The Rockefeller University
Rockefeller University seal.svg
Former names
The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (1901–1958)
The Rockefeller Institute (1958–1965)
MottoScientia pro bono humani generis
Motto in English
Science for the benefit of humanity
TypePrivate graduate-only university
Established1901; 121 years ago (1901)
FounderJohn D. Rockefeller[1]
Endowment$2.32 billion (2020)[2]
PresidentRichard P. Lifton
Academic staff
79[3]
Postgraduates232[3]
Location, ,
United States

40°45′45″N 73°57′20″W / 40.76250°N 73.95556°W / 40.76250; -73.95556Coordinates: 40°45′45″N 73°57′20″W / 40.76250°N 73.95556°W / 40.76250; -73.95556
CampusUrban, 16 acres[4]
Websiterockefeller.edu
Main gates on York Avenue
Main gates on York Avenue

The Rockefeller University is a private graduate-only university in New York City. It focuses primarily on the biological and medical sciences and provides doctoral and postdoctoral education. It is classified among "R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity".[5] Rockefeller is the oldest biomedical research institute in the United States. The 82-person faculty (tenured and tenure-track, as of 2018) has 37 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 17 members of the National Academy of Medicine, seven Lasker Award recipients, and five Nobel laureates. As of March 2022, a total of 26 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Rockefeller University.[6]

The university is located on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, between 63rd and 68th streets on York Avenue. Richard P. Lifton became the university's eleventh president on September 1, 2016. The Rockefeller University Press publishes the Journal of Experimental Medicine, the Journal of Cell Biology, and The Journal of General Physiology.

History

Founder's Hall
Founder's Hall
The FDR Drive runs under the campus
The FDR Drive runs under the campus

The Rockefeller University was founded in June 1901 as The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research—often called simply The Rockefeller Institute—by John D. Rockefeller, who had founded the University of Chicago in 1889, upon advice by his adviser Frederick T. Gates[1] and action taken in March 1901 by his son, John D. Rockefeller Jr.[7] Greatly elevating the prestige of American science and medicine, it was America's first biomedical institute, like France's Pasteur Institute (1888) and Germany's Robert Koch Institute (1891).[1] The Rockefeller Foundation, a philanthropic organization, founded in 1913, is a separate entity, but had close connections mediated by prominent figures holding dual positions.[8]

The first director of laboratories was Simon Flexner, who supervised the development of research capacity at the institute, whose staff made major discoveries in basic research and medicine. While a student at Johns Hopkins University, Flexner had studied under the institute's first scientific director, William H. Welch, first dean of Hopkins' medical school and known as the dean of American medicine.[7] Flexner retired in 1935 and was succeeded by Herbert Gasser.[9] He was succeeded in 1953 by Detlev Bronk, who broadened The Rockefeller Institute into a university that began awarding the PhD degree in 1954.[7] In 1965 The Rockefeller Institute's name was changed to The Rockefeller University.[7]

For its first six decades, the institute focused on basic research to develop basic science, on applied research as biomedical engineering, and, since 1910—when The Rockefeller Hospital opened on its campus as America's first facility for clinical research—on clinical science.[10] The Rockefeller Hospital's first director Rufus Cole retired in 1937 and was succeeded by Thomas Milton Rivers.[11] As director of The Rockefeller Institute's virology laboratory, he established virology as an independent field apart from bacteriology.

Rockefeller family

Rockefeller Sr, urged by Rockefeller Jr, his only son, who was enthusiastic about the institute, visited the university once.[1]: 475  Rockefeller Jr's youngest son David would visit with his father.[12] David Rockefeller joined the board of trustees in 1940, was its chairman from 1950 to 1975, chaired the board's executive committee from 1975 to 1995, became honorary chairman and life trustee,[13] and remained active as a philanthropist until his death.[12]

Institutional changes

The Rockefeller Institute Hospital name was changed to Rockefeller University Hospital and Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research to Rockefeller University during the "more than sixty years" in which Rockefeller included "the last surviving member of a Manhattan scientific team that overturned medical dogma in the 1940s and became the first to demonstrate that genes were made of DNA."[14][15]

Archives

The archives of Rockefeller University are at the Rockefeller Archive Center, established in 1974 as part of the university and organized as an independent foundation since 2008.[16]

