Singapore Changi Airport

Lapangan Terbang Changi Singapura

新加坡樟宜机场
சிங்கப்பூர் சாங்கி விமான நிலையம்
Singapore Changi Airport logo.svg
Singapore Changi Airport with Jewel in the background.jpg
Summary
Airport typePublic
Owner/OperatorChangi Airport Group[1]
ServesSingapore
LocationChangi, East Region, Singapore
Opened29 December 1981 (1981-12-29)
Hub for
Focus city forQantas
Time zoneSST (UTC+08:00)
Elevation AMSL6.66 m / 22 ft
Coordinates1°21′33″N 103°59′22″E / 1.35917°N 103.98944°E / 1.35917; 103.98944Coordinates: 1°21′33″N 103°59′22″E / 1.35917°N 103.98944°E / 1.35917; 103.98944
Websitechangiairport.com
Maps
SIN is located in Singapore
SIN
SIN
Location in Singapore
SIN is located in Southeast Asia
SIN
SIN
Location in Southeast Asia
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
02L/20R[N 1] 4,000 13,123 Grooved asphalt concrete
02C/20C[N 2] 4,000 13,123 Asphalt concrete
02R/20L 4,000 13,123 Grooved asphalt concrete
Statistics (2021)
Passenger movementsDecrease 3,053,000
Air freight movements (tonnes)Increase 1,947,000
Aircraft movementsDecrease 109,000
Economic impact (2017)US$13.3 billion[4]
Social impact (2017)119,000[4]
Source: Changi Airport Group[5] WAD[6]

Singapore Changi Airport, commonly known as Changi Airport (IATA: SIN, ICAO: WSSS), is a major civilian international airport that serves Singapore, and is one of the largest transportation hubs in Asia. As one of the world's busiest airports by international passenger and cargo traffic, it has been rated as the 'World's Best Airport' by Skytrax several times, and is the first airport in the world to hold the accolade for eight consecutive years.[7][8] It has also been rated as one of the world's cleanest airports and highly rated international transit airports.[9][10] More than 100 airlines operate from the airport, with nonstop or direct flights to destinations in Asia, Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and North America.[11]

The airport is located within its namesake district of Changi, at the eastern end of Singapore, approximately 24 kilometres (15 miles) east from Singapore's Downtown Core at the Central Region on a 25-square-kilometre (9.7 sq mi) site.[12] It is the home base of BOC Aviation and Jetstar Asia Airways, as well as the country's flag carrier of Singapore Airlines, its cargo division Singapore Airlines Cargo and its low-cost subsidiary Scoot.[13]

With Singapore's strategic location being a favourable destination for high demand layovers, the airport also serves as a focus city for Qantas, as well as the flagship cargo hub for FedEx Express in Asia.[2][14]

In 2019, Changi Airport served 68.3 million passengers, making it the 18th busiest airport in the world.[15] The airport is operated by Changi Airport Group, a wholly-owned subsidiary under the purview of the Ministry of Finance of the Government of Singapore. It is served by three runways; all 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) long, and consists of four terminal buildings. A fifth mega-terminal is currently under construction.

Overview

See also: History of Changi Airport and Infrastructure of Changi Airport

Map of Changi Airport
Map of Changi Airport

Changi Airport serves more than 100 airlines flying to 400 cities in around 100 countries and territories worldwide, as of November 2020. About 7,400 flights arrive or depart at Changi each week, or one every 80 seconds.

