Diplomatic relations of the United States
  United States
  Countries that have diplomatic relations with the United States
  Countries that lack diplomatic relations with the United States
  Disputed territories
  Antarctica

The United States has formal diplomatic relations with most nations. This includes all United Nations members and observer states other than Bhutan, Iran, North Korea and Syria, and the UN observer State of Palestine, the last of which the U.S. does not recognize. Additionally, the U.S. has diplomatic relations with Kosovo and the European Union.

The United States federal statutes relating to foreign relations can be found in Title 22 of the United States Code. The United States has the most diplomatic posts of any state.

History

Main article: History of United States foreign policy

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which the United States of America maintains diplomatic relations with:[1]

# Country Date
1  France 6 August 1778
2  Netherlands 19 April 1782
3  Spain 20 February 1783
4  United Kingdom 1 June 1785
5  Portugal 13 May 1791
6  Denmark 12 October 1801
7  Russia 14 July 1809
8  Sweden 29 April 1818
9  Colombia 19 June 1822
10  Mexico 12 December 1822
11  Argentina 27 December 1823
12  Chile 23 April 1824
13  Brazil 26 May 1824
14  Guatemala 4 August 1824
15  Nicaragua 4 August 1824
16  Peru 21 May 1827
17  Turkey 13 September 1831
18  Belgium 6 January 1832
19  Venezuela 30 June 1835
20  Ecuador 12 August 1848
21  Germany 13 September 1848
22  Bolivia 3 January 1849
23  Costa Rica 24 March 1851
24  Honduras 19 April 1853
25   Switzerland 29 June 1853
26  Japan 29 July 1858
27  Italy 11 April 1861
28  Paraguay 26 November 1861
29  Haiti 1 October 1862
30  El Salvador 15 June 1863
31  Liberia 23 February 1864
32  Uruguay 2 October 1867
33  Greece 16 June 1868
34  Romania 11 June 1880
35  Thailand 23 October 1882
36  Serbia 10 November 1882
 Iran (severed) 11 June 1883
37  Dominican Republic 26 March 1884
38  Cuba 27 May 1902
39  Luxembourg 17 July 1903
40  Bulgaria 19 September 1903
41  Panama 13 November 1903
42  Ethiopia 27 December 1903
43  Morocco 18 March 1905
44  Norway 30 October 1905
45  Czech Republic 12 November 1918
46  Poland 2 May 1919
47  Finland 27 May 1919
48  Austria 24 August 1921
49  Hungary 29 August 1921
50  Egypt 26 April 1922
51  Albania 4 December 1922
52  Ireland 7 October 1924
53  Canada 18 February 1927
54  South Africa 5 November 1929
55  Iraq 30 March 1931
56  Afghanistan 4 May 1935
57  Australia 8 January 1940
58  Saudi Arabia 4 February 1940
59  Iceland 30 September 1941
60  New Zealand 16 February 1942
61  Lebanon 16 November 1944
 Syria (severed) 17 November 1944
62  Yemen 4 March 1946
63  Philippines 4 July 1946
64  India 1 November 1946
65  Pakistan 15 August 1947
66  Myanmar 18 September 1947
67    Nepal 16 February 1948
68  Sri Lanka 29 October 1948
69  Jordan 18 February 1949
70  South Korea 25 March 1949
71  Israel 28 March 1949
72  Indonesia 28 December 1949
73  Vietnam 17 February 1950
74  Cambodia 11 July 1950
75  Laos 29 July 1950
76  Libya 24 December 1951
77  Sudan 15 February 1956
78  Tunisia 6 June 1956
79  Ghana 6 March 1957
80  Malaysia 31 August 1957
81  Guinea 13 February 1959
82  Cameroon 1 January 1960
83  Togo 27 April 1960
84  Mali 20 June 1960
85  Madagascar 25 June 1960
86  Democratic Republic of the Congo 30 June 1960
87  Somalia 1 July 1960
88  Benin 1 August 1960
89  Niger 3 August 1960
90  Burkina Faso 5 August 1960
91  Ivory Coast 7 August 1960
92  Chad 11 August 1960
93  Central African Republic 13 August 1960
94  Republic of the Congo 15 August 1960
95  Cyprus 16 August 1960
96  Gabon 17 August 1960
97  Senegal 24 September 1960
98  Nigeria 1 October 1960
99  Mauritania 28 November 1960
100  Sierra Leone 27 April 1961
101  Kuwait 22 September 1961
102  Tanzania 9 December 1961
103  Burundi 1 July 1962
104  Rwanda 1 July 1962
105  Jamaica 16 August 1962
106  Trinidad and Tobago 31 August 1962
107  Algeria 29 September 1962
108  Uganda 9 October 1962
109  Kenya 2 March 1964
110  Malawi 6 July 1964
111  Malta 21 September 1964
112  Zambia 24 October 1964
113  Gambia 9 August 1965
114  Singapore 4 April 1966
115  Maldives 9 April 1966
116  Guyana 26 May 1966
117  Botswana 30 September 1966
118  Lesotho 4 October 1966
119  Barbados 30 November 1966
120  Mauritius 12 March 1968
121  Eswatini 6 September 1968
122  Equatorial Guinea 12 November 1968
123  Samoa 14 July 1971
124  Fiji 22 July 1971
125  Bahrain 21 September 1971
126  Qatar 19 March 1972
127  United Arab Emirates 20 March 1972
128  Oman 17 April 1972
129  Bangladesh 18 May 1972
130  Tonga 6 November 1972
131  Bahamas 10 July 1973
132  Grenada 29 November 1974
133  Cape Verde 19 July 1975
134  Guinea-Bissau 3 September 1975
135  Papua New Guinea 16 September 1975
136  Mozambique 23 September 1975
137  São Tomé and Príncipe 10 October 1975
138  Suriname 25 November 1975
139  Seychelles 1 July 1976
140  Nauru 24 October 1976
141  Djibouti 27 June 1977
142  Comoros 15 August 1977
143  Solomon Islands 9 October 1978
144  China 1 January 1979
145  Tuvalu 10 May 1979
146  Saint Lucia 11 June 1979
147  Dominica 18 July 1979
148  Zimbabwe 18 April 1980
149  Kiribati 12 August 1980
150  Belize 29 October 1981
151  Antigua and Barbuda 1 November 1981
152  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 8 November 1981
153  Saint Kitts and Nevis 20 September 1983
 Holy See 10 January 1984
154  Brunei 28 May 1984
155  Vanuatu 30 September 1986
156  Federated States of Micronesia 3 November 1986
157  Mongolia 27 January 1987
158  Marshall Islands 26 July 1989
159  Namibia 21 March 1990
160  Estonia 4 September 1991
161  Latvia 5 September 1991
162  Lithuania 6 September 1991
163  Armenia 25 December 1991
164  Belarus 25 December 1991
165  Kazakhstan 25 December 1991
166  Kyrgyzstan 25 December 1991
167  Ukraine 25 December 1991
168  Moldova 18 February 1992
169  Azerbaijan 19 February 1992
170  Tajikistan 19 February 1992
171  Turkmenistan 19 February 1992
172  Uzbekistan 19 February 1992
173  Georgia 23 April 1992
174  Bosnia and Herzegovina 6 August 1992
175  Croatia 6 August 1992
176  Slovenia 6 August 1992
177  Slovakia 4 January 1993
178  Eritrea 11 June 1993
179  North Macedonia 3 December 1993
180  Angola 14 July 1994
181  Andorra 21 February 1995
182  Palau 6 December 1996
183  Liechtenstein 10 February 1997
184  East Timor 20 May 2002
185  Montenegro 15 August 2006
186  San Marino 22 November 2006
187  Monaco 8 December 2006
 Kosovo 18 February 2008
188  South Sudan 18 October 2011
 Cook Islands[2] 25 September 2023
 Niue[3] 25 September 2023