Organization and administration

Governance

To foster an interdisciplinary atmosphere among its laboratories, faculty members are grouped into one or more of ten interconnecting research areas:[17][18]

Academics

Academic rankings
National
ARWU[19]26
Global
ARWU[20]43
U.S. News & World Report[21]62

Graduate degree programs

Rockefeller University admitted its first graduate students in 1955.[22] Today, approximately 255 graduate students are enrolled in the program, which offers doctoral degrees in the biomedical sciences, chemistry, and biophysics.[23] The university's organization on the basis of laboratories rather than a hierarchical departmental structure[24] extends to the graduate program, where laboratory research is the primary focus and students can meet degree requirements by participating in any combination of courses.[23] In partnership with neighboring Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medicine, Rockefeller participates in the Tri-Institutional MD–PhD Program as well as a Tri-Institutional chemical biology Ph.D. program.[25]

Contemporary Research

Rockefeller ranks highly in the CWTS Leiden Ranking,[26] an international ranking of research impact.

Current Rockefeller faculty have made significant contributions to recent breakthroughs in biomedical sciences. Michael W. Young was one of several scientists who located genes that regulate the sleep–wake cycle in 1984.[27] In 1994, Jeffrey M. Friedman’s laboratory discovered leptin, a gene that influences appetite and weight.[28] Charles David Allis helped identify the first enzyme that modifies histones in 1996, providing early evidence that the DNA packaging material plays a crucial role in gene regulation.[29] In 1998, Roderick MacKinnon’s laboratory elucidated the structure and mechanism of a potassium channel, explaining how electrical signals are conveyed across cell membranes.[30] Titia de Lange was part of a team that found how telomeres protect chromosome ends, shedding light on the role of genome instability in cancer in 1999.[31] Robert B. Darnell led research that defined the molecular basis of fragile X syndrome, the second leading cause of intellectual disability, in 2001.[32] Vincent A. Fischetti was part of a group that developed a powerful agent that can target and wipe out anthrax bacteria in 2002.[33] Charles M. Rice helped produce an infectious form of the hepatitis C virus in laboratory cultures of human cells in 2005, leading directly to three new classes of hepatitis C drugs.[34] Elaine Fuchs helped define the stem cells that can initiate squamous cell carcinoma in 2011, and also characterized the signaling pathways that drive malignancy.[35] In 2013, Leslie B. Vosshall’s laboratory identified a gene in mosquitoes that is responsible for their attraction to humans and their sensitivity to the insect repellent DEET.[36] Ali Brivanlou's laboratory developed a method to grow embryos outside the uterus for up to 13 days in 2016, allowing scientists to study the earliest events of human development.[37]

In 2020, many Rockefeller scientists shifted the focus of their research in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.[38] Michel C. Nussenzweig pioneered a method to isolate and clone antibodies from people who successfully recovered from COVID-19 to design a treatment that prevents people from developing severe disease.[39] Jean-Laurent Casanova identified genetic mutations that are responsible for a subset of unexpectedly severe cases of COVID-19.[40]

Campus and student life

Founder's Hall was the first building on Rockefeller's campus, built between 1903 and 1906.[41] It housed the nation's first major biomedical research laboratory and was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1974.[42] Caspary Auditorium, a 40-foot-high, 90-foot round geodesic dome, was built in 1957 and hosts a variety of concert series and lectures.[43] The completion of the Stavros Niarchos Foundation–David Rockefeller River Campus in 2019, built along the East River over FDR Drive, added two acres to Rockefeller's footprint.[44] Rockefeller's campus houses a childcare center for researchers and other university employees.[45]

Graduate students are offered subsidized housing on campus and receive an annual stipend.[23] Student groups include People at Rockefeller Identifying as Sexual/Gender Minorities (PRISM), Women in Science at Rockefeller (WISeR), and the Science and Education Policy Association (SEPA).[46] The student-run publication Natural Selections is produced monthly.[47]

Promotion of women in science and outreach activities

The Rockefeller University established a Women in Science initiative in 1998 to address the underrepresentation of women in the field.[48] It is founded mainly by female philanthropists.[49] The program includes scholarships and an entrepreneurship found to help increase the low number of female researchers that commercialize their discoveries.[50] In 2004 Rockefeller's professor Paul Greengard donated the full amount of his Nobel Prize to establish the Pearl Meister Greengard Prize given annually to a woman scientist in the field of biology.