For the 2019 full-year figures published by the airport, the airport handled 68,300,000 passengers (a 4.0% increase over the previous year), the most in its 38-year history.[16] This made it the seventh busiest airport by international passenger traffic in the world and the third busiest in Asia. In December 2019, Changi Airport registered a total of 6.41 million passenger movements, the highest the airport has ever achieved in a month since it opened in 1981. Its daily traffic movement record was also broken on 20 December 2019, with 226,692 passengers passing through during that day. In addition to being an important passenger hub, the airport is also one of the busiest cargo airports in the world, handling 2.01 million tonnes of cargo in 2019. The total number of commercial aircraft movements decreased by 1.0% from the previous year to 382,000 in 2019.[16]

The airport has won over 620 awards since its opening, including 28 "Best Airport" awards in 2019 alone.[17] Changi Airport's efforts to mitigate the effects of ageing infrastructure include continual physical upgrades to its existing terminals and building new facilities to maintain its high standards in airport service quality.[18]

Passenger terminals

Changi Airport has four main passenger terminals arranged in an elongated inverted 'U' shape with Jewel in the centre of the ‘U’ shape. Currently, the airport has a designed total annual handling capacity of 85 million passengers.[19]

Terminals Date of opening Location
Terminal 1 1 July 1981[20] Northern end
Terminal 2 22 November 1990[21] Eastern end
Terminal 3 9 January 2008[22][23] Western end
Terminal 4 31 October 2017[24] Southern end

There is also a privately run luxury terminal called the JetQuay CIP Terminal. It is similar to the Lufthansa First Class Terminal at Frankfurt Airport, but is open to all passengers travelling in all classes on all airlines with an access fee.[25]

The short-lived Budget Terminal was opened on 26 March 2006 and closed on 25 September 2012 to make way for Terminal 4.[26]

Mixed-use development

Further information: Jewel Changi Airport

The Rain Vortex at Jewel Changi Airport
The Rain Vortex at Jewel Changi Airport

Jewel Changi Airport, which opened on 17 April 2019, is a nature-themed entertainment and retail complex interconnecting Terminals 1, 2 and 3.[27] Announced in 2013, it was a new terminal structure that is intended to be a mixed-use complex.[28] It is situated on a 3.5-hectare site where the Terminal 1 car park used to reside. Jewel was developed by Jewel Changi Airport Trustee Pte Ltd, a joint venture between Changi Airport Group and CapitaLand, through its wholly owned shopping mall business, CapitaLand Mall Asia.[29] The project cost S$1.7 billion.[30] Part of this project was planned to help expand Terminal 1 to handle 24 million passengers per year by 2018.[31] The Indoor Waterfall (named “Rain Vortex”) in the structure holds the World Record for the Tallest indoor waterfall in the world.

Future terminals and projects

Terminal 5 is anticipated to be operational by the mid-2030s, to meet an anticipated doubling of volume by the 2040s. It is expected to handle 50 million passenger movements per annum.[32] The airport terminal structure is projected to be larger than terminals 1, 2 and 3 combined. It will be built on reclaimed land to the east of the present terminals. It will be funded through the newly increased levy.[33] KPF Singapore with Heatherwick Studio, Architects 61, and DP Architects will provide architectural services. Arup Singapore, Mott MacDonald Singapore and Surbana Jurong Consultants will provide engineering services.The former Transport Minister Khaw Boon Wan said that the Changi Terminal 5 project was delayed by at least 2 years as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.[34]

Operations

Terminal 2 check-in area
Terminal 2 check-in area
Terminal 3 airside area
Terminal 3 airside area
Aerial view of Singapore Changi Airport. The forested area to the right of the airfield has since been cleared for Terminal 5.
Aerial view of Singapore Changi Airport. The forested area to the right of the airfield has since been cleared for Terminal 5.

Passenger operations

As the airport only handles international passenger traffic, all terminals in operation are equipped with immigration-processing facilities for international travel.

After recovering from a drop in passenger traffic as a result of the September 11 attacks in 2001 and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003, the airport saw rapid growth in traffic, which hit the 30-million mark for the first time in 2004. In March 2008, prior to the full effect of the financial crisis of 2007–2010 on the global economy, the airport was predicted to handle 50 million passengers by 2012[35] due to the opening of casinos in Singapore and the phased liberalisation of the Asean aviation sector. As predicted, the airport surpassed the 50-million mark in 2012.[18]

On 18 December 2017, the airport surpassed the 60-million mark for the first time.[36][37]