Bilateral relations

North and South America

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Argentina 1823[4] See Argentina–United States relations

Argentina was integrated into the British international economy in the late 19th century; there was minimal trade with the United States. When the United States began promoting the Pan American Union, some Argentines were suspicious that it was indeed a device to lure the country into the U.S. economic orbit, but most businessmen responded favorably and bilateral trade grew briskly. The United States has a positive bilateral relationship with Argentina based on many common strategic interests, including non-proliferation, counternarcotics, counter-terrorism, the fight against human trafficking, and issues of regional stability, as well as the strength of commercial ties. Argentina is a participant in the Three-Plus-One regional mechanism (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and the United States), which focuses on coordination of counter-terrorism policies in the tri-border region. Argentina has endorsed the Proliferation Security Initiative, and has implemented the Container Security Initiative and the Trade Transparency Unit, both of which are programs administered by the US Department of Homeland Security/Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

 Belize 1981[5] See Belize–United States relations
 Bolivia 1849[6] See Bolivia–United States relations

The United States and Bolivia have had a tradition of cordial and cooperative relations. Development assistance from the United States to Bolivia dates from the 1940s, and the United States remains a major partner for economic development, improved health, democracy, and the environment. In 1991, the U.S. government forgave all of the $341 million debt owed by Bolivia to the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) as well as 80% ($31 million) of the amount owed to the United States Department of Agriculture for food assistance. The United States has also been a strong supporter of forgiveness of Bolivia's multilateral debt under the HIPC initiatives.

 Brazil 1824[7] See Brazil–United States relations

The United States was the first country to recognize the independence of Brazil, doing so in 1808. Brazil-United States relations have a long history, characterized by some moments of remarkable convergence of interests but also by sporadic and critical divergences on sensitive international issues.[8] The United States has increasingly regarded Brazil as a significant power, especially in its role as a stabilizing force and skillful interlocutor in Latin America.[9] As a significant political and economic power, Brazil has traditionally preferred to cooperate with the United States on specific issues rather than seeking to develop an all-encompassing, privileged relationship with the United States.[10]

 Canada 1926[11] See Canada–United States relations

Relations between Canada and the United States span more than two centuries, marked by a shared British colonial heritage, conflict during the early years of the US, and the eventual development of one of the most successful international relationships in the modern world. The most serious breach in the relationship was the War of 1812, which saw an American invasion of then British North America and counter invasions from British-Canadian forces. The border was demilitarized after the war and, apart from minor raids, has remained peaceful. Military collaboration began during the World Wars and continued throughout the Cold War, despite Canadian doubts about certain American policies. A high volume of trade and migration between the United States and Canada has generated closer ties. The current bilateral relationship between Canada and the United States is of notable importance to both countries. About 75–85% of Canadian trade is with the United States, and Canada is the United States' largest trading partner and chief supplier of oil. While there are disputed issues between the two nations, relations are close and the two countries share the "world's longest undefended border".[12] A high volume of trade and migration between the United States and Canada since the 1850s has generated closer ties, despite continued Canadian fears of being culturally overwhelmed by its neighbor, which is nine times larger in terms of population and eleven times larger in terms of economy.[13][14] The two economies have increasingly merged since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) of 1994, which also includes Mexico. This economic merger of these two countries was shifted when the Trump era United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement (USMCA) was ratified.

 Chile 1824[15] See Chile–United States relations

Relations between Chile and the United States have been better in the period 1988 to 2008 than any other time in history. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the United States government applauded the rebirth of democratic practices in Chile, Regarded as one of the least corrupt and most vibrant democracies in South America, with a healthy economy, Chile is noted as being a valuable ally of the United States in the Southern Hemisphere. A prime example of cooperation includes the landmark 2003 Chile–United States Free Trade Agreement.

 Colombia 1822[16] See Colombia–United States relations

Relations between Colombia and the United States have evolved from mutual cordiality during most of the 19th and early 20th centuries[17] to a recent partnership that links the governments of both nations around several key issues, including fighting communism, the War on Drugs, and especially since 9/11, the threat of terrorism. During the last fifty years, different American governments and their representatives have become involved in Colombian affairs through the implementation of policies concerned with the above issues. Some critics of current United States policies in Colombia, such as Law Professor John Barry, consider that US influences have catalyzed internal conflicts and substantially expanded the scope and nature of human rights abuses in Colombia.[18] Supporters, such as Under Secretary of State Marc Grossman, consider that the US has promoted respect for human rights and the rule of law in Colombia, in addition to the fight against drugs and terrorism.[19]

 Costa Rica 1851[20] See Costa Rica–United States relations
 Ecuador 1832[21] See Ecuador–United States relations
 El Salvador 1824; 1849[22] See El Salvador–United States relations
 Guatemala 1824; 1844[23] See Guatemala–United States relations
 Guyana 1966[24] See Guyana–United States relations
 Honduras 1824; 1853[25] See Honduras–United States relations

Honduras and the United States have had formal relations since 1830. There is close cooperation between the two countries, particularly in the areas of the War on Drugs, while the National Port Authority in Puerto Cortés is part of the U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection's Container Security Initiative.

 Mexico 1822[26] See Mexico–United States relations

The United States shares a unique and often complex relationship with the United Mexican States. A history of armed conflict goes back to the Texas Revolution in the 1830s, the Mexican–American War in the 1840s, and an American invasion in the 1910s. Important treaties include the Gadsden Purchase, and multilaterally with Canada, the North American Free Trade Agreement which was changed in the Trump era to the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement. The two countries have close economic ties, being each other's first and third largest trading partners. They are also closely connected demographically, with over one million U.S. citizens living in Mexico and Mexico being the largest source of immigrants to the United States. Illegal immigration and illegal trade in drugs and firearms have been causes of differences but also of cooperation.[27][28]

 Nicaragua 1824; 1849[29] See Nicaragua–United States relations

Nicaragua and the United States have had diplomatic relations since 1824. Between 1912 and 1933, the United States occupied Nicaragua (see United States occupation of Nicaragua). Following the United States occupation of Nicaragua, in 1933 the Somoza family political dynasty came to power, and would rule Nicaragua until their ouster on July 19, 1979, during the Nicaraguan Revolution. The era of Somoza family rule was characterized by rising inequality and political corruption, strong U.S. support for the government and its military, as well as a reliance on U.S.-based multinational corporations. This led to international condemnation of the regime, and in 1977 the Carter administration cut off aid to the Somoza regime due to its human rights violations.