Rockefeller also host diverse initiatives to promote science and culture: Parents & Science Initiative,[51] The RockEDU Science Outreach for K-12 students and teachers [52] that includes lab experience and professional development and The Lewis Thomas Prize for writing about science is given annually.

In addition, Rockefeller hosts the Peggy Rockefeller Concerts[53] and in collaboration with Cornell University and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center it hosts the Tri-Institutional Noon concert Series.

In 2012, Rockefeller began participating in Open House New York's OHNY Weekend.[54]

Notable people

Nobel laureates

See also: List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation

Year Nobel Laureate Prize Rockefeller Affiliation
2020 Charles M. Rice Physiology or Medicine Faculty when prize awarded
2020 Emmanuelle Charpentier Chemistry Postdoctoral fellow before prize awarded
2017 Michael W. Young Physiology or Medicine Faculty when prize awarded
2016 Yoshinori Ohsumi Physiology or Medicine Postdoctoral fellow before prize awarded
2011 Ralph Steinman Physiology or Medicine Faculty when prize awarded
2011 Bruce Beutler Physiology or Medicine Postdoctoral fellow before prize awarded
2003 Roderick MacKinnon Chemistry Faculty when prize awarded
2001 Paul Nurse Physiology or Medicine President and faculty after prize awarded
2000 Paul Greengard Physiology or Medicine Faculty when prize awarded
1999 Günter Blobel Physiology or Medicine Faculty when prize awarded
1984 R. Bruce Merrifield Chemistry Faculty when prize awarded
1981 Torsten Wiesel Physiology or Medicine President and faculty after prize awarded
1975 David Baltimore Physiology or Medicine Alumnus; President after prize awarded
1974 Albert Claude Physiology or Medicine Faculty before prize awarded
1974 Christian de Duve Physiology or Medicine Faculty when prize awarded
1974 George E. Palade Physiology or Medicine Faculty before prize awarded
1972 Stanford Moore Chemistry Faculty when prize awarded
1972 William H. Stein Chemistry Faculty when prize awarded
1972 Gerald M. Edelman Physiology or Medicine Alumnus; Faculty when prize awarded
1967 H. Keffer Hartline Physiology or Medicine Faculty when prize awarded
1966 Peyton Rous Physiology or Medicine Emeritus faculty when prize awarded
1958 Joshua Lederberg Physiology or Medicine President and then faculty after prize awarded
1958 Edward L. Tatum Physiology or Medicine Faculty when prize awarded
1953 Fritz Lipmann Physiology or Medicine Rockefeller fellow before and faculty after prize awarded
1946 John H. Northrop Chemistry Member when prize awarded
1946 Wendell M. Stanley Chemistry Member when prize awarded
1944 Herbert S. Gasser Physiology or Medicine Director when prize awarded
1930 Karl Landsteiner Physiology or Medicine Member when prize awarded
1912 Alexis Carrel Physiology or Medicine Member when prize awarded

Award affiliations taken from "The Rockefeller University » Nobel Laureates". Retrieved March 17, 2016.

Alumni

There are more than 1,262 alumni.[55]

Individual affiliates

Notable figures to emerge from the institution include Alexis Carrel, Peyton Rous, Hideyo Noguchi, Thomas Milton Rivers, Richard Shope, Thomas Francis Jr, Oswald T. Avery, Frederick Griffith, Colin MacLeod, Maclyn McCarty, Rebecca Lancefield, Wendell Meredith Stanley, René Dubos, Ashton Carter, and Cornelius P. Rhoads. Others attained eminence before being drawn to the university. Joshua Lederberg, who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1958, served as president of the university from 1978 to 1990.[56] Paul Nurse, who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2001, was president from 2003 to 2010.[57] (Before Nurse's tenure, Thomas Sakmar was acting-president from 2002.[58]) Barry Coller, who invented the Abciximab, currently serves as the Vice President for Medical Affairs.[59] In all, as of October 2020, 38 Nobel Prize recipients have been associated with the university. In the mid-1970s, the university attracted a few prominent academicians in the humanities, such as Saul Kripke.