The airport saw a record 65.6 million passenger movements in 2018 - beating 2017's record of 60 million passengers with a 5.5 per cent increase.[38]

In 2019, Firefly, the sole turboprop operator in Changi Airport, moved to Seletar Airport to make way for their jet operations.[39][40][41]

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, passenger traffic fell in 2020 and 2021, resulting in Terminals 2 and 4 closing in May 2020.[42] Terminals 1 and 3 remained open for passengers throughput, but were closed to the general public on 12 May 2021 along with Jewel, reopening on 1 September 2021.[43]

Cargo

The Air Cargo Division of the Changi Airport Group (CAG) manages the Changi Airfreight Centre[44] located in the north of the airport premises.[45] The airport handled 1.81 million tonnes of air cargo in 2012, making it the 7th busiest airfreight hub in the world and the fifth busiest in Asia.[46] Due to Singapore's large electronics sector, electrical components constitute a significant part of the total cargo traffic handled at the airport. Changi airport has initiated attempts to expand into the perishable air cargo market. In 2015, Changi Airport handled 1,853,087 tonnes of air freight. Air Cargo World awarded the 2013 Air Cargo Excellence Award to Changi Airport for handling more than 1,000,000 tonnes of cargo in Asia.[47]

The airport handled 2,006,300 tonnes of cargo in 2016, making it the 13th top cargo airport in the world and the sixth in the Asia Pacific region.[48]

In 2017, the airport handled 2,125,226 tonnes of cargo. The top five cargo markets for the airport were China, Australia, Hong Kong, United States and India.[49]

Key markets and destinations

In 2018, Indonesia was the largest market for the airport, followed by Malaysia, China, Thailand, Australia, India, Hong Kong, Japan, Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur was the top destination for travellers in the airport, followed by Bangkok, Jakarta, Hong Kong, Manila, Denpasar, Tokyo, Ho Chi Minh City, Taipei and Sydney.[50]

Safety and security

Singapore Airport Emergency Services Griffon 8000TD
Singapore Airport Emergency Services Griffon 8000TD

The Changi Airport Group (CAG) manages the overall safety and security of the airport. The Airport Management Division of the CAG manages the customer aspects of the airport's security, while the Aviation Security Unit oversees the airport's compliance with aviation security (AVSEC) policies, and manages AVSEC-related projects.[45] The airport's emergency and fire-fighting services are handled by the Airport Emergency Service Division.[51] The Airport Emergency Services handles all instances of rescue and fire-fighting within the airport premises as well as in surrounding waters. It operates from two main fire stations (Station 1 by Runway 1 along West Perimeter Road and Station 2 by Runway 2), one sub-station (Domestic Fire Station), and one sea rescue base near the airport.[52]

The airport's security comes under the regulatory purview of the Airport Police Division of the Singapore Police Force (SPF). The day to day discharge of security functions at the airport is performed by auxiliary police forces including Aetos Security Management, Certis CISCO and SATS Security Services. Aetos and SATS Security Services are affiliated to the ground handling companies of Dnata and Singapore Changi Airport Terminal Services respectively.[53] On 29 April 2008, CAAS signed its then-biggest single security contract for all airport-related security services by engaging Certis CISCO to provide security services at Singapore Changi Airport, as well as Seletar Airport, Changi Airfreight Centre, and the Singapore Air Traffic Control Centre.[54] It involves the deployment of about 2,600 Certis Cisco personnel, including armed Auxiliary Police Officers and unarmed aviation security officers to perform tasks such as screening checked baggage, controlling access to restricted areas, and screening passengers before they board their aircraft.[55]

Since the September 11 attacks and the naming of the airport as a terrorist target by the Jemaah Islamiyah, the airport's security has been tightened. Singapore Armed Forces and Singapore Police Force officers, armed with assault rifles or sub-machine guns, have been deployed to patrol the terminals at random intervals.[56] Officers from the Gurkha Contingent are also dispatched to patrol the transit areas of the terminal buildings. These measures come at a cost partly borne by travellers in the form of a "passenger security service charge", imposed since 2002.[57]

In 2005, an upgrade in screening technology and rising security concerns led to luggage-screening processes being conducted behind closed doors, as opposed to them being done before check-in within public view. The screening of carry-on luggage and travellers are mostly conducted at individual departure gates, while check-in luggage is screened in the backrooms and secured before loading. A perimeter intrusion detection system for Changi Airport's perimeter fence has also been put in place to further strengthen the security of the airfield, while a biometric access control system for staff movement has been put in place since 2006.[57]

Airlines and destinations

Passenger

The following list consists of the regular scheduled and charter flights to and from Changi Airport.

