights from Newark to Allentown, but switched to a bus service in 1995 due to constant delays from air traffic control.[148]

Trans-Bridge Lines operates buses to EWR on their Allentown-Clinton-New York City eastbound and westbound route using both ABE and the Allentown Bus Terminal in Allentown, Clinton's Park and Ride, and Port Authority Bus Terminal in Manhattan with several stops in Lehigh and Northampton counties.[149][150]

Road

A map of the Newark Airport Interchange

Private limousine, car service, and taxis also provide service to/from the airport. For trips to and from New York City, fares are set by the New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission.[151]

The airport is served directly by U.S. Route 1/9, which provides connections to Route 81 and Interstate 78, both of which have interchanges with the New Jersey Turnpike at Interstate 95's exits 13A and 14, respectively. The interchange where U.S. Route 1/9, U.S. Route 22, New Jersey Route 21, Interstate 78, and Interstate 95 meet is known as the Newark Airport Interchange.[152] Northbound, Route 1/9 becomes the Pulaski Skyway, which connects to Route 139. Route 139 continues east to the Holland Tunnel, which links Jersey City with Lower Manhattan.[153]

The airport's northern, eastern, and western perimeters are directly surrounded by Brewster Road, a two-lane road which primarily serves to connect to the North area, South area, Port Authority police, and most parking lots.[154] The airport's official address is 3 Brewster Road.[155]

The airport operates short and long term parking lots with shuttle buses and monorail access to the terminals. The Port Authority's electric shuttle bus fleet comprising 36 buses and 19 chargers, was completed in October 2020 at Newark, John F. Kennedy International, and LaGuardia airports.[156] A free cellphone lot waiting area is available for drivers picking up passengers at the airport.[157]