Then during the Reagan administration the diplomatic relations escalated during the Iran-Contra affair and the United States embargo against Nicaragua. Then in 1990, after Violeta Chamorro won the 1990 Nicaraguan general election, the diplomatic relations began to improve greatly. The United States has promoted national reconciliation, encouraging Nicaraguans to resolve their problems through dialogue and compromise. In the Summer 2003 Nicaragua sent around 370 soldiers to the Iraq War as part of the coalition of countries that were engaging in war in this country. Immediately after April 2004 these troops were withdrawn by President Enrique Bolanos. Although President Daniel Ortega has been publicly critical of U.S. policies, the United States and Nicaragua have normal diplomatic relations.

 Panama 1903[30] See Panama–United States relations

Panama gained its independence in 1901 due in part to American interest in building the Panama Canal. Relations have been generally strong, with 25,000 U.S. citizens present in Panama and a mutual healthcare program. The United States invaded Panama in 1989 to remove then Panamanian leader Manual Noriega.

 Paraguay 1852[31] See Paraguay–United States relations
 Peru 1826[32] See Peru–United States relations
 Suriname 1975[33] See Suriname–United States relations
 Uruguay 1836[34] See Uruguay - United States relations

In 2002, Uruguay and the United States created a Joint Commission on Trade and Investment (JCTI) to exchange ideas on a variety of economic topics. In March 2003, the JCTI identified six areas of concentration until the eventual signing of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA): customs issues, intellectual property protection, investment, labor, environment, and trade in goods. In late 2004, Uruguay and the United States signed an Open Skies Agreement, which was ratified in May 2006. In November 2005, they signed a Bilateral investment treaty (BIT), which entered into force on November 1, 2006. A Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) was signed in January 2007. More than 80 US-owned companies operate in Uruguay, and many more market US goods and services.

 Venezuela 1835[35] See Venezuela - United States relations and Venezuelan presidential crisis

Both countries maintained mutual diplomatic relationships since the early-19th century traditionally been characterized by an important trade and investment relationship and cooperation in controlling the production and transit of illegal drugs. Relations were strong under democratic governments in Venezuela, such as those of Carlos Andrés Pérez and Rafael Caldera. After the election of Presidents Hugo Chávez of Venezuela and George W. Bush of the United States, tensions between the countries escalated, reaching a high in September 2008 when Venezuela broke off diplomatic relations with the United States. In January 2019, after US President Donald Trump recognized Juan Guaidó as the Interim President of Venezuela, President Nicolás Maduro cut all diplomatic ties to the United States.

Caribbean

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda 1981[36] See Antigua and Barbuda–United States relations
 Aruba See Aruba–United States relations
 Bahamas 1973[37] See Bahamas–United States relations
 Barbados 1966[38] See Barbados–United States relations
 Bermuda See Bermuda–United States relations
 Cayman Islands See Cayman Islands–United States relations
 Cuba 1902; 2015[39] See Cuba–United States relations

Following the Cuban Revolution of 1959 relations had deteriorated substantially, and until recently have been marked by tension and confrontation. The United States has initiated an embargo due to the Cuban regime refusal to move toward democratization and greater respect for human rights,[40] hoping to see democratization that took place in Eastern Europe. Maintaining friendly and close relationships between the United States and Cuba were formally re-established on July 20, 2015, with the opening of embassies in both Havana and Washington, D.C.[41]

 Dominican Republic 1866[42] See Dominican Republic–United States relations
 Dominica 1978[43] See Dominica–United States relations
 Grenada 1974[44] See Grenada–United States relations
 Haiti 1862[45] See Haiti–United States relations
 Jamaica 1962[46] See Jamaica–United States relations
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983[47] See Saint Kitts and Nevis–United States relations
 Saint Lucia 1979[48] See Saint Lucia–United States relations
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1981[49] See Saint Vincent and the Grenadines–United States relations
 Trinidad and Tobago 1962[50] See Trinidad and Tobago–United States relations

Europe

American relations with Eastern Europe are influenced by the legacy of the Cold War. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, former Communist-bloc states in Europe have gradually transitioned to democracy and capitalism. Many have also joined the European Union and NATO, strengthening economic ties with the broader Western world and gaining the military protection of the United States via the North Atlantic Treaty.

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania 1922[51] See Albania–United States relations
 Andorra 1995[52] See Andorra–United States relations
 Armenia 1920; 1991[53] See Armenia–United States relations
 Austria 1921[54] See Austria–United States relations
 Azerbaijan 1918-1928, 1991[55] See Azerbaijan–United States relations
 Belarus 1991[56] See Belarus–United States relations
The United States has tense relations with Belarus relating to Belarus' human rights record and election irregularities.
 Belgium 1832[57] See Belgium–United States relations
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992[58] See Bosnia and Herzegovina–United States relations
 Bulgaria 1903[59] See Bulgaria–United States relations
 Croatia 1992[60] See Croatia–United States relations
 Cyprus 1960[61] See Cyprus–United States relations
 Czech Republic 1993[62] See Czech Republic–United States relations
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 Denmark 1801[63] See Denmark–United States relations
 Estonia 1922; 1991[64] See Estonia–United States relations
 Finland 1919[65] See Finland–United States relations
 France 1778[66] See France–United States relations

France was the first foreign state to establish diplomatic relations with the United States.

 Georgia 1992[67] See Georgia–United States relations
 Germany 1797[68] See Germany–United States relations

In the political sphere, Germany stands at the center of European Union affairs and plays a key leadership role as a member of the G-7, G-20, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). The United States recognizes that the security and prosperity of the United States and Germany significantly depend on each other.[69]