AirlinesDestinations
Air China Chengdu–Shuangliu, Shanghai-Pudong[58]
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle
Air India Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai
Air India Express Chennai, Madurai,[59] Tiruchirappalli
Air New Zealand Auckland
Air Niugini Port Moresby
Air Premia Seoul–Incheon[60]
AirAsia Ipoh,[61] Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur–International, Kuching, Langkawi, Miri, Penang
Aircalin Nouméa[62]
All Nippon Airways[63] Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita
Asiana Airlines Seoul–Incheon
Bamboo Airways Hanoi,[64] Ho Chi Minh City[65]
Bangkok Airways Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Koh Samui[66]
Batik Air Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta, Medan[67], Surabaya
Batik Air Malaysia Kuala Lumpur–International
Biman Bangladesh Airlines Dhaka
British Airways London–Heathrow, Sydney
Cambodia Airways Phnom Penh (resumes 4 November 2022), Siem Reap (begins 2 December 2022)[68]
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong
Cebu Pacific Cebu, Manila
China Airlines Taipei–Taoyuan
China Eastern Airlines Shanghai–Pudong[69]
China Southern Airlines Guangzhou[70]
Druk Air Guwahati,[71] Dili
Emirates Dubai–International
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi
EVA Air Taipei–Taoyuan
Fiji Airways Nadi
Finnair Helsinki
Garuda Indonesia Denpasar,[72] Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta
Gulf Air Bahrain,[73] Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi[74]
HK Express Hong Kong[75]
IndiGo Bengaluru, Chennai, Kolkata, Tiruchirappalli
Indonesia AirAsia Denpasar, Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta[76]
Japan Airlines Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita
Jeju Air Busan[77]
Jetstar Melbourne[78]
Jetstar Asia Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Clark, Denpasar, Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta, Kuala Lumpur–International, Manila, Penang, Phnom Penh, Phuket, Surabaya[79]
Juneyao Airlines Nanjing, Shanghai–Pudong, Zhengzhou[80]
KLM Amsterdam, Denpasar, Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta
Korean Air Seoul–Incheon
Lion Air Jakarta-Soekarno Hatta
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich
Malaysia Airlines Kota Kinabalu,[81] Kuala Lumpur–International, Kuching,[82] Penang
Myanmar Airways International Yangon
Myanmar National Airlines Yangon
Philippine Airlines Manila
Philippines AirAsia Cebu,[83] Manila[84]
Qantas[85] Brisbane, London–Heathrow,[86] Melbourne, Perth, Sydney
Qatar Airways Doha
Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan
Saudia Jeddah,[87] Malé, Riyadh
Scoot Amritsar, Athens, Bangkok–Don Mueang, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Berlin, Cebu, Chiang Mai, Clark, Coimbatore, Davao, Denpasar, Gold Coast, Hanoi, Hat Yai, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Hyderabad,[88] Ipoh, Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta, Jeddah, Jeju,[89] Kota Kinabalu, Krabi, Kuala Lumpur–International, Kuching, Langkawi, Macau, Manado, Manila, Melbourne, Miri, Nanjing, Osaka–Kansai,[90] Penang, Perth, Phuket, Seoul–Incheon, Surabaya, Sydney, Tianjin, Taipei–Taoyuan, Thiruvananthapuram, Tiruchirappalli, Tokyo–Narita,[90] Vientiane, Visakhapatnam
Seasonal: Sapporo–Chitose (resumes 1 November 2022)[91][92]
Sichuan Airlines Chengdu–Shuangliu[93]
Singapore Airlines[94] Adelaide, Ahmedabad, Amsterdam, Auckland, Bandar Seri Begawan, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Barcelona, Bengaluru, Brisbane, Cairns, Cape Town, Cebu, Chennai, Chongqing, Christchurch, Colombo–Bandaranaike, Copenhagen, Da Nang, Darwin, Davao, Delhi, Denpasar, Dhaka, Dubai–International, Frankfurt, Fukuoka, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Houston–Intercontinental, Hyderabad, Istanbul, Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta, Johannesburg–O.R. Tambo, Kathmandu, Kochi, Kolkata, Kuala Lumpur–International, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Malé, Manchester, Manila, Medan, Melbourne, Milan–Malpensa, Mumbai, Munich, Nagoya–Centrair, Newark, New York–JFK, Osaka–Kansai, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Penang, Perth, Phnom Penh, Phuket, Rome–Fiumicino, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma, Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Pudong, Shenzhen, Siem Reap, Surabaya, Sydney, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita, Vancouver, Yangon, Zürich
SriLankan Airlines Colombo–Bandaranaike
Starlux Airlines Taipei–Taoyuan[95]
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich
Thai AirAsia Bangkok–Don Mueang, Phuket
Thai Airways International Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi
Thai Vietjet Air Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi,[96] Phuket[96]
Turkish Airlines Istanbul
T'way Air Seoul–Incheon[97]
United Airlines San Francisco
US-Bangla Airlines Dhaka
VietJet Air Da Nang,[98] Hanoi,[99] Ho Chi Minh City[99]
Vietnam Airlines Da Nang,[100] Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City
Vistara Delhi,[101] Mumbai
Xiamen Airlines Xiamen[102]
ZIPAIR Tokyo Tokyo–Narita[103]