Airlines and destinations

AirlinesDestinationsRefs
Aer Lingus Dublin [158]
Air Canada Calgary, Toronto–Pearson, Vancouver [159]
Air Canada Express Halifax, Montréal–Trudeau, Ottawa, Toronto–Pearson [159]
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle [160]
Air India Delhi, Mumbai [161]
Air Premia Seoul–Incheon[162]
Alaska Airlines Los Angeles, Portland (OR), San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma [163]
Allegiant Air Appleton (begins May 17, 2024),[164] Asheville, Cincinnati, Des Moines, Destin/Fort Walton Beach, Grand Rapids, Knoxville, Savannah [165]
American Airlines Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Miami, Phoenix–Sky Harbor [166]
American Eagle Chicago–O'Hare [166]
Austrian Airlines Vienna [167]
British Airways London–Heathrow [168]
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Salt Lake City [169]
Delta Connection Boston, Cincinnati, Raleigh/Durham [159]
Egyptair Cairo [170]
El Al Tel Aviv [171]
Emirates Athens, Dubai–International [172]
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa, Lomé [173]
French Bee Paris–Orly [174]
Icelandair Reykjavík–Keflavík [175]
JetBlue Cancún, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Los Angeles, Orlando, Punta Cana, San Juan, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo–Las Américas, Tampa, West Palm Beach
Seasonal: Aruba, Montego Bay
[176]
La Compagnie Milan–Malpensa, Paris–Orly
Seasonal: Nice
Seasonal charter: St. Maarten
[177]
LOT Polish Airlines Warsaw–Chopin
Seasonal: Kraków, Rzeszów
[178]
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich [179]
Porter Airlines Ottawa, Toronto–Billy Bishop [180]
Scandinavian Airlines Copenhagen, Oslo, Stockholm–Arlanda
Singapore Airlines Singapore [181]
Spirit Airlines Atlanta, Austin, Charleston (SC), Charlotte (begins April 5, 2024),[182] Dallas/Fort Worth, Detroit,[183] Fort Lauderdale, Houston–Intercontinental, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, Myrtle Beach, Nashville, Oakland, Orlando, Phoenix–Sky Harbor,[183] Pittsburgh, San Antonio (begins April 5, 2024),[182] San Juan
Seasonal: Tampa
[184]
Sun Country Airlines Minneapolis/St. Paul
Seasonal: Madison
[185]
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich [186]
TAP Air Portugal Lisbon, Porto [187]
Turkish Airlines Istanbul [188]
United Airlines Aguadilla, Amsterdam, Antigua, Aruba, Atlanta, Austin, Barcelona, Barbados, Berlin, Bogotá, Bonaire, Boston, Brussels, Cancún, Cape Town, Charleston (SC), Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Curaçao, Dallas/Fort Worth, Delhi, Denver, Detroit, Dubai–International, Dublin, Edinburgh, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Frankfurt, Geneva, Guatemala City, Honolulu (ends April 13, 2024),[189] Houston–Intercontinental, Jacksonville (FL), Johannesburg–O. R. Tambo, Key West, Las Vegas, Lima, Lisbon, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Madison, Madrid, Memphis, Mexico City, Miami, Milan–Malpensa, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Montego Bay, Munich, Nashville, Nassau, New Orleans, Orange County, Orlando, Panama City, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Pittsburgh, Portland (OR), Providenciales, Puerto Plata, Puerto Vallarta, Punta Cana, Raleigh/Durham, Rome–Fiumicino, Sacramento, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San José (CR), San José del Cabo, San Juan, San Pedro Sula, San Salvador, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo–Las Américas, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Sarasota, Seattle/Tacoma, St. Louis, St. Lucia–Hewanorra, St. Maarten, Tampa, Tel Aviv (resumes March 2, 2024),[190] Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita, Tulum (begins March 31, 2024),[191] Washington–Dulles, West Palm Beach, Zürich
Seasonal: Albuquerque, Anchorage, Athens, Belize City, Bermuda, Bozeman, Buffalo, Burlington (VT), Columbus–Glenn, Cozumel, Dubrovnik, Eagle/Vail, Faro (begins May 24, 2024),[192] Grand Cayman, Greenville/Spartanburg, Hayden/Steamboat Springs, Indianapolis, Jackson Hole, Kansas City, Liberia (CR), Málaga, Milwaukee, Montréal–Trudeau (begins August 1, 2024),[193] Montrose, Myrtle Beach, Naples, Nice, Norfolk, Palma de Mallorca, Ponta Delgada, Portland (ME), Porto, Reykjavík–Keflavík (resumes May 23, 2024),[194] Rochester (NY), Savannah, Shannon, St. Kitts, St. Thomas, Stockholm–Arlanda, Syracuse, Tenerife–South, Vancouver, Venice
[195][196]
United Express Albany, Atlanta, Austin, Bangor, Boston, Buffalo, Burlington (VT), Charleston (SC), Charlotte, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus–Glenn, Dallas/Fort Worth, Detroit, Grand Rapids, Greensboro, Greenville/Spartanburg, Harrisburg, Indianapolis, Ithaca, Jacksonville (FL), Kansas City, Key West, Louisville, Madison, Manchester (NH), Memphis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Montréal–Trudeau, Myrtle Beach, Nashville, New Orleans, Norfolk, Ottawa, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Portland (ME), Presque Isle, Providence, Quebec City, Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Rochester (NY), Sarasota, Savannah, St. Louis, State College, Syracuse, Toronto–Pearson, Washington–Dulles, Washington–National, West Palm Beach, Wilkes-Barre/Scranton, Wilmington (NC)
Seasonal: Asheville, Halifax (resumes May 23, 2024),[197] Hilton Head, Nantucket, Pensacola, Rapid City, Traverse City
[195][196]

Cargo

AirlinesDestinationsRefs
Amerijet International Orlando, San Juan [198]
Ameriflight Albany, Boston, Harrisburg [199]
Atlas Air Baltimore, Cleveland, Houston–Intercontinental, Louisville, Providence [200]
Cargojet Bermuda [201]
DHL Aviation Cincinnati [202]
Emirates SkyCargo Dubai–International [203]
FedEx Express Albany, Allentown, Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Cleveland, Detroit, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Worth, Greensboro, Indianapolis, Los Angeles, Memphis, Miami, Nashville, Norfolk, Oakland, Ontario, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Portland (OR), Richmond, Seattle/Tacoma, Seoul–Incheon, Washington–Dulles [204]
UPS Airlines Anchorage, Chicago/Rockford, Dallas/Fort Worth, Des Moines, Hartford, London–Stansted, Louisville, Ontario, Tokyo–Narita [205]