 Greece 1868[70] See Greece–United States relations
 Holy See 1984[71] See Holy See–United States relations
 Hungary 1921[72] See Hungary–United States relations
 Iceland 1944[73] See Iceland–United States relations
 Ireland 1924[74] See Ireland–United States relations
 Italy 1861[75] See Italy–United States relations
 Kazakhstan 1991[76] See Kazakhstan–United States relations
 Kosovo 1999[77] See Kosovo–United States relations
The United States was one of the first countries to recognize Kosovo. The UN Security Council divided on the question of Kosovo's declaration of independence. Kosovo declared its independence on February 17, 2008, whilst Serbia objected that Kosovo is part of its territory. Of the five members with veto power in the UN Security Council, the US, UK, and France recognized the declaration of independence, and China has expressed concern, while Russia considers it illegal. "In its declaration of independence, Kosovo committed itself to the highest standards of democracy, including freedom and tolerance and justice for citizens of all ethnic backgrounds", President George W. Bush said on February 19, 2008.[78][79] Both countries enjoy excellent relationships.
 Latvia 1922; 1991[80] See Latvia–United States relations
 Liechtenstein 1997[81] See Liechtenstein–United States relations
 Lithuania 1922; 1991[82] See Lithuania–United States relations
 Luxembourg 1903[83] See Luxembourg–United States relations
 Malta 1964[84] See Malta–United States relations
 Moldova 1992[85] See Moldova–United States relations
 Monaco 2006[86] See Monaco–United States relations
 Montenegro 1905; 2006[87] See Montenegro–United States relations
 Netherlands 1781[88] See Netherlands–United States relations
The Dutch colony of Sint Eustatius was the first foreign state to recognize the independence of the United States, doing so in 1776. However, the Dutch Republic neither authorized the recognition nor ratified it, therefore Morocco remains the first sovereign nation to officially recognize the United States.
 North Macedonia 1995[89] See North Macedonia–United States relations
 Norway 1905[90] See Norway–United States relations
 Poland 1919[91] See Poland–United States relations
 Portugal 1791[92] See Portugal–United States relations
 Romania 1880[93] See Romania–United States relations
 Russia 1809; 1991[94] See Russia–United States relations
 San Marino 1861[95] See San Marino–United States relations
 Serbia 1882; 2002[96] See Serbia–United States relations
 Slovakia 1993[97] See Slovakia–United States relations
 Slovenia 1992[98] See Slovenia–United States relations
 Spain 1783[99] See Spain–United States relations
 Sweden 1783[100] See Sweden–United States relations
  Switzerland 1853[101] See Switzerland–United States relations
 Turkey 1831[102] See Turkey–United States relations
 Ukraine 1991[103] See Ukraine–United States relations
 United Kingdom 1783[104] See United Kingdom–United States relations

Since World War II, the two countries have shared a Special Relationship as part of the Anglosphere. While both the United States and the United Kingdom maintain close relationships with many other nations around the world, the level of cooperation in military planning, execution of military operations, nuclear weapons technology, and intelligence sharing with each other has been described as "unparalleled" among major powers throughout the 20th and early 21st century.[105] The United States and Britain share the world's largest foreign direct investment partnership. American investment in the United Kingdom reached $255.4 billion in 2002, while British direct investment in the United States totaled $283.3 billion.[106]

 European Union See United States–European Union relations

The European Union and the United States have the largest bilateral trade and investment relationship and enjoy the most integrated economic relationship in the world. Although overtaken by China in 2021 as the largest EU import source for goods, the US remains the EU's largest trade and investment partner, even without the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership.[107]

Africa

See also: Africa–United States relations and United States Africa Command

North Africa

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Algeria 1962[108] See Algeria–United States relations

The official US presence in Algeria is expanding following over a decade of limited staffing, reflecting the general improvement in the security environment. During the past three years, the US embassy has moved toward more normal operations and now provides most embassy services to the American and Algerian communities.

 Egypt 1922[109] See Egypt–United States relations

After the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, Egyptian foreign policy began to shift as a result of the change in Egypt's leadership from President Gamal Abdel-Nasser to Anwar Sadat and the emerging peace process between Egypt and Israel. Sadat realized that reaching a settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict is a precondition for Egyptian development. To achieve this goal, Sadat ventured to enhance Egypt–United States relations to foster a peace process with Israel.

 Libya 1951[110] See Libya–United States relations

In 2011, the United States cut diplomatic relations with the Gaddafi regime. The United States recognized the National Transitional Council as the legitimate government of Libya on July 15, 2011.[111]

 Morocco 1786[112] See Morocco–United States relations

Morocco was the first sovereign nation to recognize the United States in 1777. American-Moroccan relations were formalized in a 1786 treaty, which is still in force and is the oldest unbroken bilateral treaty in American history.

 Sudan 1956[113] See Sudan–United States relations
 Tunisia 1795[114] See Tunisia–United States relations
 Arab League See Arab–American relations

The Arab League has a representation headquarter, and several offices in the U.S.

Sub-Saharan Africa

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Angola 1994[115] See Angola–United States relations

Relations were tense during the Angolan Civil War when the US government backed UNITA rebels, but have warmed since the Angolan government renounced Marxism in 1992.

 Benin 1960[116] See Benin–United States relations

The two nations have had an excellent history of relations in the years since Benin embraced democracy. The US government continues to assist Benin with the improvement of living standards that are key to the ultimate success of Benin's experiment with democratic government and economic liberalization, and are consistent with US values and national interest in reducing poverty and promoting growth. The bulk of the US effort in support of consolidating democracy in Benin is focused on long-term human resource development through USAID programs.[117]

 Botswana 1966[118] See Botswana–United States relations
 Burkina Faso 1960[119] See Burkina Faso–United States relations
 Burundi 1962[120] See Burundi–United States relations
 Cameroon 1960[121] See Cameroon–United States relations
 Cape Verde 1975[122] See Cape Verde–United States relations
 Central African Republic 1960[123] See Central African Republic–United States relations
 Chad 1960[124] See Chad–United States relations
 Comoros 1977[125] See Comoros–United States relations
 Côte d'Ivoire 1960[126] See Côte d'Ivoire–United States relations
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1960[127] See Democratic Republic of the Congo–United States relations
 Djibouti 1977[128] See Djibouti–United States relations
 Equatorial Guinea 1968[129] See Equatorial Guinea–United States relations
 Eritrea 1993[130] See Eritrea–United States relations
 Eswatini 1968[131] See Eswatini–United States relations
 Ethiopia 1903[132] See Ethiopia–United States relations
 Gabon 1960[133] See Gabon–United States relations
 Ghana 1957[134] See Ghana–United States relations
 Guinea 1959[135] See Guinea–United States relations
 Guinea-Bissau 1975[136] See Guinea-Bissau–United States relations
 Kenya 1964[137] See Kenya–United States relations
 Lesotho 1966[138] See Lesotho–United States relations
 Liberia 1864[139] See Liberia–United States relations
 Madagascar 1874[140] See Madagascar–United States relations
 Malawi 1964[141] See Malawi–United States relations
 Mali 1960[142] See Mali–United States relations
 Mauritania 1960[143] See Mauritania–United States relations
 Mauritius 1968[144] See Mauritius–United States relations
 Mozambique 1975[145] See Mozambique–United States relations
 Namibia 1990[146] See Namibia–United States relations
 Niger 1960[147] See Niger–United States relations
 Nigeria 1960[148] See Nigeria–United States relations
 Republic of the Congo 1960[149] See Republic of the Congo–United States relations
 Rwanda 1962[150] See Rwanda–United States relations
 São Tomé and Príncipe 1976[151] See São Tomé and Príncipe–United States relations
 Senegal 1960[152] See Senegal–United States relations
 Seychelles 1976[153] See Seychelles–United States relations
 Sierra Leone 1961[154] See Sierra Leone–United States relations
 Somalia 1960[155] See Somalia–United States relations
 South Africa 1929[156] See South Africa–United States relations
 South Sudan 2011[157] See South Sudan–United States relations
 Tanzania 1961[158] See Tanzania–United States relations
 The Gambia 1965[159] See The Gambia–United States relations
 Togo 1960[160] See Togo–United States relations
 Uganda 1962[161] See Uganda–United States relations

Bilateral relations between the United States and Uganda have been good since Yoweri Museveni assumed power, and the United States has welcomed his efforts to end human rights abuses and to pursue economic reform. Uganda is a strong supporter of the Global War on Terror. The United States is helping Uganda achieve export-led economic growth through the African Growth and Opportunity Act and provides a significant amount of development assistance. At the same time, the United States is concerned about continuing human rights problems and the pace of progress toward the establishment of genuine political pluralism.