Cargo

AirlinesDestinations
AeroLogic[104] Bahrain, Bengaluru,[105] Frankfurt, Hong Kong, Leipzig/Halle
Air Atlanta Icelandic[106] Dubai-Al Maktoum, Frankfurt, Hahn, Hong Kong, Johannesburg-O.R. Tambo,[107] Liège, Nairobi-Jomo Kenyatta,[108] Seoul–Incheon
Air Hong Kong[104] Hong Kong
Air Premia Seoul–Incheon[109]
Asia Cargo Airlines[110][111] Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Beirut, Dili, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Kuala Lumpur–International, Macau, Manila, Zürich
Asiana Cargo[112] Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Seoul–Incheon
Atlas Air[113] Seoul–Incheon, Tokyo–Narita
Cargolux[114] Anchorage, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Chicago–O'Hare, Dubai-Al Maktoum, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur–International, Los Angeles, Luxembourg, Riyadh, Taipei–Taoyuan, Zhengzhou
Cathay Pacific Cargo[115] Hanoi, Hong Kong, Penang, Phnom Penh
China Airlines Cargo Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Manila, Penang, Taipei–Taoyuan
China Cargo Airlines[116] Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Shanghai–Pudong
DHL Aero Expreso Darwin[117]
Emirates SkyCargo[118] Dubai–Al Maktoum,[119] Hong Kong, Melbourne, Sydney
EVA Air Cargo Taipei–Taoyuan[120]
Exploits Valley Air Services[121] Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta
FedEx Express[122] Anchorage, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Clark, Dubai–International, Guangzhou, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Honolulu, Indianapolis, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Memphis, Osaka–Kansai, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Penang, Sydney,[123] Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Narita
Hong Kong Air Cargo Hong Kong[124]
Kalitta Air[125] Bahrain, Cincinnati, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Melbourne, Nagoya–Centrair, Sydney
K-Mile Air[126] Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta
Korean Air Cargo[127] Kuala Lumpur–International, Manila, Penang, Seoul–Incheon
My Indo Airlines[128] Balikpapan, Bandar Seri Begawan, Haikou,[129] Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Kuala Lumpur–International, Semarang, Shenzhen, Surabaya[130]
MY Jet Xpress Airlines[131] Kuala Lumpur–International, Penang
Nippon Cargo Airlines Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi,[132] Hong Kong,[132] Tokyo–Narita[133]
Polar Air Cargo[104] Anchorage, Cincinnati, Hong Kong, Nagoya–Centrair, Seoul-Incheon, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Narita
Qatar Airways Cargo[134] Doha, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Melbourne, Nagoya–Centrair, Osaka–Kansai[135]
Raya Airways Kuala Lumpur–Subang
SF Airlines Hangzhou,[136][137] Shenzhen
Silk Way West Airlines[138] Baku, Cairo, Port Moresby[139][140]
Singapore Airlines Cargo[141] Amsterdam, Anchorage, Auckland, Beijing–Capital, Bengaluru, Brussels, Chennai, Chengdu–Shuangliu, Chongqing, Dallas/Fort Worth, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Johannesburg-O.R. Tambo, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Melbourne, Mumbai, Nairobi-Jomo Kenyatta, Shanghai–Pudong, Sharjah, Shenzhen, Sydney, Taipei–Taoyuan
Suparna Airlines[142] Shanghai–Pudong, Tianjin
Tasman Cargo Airlines Darwin, Melbourne[143]
Tianjin Air Cargo Nanning[144]
Turkish Cargo Istanbul
UPS Airlines[145] Anchorage, Hanoi, Hong Kong, Louisville, Penang, Seoul-Incheon, Shenzhen, Sydney
YTO Cargo Airlines Hangzhou[146][147]