Statistics

Top destinations

Busiest domestic routes from EWR (November 2022 – October 2023)[206]
Rank Airport Passengers Carriers
1 Orlando, Florida 1,063,000 JetBlue, Spirit, United
2 Los Angeles, California 1,029,000 Alaska, JetBlue, Spirit, United
3 San Francisco, California 869,000 Alaska, JetBlue, United
4 Fort Lauderdale, Florida 820,000 JetBlue, Spirit, United
5 Atlanta, Georgia 753,000 Delta, JetBlue, Spirit, United
6 Chicago–O'Hare, Illinois 745,000 American, United
7 Miami, Florida 681,000 American, JetBlue, Spirit, United
8 Houston–Intercontinental, Texas 552,000 Spirit, United
9 Charlotte, North Carolina 521,000 American, United
10 Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas 516,000 American, Spirit, United
Busiest international routes to and from EWR (2022)[207]
Rank Change Airport Passengers Change Carriers
1 Increase13 London–Heathrow, United Kingdom 789,380 Increase490.5% British Airways, United
2 Increase2 Tel Aviv, Israel 575,941 Increase80.3% El Al, United
3 Decrease2 Cancún, Mexico 466,472 Decrease5.5% JetBlue, United
4 Increase3 Frankfurt, Germany 426,001 Increase80.5% Lufthansa, United
5 Increase11 Toronto–Pearson, Canada 405,047 Increase210.3% Air Canada, United
6 Decrease4 Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic 370,251 Decrease24.0% JetBlue, United
7 Increase28 Toronto–Billy Bishop, Canada 368,055 Increase480.2% Porter
8 Decrease5 Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic 367,699 Decrease19.7% JetBlue, United
9 Steady Lisbon, Portugal 366,639 Increase79.6% TAP Air Portugal, United
10 Decrease4 Punta Cana, Dominican Republic 323,826 Increase33.4% JetBlue, United

Airline market share

Most used airlines at EWR
(December 2022 – November 2023)
[73]
Rank Airline Passengers Share
1 United Airlines 33,414,010 68.1%
2 Spirit Airlines 2,804,033 5.7%
3 JetBlue 2,375,540 4.8%
4 American Airlines 2,355,794 4.8%
5 Delta Air Lines 1,771,602 3.6%
6 Alaska Airlines 1,146,730 2.3%
7 Air Canada 751,197 1.5%
8 Scandinavian Airlines 465,860 1.0%
9 Porter Airlines 410,390 0.8%
10 British Airways 384,655 0.8%

Annual traffic

Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on MediaWiki.org.
Annual passenger traffic at EWR airport. See Wikidata query.
Annual passenger traffic at EWR
1991–present
[208]
Year Passengers Year Passengers Year Passengers
2022 43,565,254 2012 34,014,027 2002 29,220,775
2021 29,049,552 2011 33,711,372 2001 31,100,491
2020 15,892,892 2010 33,107,041 2000 34,188,701
2019 46,366,452 2009 33,424,110 1999 33,622,686
2018 46,065,175 2008 35,366,359 1998 32,575,874
2017 43,393,499 2007 36,367,240 1997 30,945,857
2016 40,351,331 2006 35,764,910 1996 29,117,464
2015 37,494,704 2005 33,078,473 1995 26,626,231
2014 35,600,108 2004 31,893,372 1994 28,019,984
2013 35,016,236 2003 29,428,899 1993 25,809,413

Airport information

Newark Airport, along with LaGuardia and JFK airports, uses a uniform style of color-coded signage throughout the airport properties, designed by Paul Mijksenaar.[99][209] Former New York City traffic reporter Bernie Wagenblast provides the voice for the airport's radio station and curbside announcements, as well as the messages heard onboard AirTrain Newark and in its stations.[210][211] The airport has the IATA airport code EWR, rather than a designation that begins with the letter 'N' because the designator of "NEW" is already assigned to Lakefront Airport in New Orleans. Also, the Department of the Navy uses three-letter identifiers beginning with N for its purposes.[212]

Accidents and incidents

See also

References

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