 Zambia 1964[162] See United States–Zambia relations

The diplomatic relationship between the United States and Zambia can be characterized as warm and cooperative. The United States works closely with the Zambian Government to defeat the HIV/AIDS pandemic that is ravaging Zambia, to promote economic growth and development, and to effect political reform needed to promote responsive and responsible government. The United States is also supporting the government's efforts to root out corruption. Zambia is a beneficiary of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). The US government provides a variety of technical assistance and other support that is managed by the Department of State, USAID, Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of the Treasury, Department of Defense, and the Peace Corps. The majority of US assistance is provided through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), in support of the fight against HIV/AIDS.

 Zimbabwe 1980[163] See United States–Zimbabwe relations

After Morgan Tsvangirai, Mugabe's rival and leader of the Movement for Democratic Change, became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe under a power-sharing agreement, the Barack Obama administration extended its congratulations to Tsvangirai, but said that the US would wait for evidence of Mugabe's cooperation with the MDC before it would consider lifting its sanctions.[164] In early March 2009, Obama proclaimed that US sanctions would be protracted provisionally for another year, because Zimbabwe's political crisis is as yet unresolved.[165]

Asia

Main article: Asia–United States relations

West Asia and Middle East

Main article: United States foreign policy in the Middle East

The United States has many important allies in the Greater Middle East region. These allies are Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Jordan, Afghanistan (formerly), Israel, Egypt, Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar. Israel and Egypt are leading recipients of United States foreign aid, receiving $2.775 billion[166] and 1.75 billion[167] in 2010. Turkey is an ally of the United States through its membership in NATO, while all of the other countries except Saudi Arabia and Qatar are major non-NATO allies.

The United States toppled the government of Saddam Hussein during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[168] Turkey is host to approximately 90 B61 nuclear bombs at Incirlik Air Base.[169] Other allies include Qatar, where 3,500 US troops are based,[170] and Bahrain, where the United States Navy maintains NSA Bahrain, home of NAVCENT and the Fifth Fleet.

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Armenia 1920; 1991[53] See Armenia–United States relations
 Azerbaijan 1918-1928, 1991[55] See Azerbaijan–United States relations
 Bahrain 1971[171] See Bahrain–United States relations
 Cyprus 1960[61] See Cyprus–United States relations
 Egypt 1922[109] See Egypt–United States relations

After the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, Egyptian foreign policy began to shift as a result of the change in Egypt's leadership from President Gamal Abdel-Nasser to Anwar Sadat and the emerging peace process between Egypt and Israel. Sadat realized that reaching a settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict is a precondition for Egyptian development. To achieve this goal, Sadat ventured to enhance Egypt–United States relations to foster a peace process with Israel.

 Georgia 1992[67] See Georgia–United States relations
 Iran Diplomatic relations severed on 1980[172] See Iran–United States relations

The United States and the Sublime State of Iran recognized each other in 1850. Diplomatic relations were established in 1883 and severed in 1980.

 Iraq 1931; 1984; 2004[173] See Iraq–United States relations
 Israel 1949[174] See Israel–United States relations
 Jordan 1949[175] See Jordan–United States relations
 Kuwait 1961[176] See Kuwait–United States relations
 Lebanon 1944[177] See Lebanon–United States relations
 Oman 1972[178] See Oman–United States relations
 Qatar 1972[179] See Qatar–United States relations
 Saudi Arabia 1940[180] See Saudi Arabia–United States relations
 Syria Diplomatic relations severed on 2012[181] See Syria–United States relations

The Syrian Arab Republic cut off relations with United States in 2012 in response to American support of the Syrian rebels.

 Turkey 1831[102] See Turkey–United States relations
 United Arab Emirates 1972[182] See United Arab Emirates–United States relations

The United States was the third country to establish formal diplomatic relations with the UAE and has had an ambassador resident in the UAE since 1974. The two countries have enjoyed friendly relations with each other and have developed into friendly government-to-government ties which include security assistance. UAE and US had enjoyed private commercial ties, especially in petroleum. The quality of UAE–US relations increased dramatically as a result of the US-led coalition's campaign to end the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. UAE ports host more US Navy ships than any port outside the US.

 Yemen 1946[183] See United States–Yemen relations

Traditionally, United States – Yemen relations have been tepid, as the lack of strong military-to-military ties, commercial relations, and support of Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh has hindered the development of strong bilateral ties. During the early years of the George W. Bush administration, relations improved under the rubric of the War on Terror, though Yemen's lack of policies toward wanted terrorists has stalled additional US support.[184]

Central Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Kazakhstan 1991[76] See Kazakhstan–United States relations
 Kyrgyzstan 1993[185] See Kyrgyzstan–United States relations
 Tajikistan 1991[186] See Tajikistan–United States relations
 Turkmenistan 1991[187] See Turkmenistan–United States relations

The US embassy, USAID, and the Peace Corps are located in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. The United States and Turkmenistan continue to disagree about the country's path toward democratic and economic reform. The United States has publicly advocated industrial privatization, market liberalization, and fiscal reform, as well as legal and regulatory reforms to open up the economy to foreign trade and investment, as the best way to achieve prosperity and true independence and sovereignty.

 Uzbekistan 1991[188] See United States–Uzbekistan relations

Relations improved slightly in the latter half of 2007, but the U.S.A. continues to call for Uzbekistan to meet all of its commitments under the March 2002 Declaration of Strategic Partnership between the two countries. The declaration covers not only security and economic relations but political reform, economic reform, and human rights. Uzbekistan has Central Asia's largest population and is vital to US, regional, and international efforts to promote stability and security.

South Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Afghanistan 1935[189] See Afghanistan–United States relations

In 2021, the Taliban overthrew the U.S.-backed Islamic Republic of Afghanistan concurrent with the withdrawal of U.S. troops, leading to the relocation of the U.S. Embassy in Kabul to Doha, Qatar.[190] On November 12, 2021, the U.S. announced that an interests section would open at the Embassy of Qatar in Kabul on December 31, to serve as the protecting power for the U.S. in Afghanistan.[191] The Islamic Republic's diplomatic missions to the U.S. operated independently for several months before shutting down operations and transferring custody of the properties to the U.S. State Department on March 16, 2022. Afghanistan has no protecting power in the U.S.[192][193][194]

 Bangladesh 1972[195] See Bangladesh–United States relations

Today the relationship between the two countries is based on what is described by American diplomats as the "three Ds", meaning Democracy, Development and Denial of space for terrorism. The United States is closely working with Bangladesh in combating Islamic extremism and terrorism and is providing hundreds of millions of dollars every year in economic assistance.