Operational statistics

Operational statistics (1980-1989)
Year Passenger
movements
Passenger %
change over
previous year
Airfreight
movements
(tonnes)
Airfreight %
change over
previous year
Aircraft
movements
Aircraft %
change over
previous year
Notes
1980 7,294,549 Steady 0.0 75,971 Steady 0.0
1981 8,152,158 Increase 11.7% 71,365 Decrease 6.1%
1982 8,611,812 Increase 5.6% 68,159 Decrease 4.5%
1983 8,679,152 Increase 0.8% 67,594 Decrease 0.8%
1984 9,465,651 Increase 9.1% 70,674 Increase 4.5%
1985 9,856,830 Increase 4.1% 73,223 Increase 3.6%
1986 10,067,719 Increase 2.1% 352,806 Steady 0.0 73,022 Decrease 0.3%
1987 11,203,793 Increase 11.3% 419,099 Increase 18.8% 76,276 Increase 4.5%
1988 12,595,286 Increase 12.4% 512,509 Increase 22.3% 82,930 Increase 8.7%
1989 14,136,367 Increase 12.3% 577,610 Increase 12.7% 87,421 Increase 5.4%
Sources:[148][149][150]
Operational statistics (1990-1999)
Year Passenger
movements
Passenger %
change over
previous year
Airfreight
movements
(tonnes)
Airfreight %
change over
previous year
Aircraft
movements
Aircraft %
change over
previous year
Notes
1990 15,620,758 Increase 10.5% 623,841 Increase 8.0% 97,675 Increase 11.7%
1991 16,285,039 Increase 4.3% 643,209 Increase 3.1% 108,728 Increase 11.3%
1992 18,100,155 Increase 11.1% 719,004 Increase 11.7% 125,526 Increase 15.4%
1993 19,987,214 Increase 10.4% 838,416 Increase 16.6% 136,762 Increase 8.9%
1994 21,644,677 Increase 8.3% 1,009,764 Increase 20.4% 145,334 Increase 6.3%
1995 23,196,240 Increase 7.2% 1,105,773 Increase 9.5% 156,334 Increase 7.6%
1996 24,514,248 Increase 5.7% 1,190,457 Increase 7.6% 166,749 Increase 6.7%
1997 25,174,344 Increase 2.7% 1,336,254 Increase 12.2% 172,672 Increase 3.5%
1998 23,803,180 Decrease 5.4% 1,283,660 Decrease 4.0% 165,242 Decrease 4.3% 1997 Asian financial crisis
1999 26,064,645 Increase 9.5 1,500,393 Increase 16.8 165,961 Increase 0.4
Sources:[151][149][150]
Operational statistics (2000-2009)
Year Passenger
movements
Passenger %
change over
previous year
Airfreight
movements
(tonnes)
Airfreight %
change over
previous year
Aircraft
movements
Aircraft %
change over
previous year
Notes
2000 28,618,200 Increase 9.8 1,682,489 Increase 12.1 173,947 Increase 4.8
2001 28,093,759 Decrease 1.83 1,507,062 Decrease 11.6 179,359 Increase 3.1 September 11 attacks
2002 28,979,344 Increase 3.2 1,637,797 Increase 8.7 174,820 Decrease 2.5
2003 24,664,137 Decrease 14.9 1,611,407 Decrease 1.6 154,346 Decrease 11.7 2002–2004 SARS outbreak
2004 30,353,565 Increase 23.0 1,775,092 Increase 10.1 184,932 Increase 19.8