Controversy

Dr. Reginald Archibald, an endocrinologist at the university from 1948 to 1982, allegedly abused dozens or hundreds of boys during his time at the university while studying growth problems in children, including molestation and photographing them naked.[60][61][62] Officials at Rockefeller University knew of the legitimacy of the claims for years before notifying the public.[61] The university and hospital issued a statement confirming that Archibald had "engaged in certain inappropriate conduct during patient examinations" and that they "deeply regret[ted]" any "pain and suffering" the former patients felt.[60] New York State passed a law known as the Child Victims Act, which created a one-year window for civil suits brought by former child victims, allowing them to make cases against the university.[62]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Chernow, Ron (1998). Titan: the life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. New York: Random House. pp. 471–2. ISBN 978-0-679-43808-3. OCLC 37615450. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  2. ^ As of June 30, 2020. U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2020 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY19 to FY20 (Report). National Association of College and University Business Officers and TIAA. February 19, 2021. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  3. ^ a b "The Rockefeller University". Peterson’s. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  4. ^ Samantha Schmidt (June 15, 2016). "Rockefeller University Starts Its Expansion Over a Busy Highway". Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  5. ^ "Carnegie Classifications Institution Lookup". carnegieclassifications.iu.edu. Center for Postsecondary Education. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
  6. ^ "Rockefeller University". About. Retrieved March 30, 2022.
  7. ^ a b c d Swingle AM. "The Rockefeller chronicle". Hopkins Medical News. Fall 2002.
  8. ^ Hannaway C. Biomedicine in the Twentieth Century: Practices, Policies, and Politics (Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2008), p 230, note 46.
  9. ^ "Herbert S Gasser—biography". Nobelprize.org. September 6, 2011 (Web-access date).
  10. ^ "The Rockefeller University Hospital". Rockefeller.edu. February 18, 2011 (Web-access date).
  11. ^ "At Rockefeller Hospital". Time. May 24, 1937.
  12. ^ a b Arenson KW, "Turning 90, a Rockefeller gives the presents", New York Times, June 9, 2005.
  13. ^ "David Rockefeller honored with named professorship: Barry Coller will be first David Rockefeller Professor". News & Notes. Vol. 12, no. 12. The Rockefeller University. December 15, 2000.
  14. ^ Lawrence K. Altman (January 6, 2005). "Maclyn McCarty Dies at 93; Pioneer in DNA Research". New York Times.
  15. ^ "The Rockefeller University Hospital: Over 100 Years of Bridging Science and Medicine". Retrieved May 12, 2021.
  16. ^ "New Governance at the Rockefeller Archive Center," Rockefeller Archive Center Newsletter, 2008. http://rockarch.org/publications/newsletter/nl2008.pdf
  17. ^ "Research areas". Rockefeller.edu. April 23, 2018 (Web-access date).
  18. ^ "Quick Facts". Rockefeller.edu. June 27, 2013 (Web-access date).
  19. ^ "ShanghaiRanking's Academic Ranking of World Universities". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved July 26, 2022.
  20. ^ "ShanghaiRanking's Academic Ranking of World Universities". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved July 26, 2022.
  21. ^ "2022 Best Global Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved July 26, 2022.
  22. ^ "Degree right granted". The New York Times. November 20, 1954. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  23. ^ a b c "The Rockefeller University Overview". Peterson's. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  24. ^ From Institute to University: A Brief History of The Rockefeller University, 1985 (pp. 13)
  25. ^ Paul Smaglik (September 26, 2002). "New York: Building cooperation". Nature. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  26. ^ Smriti Mallapaty (May 20, 2018). "Rockefeller tops Leiden university ranking for eighth consecutive year". Nature. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