 Bhutan Does not have formal, only informal relations[196] See Bhutan–United States relations

While the United States has no formal diplomatic relations with Bhutan, it maintains informal contact through its embassy in New Delhi, India. The US has offered to resettle 60,000 of the 107,000 Bhutanese refugees of Nepalese origin now living in seven UN refugee camps in southeastern Nepal.

 India 1947[197] See India–United States relations

The relationships between India in the days of the British Raj and the US were thin.[198] Swami Vivekananda promoted Yoga and Vedanta in America at the World's Parliament of Religions in Chicago, during the World's Fair in 1893. Mark Twain visited India in 1896[199] and described it in his travelogue Following the Equator with both revulsion and attraction before concluding that India was the only foreign land he dreamed about or longed to see again.[200] Regarding India, Americans learned more from English writer Rudyard Kipling.[201] Mahatma Gandhi had an important influence on the philosophy of non-violence promoted by Martin Luther King Jr. in the 1950s.

At present, India and the US share an extensive and expanding cultural, strategic, military, and economic relationship[202][203][204][205][206] which is in the phase of implementing confidence building measures (CBM) to overcome the legacy of trust deficit – brought about by adversarial US foreign policies[207][208][209][210] and multiple instances of technology denial[211][212][213][214][215] – which have plagued the relationship over several decades.[216][217] Unrealistic expectations after the conclusion of the 2008 India–United States Civil Nuclear Agreement (which underestimated negative public opinion regarding the long-term viability of nuclear power generation and civil-society endorsement for contractual guarantees on safeguards and liability) has given way to pragmatic realism and refocus on areas of cooperation which enjoy favourable political and electoral consensus.

 Maldives 1965[218] See Maldives–United States relations
   Nepal 1947[219] See Nepal–United States relations
 Pakistan 1947[220] See Pakistan–United States relations

The United States relationship with Pakistan weakened after the United States troops withdraws Afghanistan in 2021.[221] Pakistan declined an invitation to the US's 'Summit for Democracy' under the Biden administration.[222]

 Sri Lanka 1947[223] See Sri Lanka–United States relations

East Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 People's Republic of China 1844 (Qing)[224]
1979 (PRC)
See China–United States relations and East Asia island arcs

The United States and the People's Republic of China have extensive yet complex economic relationships and partnerships. A great amount of trade between the two countries necessitates positive economic relations, although occasional disagreements over tariffs, currency exchange rates, intellectual property theft, and the political status of Taiwan occurs. The United States has criticized China on such human rights issues as the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, the persecution of Falun Gong, and more recently the mass detaining of Uyghurs, Kazakhs, and other ethnic and religious minorities in Xinjiang, as well the forced sinicization of Mongols and Tibetans. China has criticized the United States on human rights issues in response and accused the latter of "interfering in China's internal affairs". The United States acknowledges the PRC's One-China policy.

The relations deteriorated sharply under Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping, with issues such as China's militarization of the South China Sea and Chinese espionage in the United States arising. U.S. president Donald Trump launched a trade war against China, banned U.S. companies from selling equipment to Huawei, increased visa restrictions on Chinese students and scholars, and designated China as a "currency manipulator".[225][226][227][228][229] The more confrontational policy has endured during the Biden administration, which focuses on China's treatment of Hong Kong, the threats against Taiwan, the [[[persecution of Uyghurs in China]], and Chinese cyberwarfare. In response, China has adopted "wolf warrior diplomacy" to counter allegations they see as incorrect and damaging to the American-Chinese dialogue.

 Republic of China (Taiwan) 1844 (Qing)[224]
1911 (ended in 1979)
1979 (Taiwan Relations Act - unofficial)

2018 (Taiwan Travel Act) - high-level working partnership

See Taiwan–United States relations

The United States recognized the Nationalist Government as the legitimate government of all of China throughout the Chinese Civil War. The U.S. continued to recognize the Republic of China until 1979, when it shifted its recognition to the People's Republic of China in accordance with the One China policy, where the U.S. 'acknowledge', or take note of, the Chinese position on Taiwan but not 'recognizing' or accepting it, which allows the U.S. flexibility to pursue unofficial but robust relations with Taipei. The U.S. continued to provide Taiwan with military aid after 1979, and continued informal relations through the American Institute in Taiwan, and Taiwan is considered to be a strong Asian ally and supporter of the United States.[230] The U.S. Congress passed the Taiwan Travel Act on February 28, 2018, and the bill was subsequently signed into federal law by President Donald Trump, formalizing high-level communications between Washington and Taipei as well as permitting intergovernmental contact at the highest level.[231]

 Hong Kong 1992[232]
See Hong Kong–United States relations

U.S. foreign policy toward Hong Kong, grounded in a determination to promote Hong Kong's prosperity, autonomy, and way of life, is stated in the U.S.–Hong Kong Policy Act of 1992. It rules that the U.S. would continue to treat Hong Kong apart from the People's Republic of China even after the 1997 transfer of sovereignty marking the end of British rule. The United States maintains substantial economic and political interests in Hong Kong. The United States supports Hong Kong's autonomy by concluding and implementing bilateral agreements; promoting trade and investment; arranging high-level visits; broadening law enforcement cooperation; bolstering educational, academic, and cultural links; and supporting the large community of U.S. citizens and visitors.

 Macau 1999[233]
See Macau–United States relations

In recognition of Macau's high degree of autonomy, the United States continues to treat Macau as a "special area" distinct from the People's Republic of China. Macau's clothes and textiles continued to enter the United States under quotas separated from those of China. Under the terms of a September 2000 bilateral Memorandum of Understanding, Macau and the U.S. government cooperate in enforcing textile quotas and preventing illegal trans-shipment. The United States continued periodic visits by U.S. Customs Textile Production Verification Teams to ensure compliance with Macau bilateral textile commitments.

 Japan 1854, 1952[234]
See Japan–United States relations

The relationship began in the 1850s, as the United States was a major factor in forcing Japan to resume contacts with the outer world beyond a very restricted role. In the late 19th century, the Japanese sent many delegations to Europe, and some to the U.S., to discover and copy the latest technology and thereby modernize Japan very rapidly and allow it to build its own empire. There was some friction over control of Hawaii and the Philippines, but Japan stood aside as the U.S. annexed those lands in 1898. Likewise, the U.S. did not object when Japan took control of Korea. The two nations cooperated with the European powers in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900, but the U.S. was increasingly troubled about Japan's denial of the Open Door Policy that would ensure that all nations could do business with China on an equal basis.[235]

President Theodore Roosevelt admired Japan's strength as it defeated a major European power, Russia. He brokered an end to the war between Russia and Japan in 1905–6. Anti-Japanese sentiment (especially on the West Coast) soured relations in the 1907–24 era. In the 1930s, the U.S. protested vehemently against Japan's seizure of Manchuria (1931), its war against China (1937–45), and its seizure of Indochina (Vietnam) 1940–41. American sympathies were with China and Japan rejected increasingly angry American demands that Japan pull out of China. The two nations fought an all-out war 1941–45; the U.S. won a total victory, with heavy bombing (including two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki) that devastated Japan's 50 largest industrial cities. The U.S. Army under Douglas MacArthur occupied and ruled Japan, 1945–51, with the successful goal of sponsoring a peaceful, prosperous and democratic nation.[236]

In 1951, the United States and Japan signed Treaty of San Francisco and Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan, subsequently revised as Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan in 1960, relations since then have been excellent. The United States considers Japan to be one of its closest allies, and it is both a Major Non-NATO ally and NATO contact country. The United States has several military bases in Japan including Yokosuka, which harbors the US 7th Fleet. The JSDF, or Japanese Self Defense Force, cross-train with the U.S. military, often providing auxiliary security and conducting war games.