2005 32,430,856 Increase 6.8 1,833,721 Increase 3.3 204,138 Increase 10.3
2006 35,033,083 Increase 8.0 1,931,881 Increase 5.4 214,000 Increase 4.8
2007 36,701,556 Increase 4.8 1,918,159 Decrease 0.7 221,000 Increase 3.3
2008 37,694,824 Increase 2.7 1,883,894 Decrease 1.8 232,000 Increase 5.0
2009 37,203,978 Decrease 1.3 1,633,791 Decrease 15.3 240,360 Increase 3.6 Financial crisis of 2007–2008
Sources:[152][153][154]
Operational statistics (2010-2019)
Year Passenger
movements
Passenger %
change over
previous year
Airfreight
movements
(tonnes)
Airfreight %
change over
previous year
Aircraft
movements
Aircraft %
change over
previous year
Notes
2010 42,038,777 Increase 13.0 1,813,809 Increase 11.0 263,593 Increase 9.7
2011 46,543,845 Increase 10.7 1,865,252 Increase 2.8 301,711 Increase 14.5
2012 51,181,804 Increase 10.0 1,806,225 Decrease 3.2 324,722 Increase 7.6
2013 53,726,087 Increase 5.0 1,850,233 Increase 2.4 343,800 Increase 5.9
2014 54,093,070 Increase 0.8 1,843,799 Decrease 0.3 341,386 Decrease 0.7
2015 55,448,964 Increase 2.5 1,853,087 Increase 0.5 346,334 Increase 1.5
2016 58,698,039 Increase 5.9 1,969,434 Increase 6.3 360,490 Increase 4.1
2017 62,219,573 Increase 6.0 2,125,226 Increase 7.9 373,201 Increase 3.5
2018 65,600,000 Increase 5.5 2,150,000 Increase 1.4 386,000 Increase 3.4
2019 68,300,000 Increase 4.0 2,010,000 Decrease 6.5 382,000 Decrease 1.0
Sources:[155][156][157][158][159][160][161][162][163][16]
Operational statistics (2020-2021)
Year Passenger
movements
Passenger %
change over
previous year
Airfreight
movements
(tonnes)
Airfreight %
change over
previous year
Aircraft
movements
Aircraft %
change over
previous year
Notes
2020 11,800,000 Decrease 82.8 1,540,000 Decrease 23.3 125,000 Decrease 67.2 COVID-19 pandemic
2021 3,053,000 Decrease 74.1 1,947,000 Increase 26.1 109,000 Decrease 13.2 COVID-19 pandemic
Sources:[164][165]


Annual passenger traffic at SIN airport. See source Wikidata query.

The cause of the sudden plummet in 2020 numbers is a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Accidents and incidents

Ground transportation

Changi Airport was built with ground-transportation considerations in mind from the onset, with the East Coast Parkway beginning at the Benjamin Sheares Bridge built and opened in tandem with the airport, providing a direct link to the city centre. At a distance of about 20 km (12 mi), the expressway was built almost entirely on reclaimed land, thus minimising disruptions to the existing road network in Singapore's eastern coasts.