  27. ^ Ricki Lewis (December 10, 1995). "Chronobiology Researchers Say Their Field's Time Has Come". The Scientist. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  28. ^ Gina Kolata (August 1, 1995). "Fat-Signaling Hormone Is Clue to Weight Control". The New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  29. ^ Eugene Russo (March 1, 1999). "Acetylation". The Scientist. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  30. ^ Jennifer Fisher Wilson (January 9, 2020). "Potassium Ion Channels". The Scientist. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  31. ^ Nicholas Wade (May 14, 1999). "Chromosomes End in Tied Loops, Study Finds". The New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  32. ^ Dr Zara Kassam (November 6, 2017). "Potential new treatment for Fragile X targets one gene to affect many". Drug Target Review. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  33. ^ Nicholas Wade (August 21, 2002). "New Agent Could Help to Detect and Cure an Anthrax Attack". The New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  34. ^ Katherine J. Wu and Daniel Victor (October 5, 2020). "Nobel Prize in Medicine Awarded to Scientists Who Discovered Hepatitis C Virus". The New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  35. ^ Anna Azvolinsky (May 1, 2016). "More Than Skin Deep". The Scientist. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  36. ^ Douglas Quenqua (June 3, 2013). "A Mosquito That Won't Ruin a Barbecue". The New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  37. ^ Ron Winslow (May 4, 2016). "Scientists Grow Embryos for Up to 13 Days Outside the Uterus". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  38. ^ "COVID-19 research at Rockefeller". Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  39. ^ Jared S. Hopkins (February 3, 2021). "Bristol-Myers Squibb to Take Over Promising Potential Treatment Against Coronavirus Variants". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  40. ^ Wadman, Meredith (September 25, 2020). "Flawed interferon response spurs severe illness". Science. 369 (6511): 1550–1551. doi:10.1126/science.369.6511.1550. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  41. ^ Holt, L. Emmett (1906). "A Sketch of the Development of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research". Science. 24 (601): 1–6. Bibcode:1906Sci....24....1E. doi:10.1126/science.24.601.1. JSTOR 1633029. PMID 17749741.
  42. ^ Poh, Carol Ann (December 11, 1973). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Founder's Hall - The Rockefeller University" (pdf). National Park Service.
  43. ^ Daniel Maurer (October 8, 2015). "Is It Still 'Chamber' Music If It's in a Space-Age Geodesic Dome?". Bedford+Bowery. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  44. ^ Joann Gonchar (November 1, 2019). "Rockefeller University River Campus by Rafael Viñoly Architects". Architectural Record. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  45. ^ Zunaira Shuja (December 9, 2020). "Childcare is a necessity. Columbia isn't treating it as one". Columbia Spectator. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  46. ^ Sarah Baker (September 3, 2019), "New Member Guide to Campus", Natural Selections, retrieved March 12, 2021
  47. ^ Sarah Baker. "Using Natural Selections to Communicate, Collaborate, and Grow". Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  48. ^ "Rockefeller University Women in Science Initiative".
  49. ^ Heyman, Marshall (May 17, 2010). "Wall Street journal: Women in Science Luncheon at Rockefeller University 2010". Wall Street Journal.
  50. ^ "Women in Science entrepreneurship found" (PDF).
  51. ^ "Rockefeller Parents & Science".
  52. ^ "Rock Edu Outreach".
  53. ^ "Peggy Rockefeller concert series".
  54. ^ "More than 750 people visit campus during Open House New York". Rockefeller University.
  55. ^ The Rockefeller University 2018 Annual Report (PDF). 2018. p. 11.
  56. ^ "Joshua Lederberg—biography". Nobelprize.org. February 18, 2011 (Web-access date).
  57. ^ "Paul Nurse to resign as Rockefeller president to become president of Royal Society of London in December". April 23, 2010. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  58. ^ Nybo, Kristie (2010). "Profile of Thomas Sakmar". BioTechniques. 49 (5): 779. doi:10.2144/000113534.
  59. ^ "Barry S. Coller". Our Scientists. Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  60. ^ a b "These Men Want The Scientific Community To Acknowledge That A Famous Researcher Sexually Abused Them". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
  61. ^ a b Goldbaum, Christina (October 18, 2018). "An Esteemed Doctor, Child Sexual Abuse Claims and a Hospital That Knew for Years". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
  62. ^ a b Olivia Messer (August 20, 2019). "'Now We Have a Voice': Survivors of NYC Pediatrician File Lawsuits in Wake of Child Victims Act". Daily Beast. Retrieved November 6, 2020.