 Mongolia 1987[237] See Mongolia–United States relations
 North Korea 1882 (Joseon);[238] Only Informal Relations with the DPRK[239] See North Korea–United States relations
Diplomatic relations severed in 2018[240]
 Russia 1809; 1991[94] See Russia–United States relations
 South Korea 1882 (Joseon);[238] 1949 (Republic)[241] See South Korea–United States relations

South Korea–United States relations have been most extensive since 1945, when the United States helped establish capitalism in South Korea and led the UN-sponsored Korean War against North Korea and China (1950–53).[242] South Korea's rapid economic growth, democratization and modernization greatly reduced its U.S. dependency. Large numbers of U.S. forces remain in South Korea. On September 24, 2018, U.S. president Donald Trump signed a renegotiated trade agreement with South Korean President Moon Jae-in.[243]

Southeast Asia

Many countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are important partners for United States in both economic and geostrategic aspects. ASEAN's geostrategic importance stems from many factors, including: the strategic location of member countries, the large shares of global trade that pass through regional waters, and the alliances and partnerships which the United States shares with ASEAN member states. In July 2009, the United States signed ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Cooperation, which establishes guiding principles intended to build confidence among its signatories with the aim of maintaining regional peace and stability.[244] Trade flows are robust and increasing between America and the ASEAN region.

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Brunei 1984[245] See Brunei–United States relations

The United States welcomed Brunei Darussalam's full independence from the United Kingdom on January 1, 1984, and opened an embassy in Bandar Seri Begawan on that date. Brunei opened its embassy in Washington, D.C. in March 1984. Brunei's armed forces engage in joint exercises, training programs, and other military cooperation with the US. A memorandum of understanding on defense cooperation was signed on November 29, 1994. The Sultan of Brunei visited Washington in December 2002.

 Cambodia 1950[246] See Cambodia–United States relations
 East Timor 2002[247] See East Timor–United States relations
 Indonesia 1949[248] See Indonesia–United States relations

As the largest ASEAN member, Indonesia has played an active and prominent role in developing the organization.[249] For United States, Indonesia is important for dealing with certain issues; such as terrorism,[250] democracy, and how United States project its relations with Islamic world, since Indonesia has the world's largest Islamic population, and one that honors and respects religious diversity.[251] The United States views Indonesia as a potential strategic ally in Southeast Asia.[252] During his stately visit to Indonesia, US president Barack Obama has held up Indonesia as an example of how a developing nation can embrace democracy and diversity.[253][254]

 Laos 1950[255] See Laos–United States relations
 Malaysia 1957[255] See Malaysia–United States relations

Despite increasingly strained relations under the Mahathir Mohamad government, ties have been thawed under Najib Razak's administration. Economic ties are particularly robust, with the United States being Malaysia's largest trading partner and Malaysia is the tenth-largest trading partner of the US. Annual bilateral trade amounts to $50 billion. The United States and Malaysia launched negotiations for a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA) in June 2006.

The United States and Malaysia enjoy strong security cooperation. Malaysia hosts the Southeast Asia Regional Center for Counterterrorism (SEARCCT), where over 2000 officials from various countries have received training. The United States is among the foreign countries that has collaborated with the center in conducting capacity building programmes. The United States and Malaysia share a strong military-to-military relationship with numerous exchanges, training, joint exercises, and visits.

 Myanmar 1948[256] See Myanmar–United States relations
Bilateral ties have generally been strained but are slowly improving. The United States has placed broad sanctions on Burma because of the military crackdown in 1988 and the military regime's refusal to honour the election results of the 1990 People's Assembly election. Similarly, the European Union has placed embargoes on Burma, including an arms embargo, cessation of trade preferences, and suspension of all aid with the exception of humanitarian aid.[257]

US and European government sanctions against the military government, alongside boycotts and other types direct pressure on corporations by western supporters of the Burmese democracy movement, have resulted in the withdrawal from Burma of most United States and many European companies. However, several Western companies remain due to loopholes in the sanctions.[258] Asian corporations have generally remained willing to continue investing in Myanmar and to initiate new investments, particularly in natural resource extraction.

Ongoing reforms have improved relations between Burma and the United States. However the Rohingya Crisis has been deteriorating ties.[259]

 Philippines 1946[260] See Philippines–United States relations

The Philippines and the United States have an extremely strong relationship with each other due to their long-standing alliance. The Philippine-USA links stretch back in time. The first Asians in the Americas were the Filipinos.[261]

The first recorded advent of Filipinos in what is now the United States date to October 1587 around Morro Bay, California,[262] with the first permanent settlement in Louisiana in 1763,[263] they were named "Manilamen" and they served in the Battle of New Orleans during the closing stages of the War of 1812, when the British Empire and American Republic once again went to war against each other as Filipinos in Saint Malo supported the American side against the British Empire. One American state, due to it being a former Spanish territory, Texas, was even once called "The New Philippines", so named since the Spanish wanted to replicate the prosperity they achieved in the Philippines, in that territory in the Americas.[264]

The Spanish government ceded the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris that ended the Spanish–American War and led to the Philippine–American War. The Philippines was a United States colony from 1898 to 1946. The United States finally recognized Philippine independence on July 4, 1946, in the Treaty of Manila.[265] July 4 was observed in the Philippines as Independence Day until August 4, 1964, when, upon the advice of historians and the urging of nationalists, President Diosdado Macapagal signed into law Republic Act No. 4166 designating June 12 as the country's Independence Day.[266]

The United States and the Philippines have fought together in many conflicts such as World War I, World War II, the Korean War, Vietnam War, Islamic insurgency in the Philippines, Gulf War and the War on Terror.

The Philippines and the United States still maintain close, friendly, diplomatic, political and military relations with more than 100,000 US citizens and nationals living in the Philippines and more than 4 million Filipinos living in the United States. Both countries actively cooperate in the trade, investment and financial sectors. The US is also the largest investor in the Philippine economy with an estimated total worth of $63 billion.

The United States and the Philippines conduct joint military exercises called the Balikatan that take place once a year to boost relations between the two countries. The US military also conducts humanitarian and aid missions in the Philippines. The Philippines is one out of two major US allies in South East Asia.