Despite the four main passenger terminal buildings being relatively close to each other, the CAAS (Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore) decided to build the Changi Airport Skytrain people-mover system to facilitate quicker and more convenient transfers between the terminals for travellers. The system was upgraded in 2007 with new technologies supplied by Mitsubishi, connecting to Terminal 3 and separating checked-in passengers from the general public on distinct tracks.

Inter-terminal transportation

Changi Airport MRT station platforms

Main article: Changi Airport Skytrain

Terminals 1, 2 and 3 are connected by the free Skytrain service, which operates from 05:00 to 02:30. During non-operational hours, travellers in the transit areas may transfer within the terminals by foot via the inter-terminal travellators. For travellers in the public areas, a free shuttle bus service will connect the three terminals.[173]

A complimentary 24-hour Airport Shuttle Bus service plies between Terminal 3 and Terminal 4 in both the public and transit areas. The journey takes approximately eight to 10 minutes.[174]

External connections

Mass Rapid Transit

The airport is connected to the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) network via a two-stop branch of the East West line from Tanah Merah MRT station, consisting of two stations: Expo, serving the nearby Singapore Expo site; and Changi Airport. Changi Airport MRT station is located underground between Terminal 2 and Terminal 3. Direct, one-train service to the downtown and western parts of Singapore was initially in operation when the station opened on 8 February 2002. This was replaced by the current shuttle service between Tanah Merah and Changi Airport via Expo on 22 July 2003,[175] when it was found that passenger demand for this route was low.

As announced in the LTA's Land Transport Masterplan, the new Thomson–East Coast line will be extended to Changi Airport Terminal 5 and to the current Changi Airport station, with the current EWL Branch line being converted to be part of the TEL.[176]

Bus

There are seven bus services operated by SBS Transit, SMRT Buses, Tower Transit Singapore and Go-Ahead Singapore, making a loop starting from Terminal 3 to Terminal 1, and Terminal 2. Only four bus services will continue to Terminal 4 – Services 24, 34, 36 and 110. Bus stops are located at the basement bus bays of Terminals 1, 2 and 3. For Terminal 4, the bus stop is located next to Car Park 4B.

Coaches to and from Johor Bahru are also available. Operated by Transtar Travel, the TS1 service will start at coach stands of Terminals 1, 2, and 3, and end at Larkin Terminal.

There is also a free shuttle bus service plying between Changi Airport (T3) and Changi Business Park. This service is a nine-stop route, running from Mondays to Fridays, except public holidays.[177]

Taxis

Taxis are available at taxi stands located in the arrival halls of each terminal. There is an additional airport surcharge for all trips originating from the airport.[178] Limousine and other transportation options are available at the Ground Transport Concierge.[179]

Private transportation

All pick-ups by private transportation occur at the arrival pick-up points of each terminal.[180][181] Car rental counters are located in the arrival halls of each terminal.[182]

By foot or bicycle

A new 3.5 km (2.2 mi) Changi Airport Connector, which opened on 11 October 2020, links the airport to East Coast Park. Bicycle rental services are available along with other facilities such as pay-per-use showers and bicycle lockers at HUB & SPOKE Changi Airport. Along the way is a 1 km (0.62 mi) long Changi Jurassic Mile where there is a permanent display of life-sized dinosaurs. Admission is free.[183][184][185]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Runway 02L is 4,000 m (13,000 ft) and 20R is 3,260 m (10,700 ft) with a displaced threshold of 740 m (2,430 ft). Thus aircraft landing on 20R will have to avoid touching down on the displaced threshold but may use it for departures.
  2. ^ To facilitate works for Terminal 5, Runway 02C/20C will be closed from 4 November 2021 to 20 April 2022.[3]

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Bibliography

Media related to Singapore Changi Airport at Wikimedia Commons