Since 2003 the US has designated the Philippines as a Major non-NATO ally. However, relations between the United States and the Philippines began to deteriorate in 2016 with Philippines president Rodrigo Duterte wanting to form an alliance with China and Russia and separating the country from all connections and ties with the United States, both economically and socially.

 Singapore 1965[267] See Singapore–United States relations
 Thailand 1833[268] See Thailand–United States relations
Thailand and the United States are both former Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) members, being close partners throughout the Cold War, and are still close allies. Since 2003, the United States has designated Thailand as a major non-NATO ally.
 Vietnam 1950[269] See United States–Vietnam relations

After a 20-year hiatus of severed ties, President Bill Clinton announced the formal normalization of diplomatic relations with Vietnam on July 11, 1995. Subsequent to President Clinton's normalization announcement, in August 1995, both nations upgraded their Liaison Offices opened during January 1995 to embassy status. As diplomatic ties between the nations grew, the United States opened a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City, and Vietnam opened a consulate in San Francisco. Today, the United States views Vietnam as a potential strategic ally in Southeast Asia.[252]

Oceania

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia 1940[270] See Australia–United States relations

Australia and the United States have long been close and strategic allies and have traditionally been aligned with the Commonwealth of Nations. The two countries have a shared history, both have previously been British Colonies and many Americans flocked to the Australian goldfields in the 19th century. At the strategic level, the relationship really came to prominence in the Second World War, when the two nations worked extremely closely in the Pacific War against Japan, with General Douglas MacArthur undertaking his role as Supreme Allied Commander based in Australia, effectively having Australian troops and resources under his command. During this period, the cultural interaction between Australia and the United States were elevated to a higher level as over 1 million US military personnel moved through Australia during the course of the war. The relationship continued to evolve throughout the second half of the 20th century, and today now involves strong relationships at the executive and mid levels of government and the military, leading Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Kurt M. Campbell to declare that "in the last ten years, [Australia] has ascended to one of the closest one or two allies [of the US] on the planet".[271] It was also strengthened its relationship with the United States as Britain's influence in Asia declined. At the governmental level, United States-Australia relations are formalized by the ANZUS treaty and the Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement.[citation needed]

 Cook Islands 1995 The Cook Islands are an Associated State of New Zealand and has consular relations with the United States, in addition as early as 1980, the two sides signed the Cook Islands-United States Maritime Boundary Treaty. On September 25, 2023, the two sides established diplomatic relations.[272]
 Fiji 1971[273] See Fiji–United States relations

Relations are currently steady since Fiji's elections in September 2014. The United States had opposed Fiji's unelected government, which came to power through a military coup in December 2006. The United States suspended $2.5 million in aid money pending a review of the situation, following the 2006 coup.[274]

 Kiribati 1980[275] See Kiribati–United States relations

Relations between Kiribati and the United States are excellent. Kiribati signed a treaty of friendship with the United States after independence in 1979. The United States has no consular or diplomatic facilities in the country. Officers of the American Embassy in Suva, Fiji, are concurrently accredited to Kiribati and make periodic visits. The US Peace Corps maintained a program in Kiribati from 1974 to 2008.

 Marshall Islands 1986 See Marshall Islands–United States relations

The Marshall Islands is a sovereign nation in "free association" with the United States. The Marshall Islands and the United States maintain excellent relations. After more than a decade of negotiation, the Marshall Islands and the United States signed the Compact of Free Association on June 25, 1983. The Compact gives the US full authority and responsibility over defense of the Marshall Islands. The Marshall Islands and the United States both lay claim to Wake Island. The Compact that binds the Marshall Islands and the United States is the same one that binds the United States and the Federated States of Micronesia and Palau.

 Federated States of Micronesia 1986[276] See Federated States of Micronesia–United States relations

Reflecting a strong legacy of Trusteeship cooperation, over 25 US federal agencies continue to maintain programs in the FSM. The United States and the FSM share very strong relations. Under the Amended Compact, the US has full authority and responsibility for the defense of the FSM. This security relationship can be changed or terminated by mutual agreement. The Compact that binds the US and the FSM is the same one that binds the United States to the Marshall Islands and to Palau.

 Nauru 1976[277] See Nauru–United States relations

Relations between Nauru and the United States are complicated. While the new US ambassador to Fiji has promised Nauru assistance in economic development, there have been disagreements about Cuba and Foreign policy of the United States, and the United States does not have an embassy in Nauru; instead, the US embassy staff in Suva, Fiji make periodical visits.

 New Zealand 1942[278] See New Zealand–United States relations

United States-New Zealand relations are strong, but complex. The United States has historically assisted New Zealand in times of turmoil; for instance, during World War II, US bombing Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and with the September 2010 Canterbury earthquake and the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. New Zealand has reciprocated; for example, by participating in the Korean War and the Vietnam War. However, the United States suspended its mutual defense obligations to New Zealand because of the state's non-nuclear policies. In 1996, the United States under President Bill Clinton reinstated New Zealand's status from a 'friend' to an 'ally' by designating New Zealand as a Major non-NATO ally. Despite disagreements between the two countries, the bilateral trade, security, and cultural relationship continued to flourish. New Zealand continued to play a supportive role in international conflicts in Somalia, Bosnia, and the Persian Gulf. New Zealand and the United States are close collaborators in the international intelligence alliance, Five Eyes, which is one of the most comprehensive known espionage alliances in history. Following the 9/11 attacks on the United States in 2001, New Zealand supported international counter-terrorism efforts and assisted the United States throughout the war in Afghanistan. Throughout the 2000s, the United States has remained New Zealand's fourth-largest trading partner and third-largest source of visitors.

 Niue 25 September 2023[3] Niue is an Associated State of New Zealand. In 1997, the United States and Niue signed a maritime boundary treaty that included the following statement: "Prior to signing the treaty, the political status of Niue was addressed. Niue is in free association with New Zealand. On internal matters it is self-governing. Niue conducts its foreign affairs in conjunction with New Zealand. Niue has declared and does manage its exclusive economic zone. The United States requested, and received, confirmation from New Zealand that the Government of Niue had the competence to enter into this agreement with the United States." On September 25, 2023, the two sides established diplomatic relations.[272][3]
 Palau 1996[279] See Palau–United States relations

On October 1, 1994, after five decades of US administration, the country of Palau became the last component of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands to gain its independence. In 1978, Palau decided not to join the Federated States of Micronesia, due to culture and language differences, and instead sought independence. In 1986, the Compact of Free Association agreement between Palau and the United States was approved, paving the way for Palau's independence.

 Papua New Guinea 1975[280] See Papua New Guinea–United States relations
 Samoa 1962[281]
 Solomon Islands 1978[282]
 Tonga 1886; 1972[283] See Tonga–United States relations
 Tuvalu 1978[283] See Tuvalu–United States relations

Relations between the two countries are generally amicable, or neutral, but there have been notable disagreements regarding the issues of climate change and the Kyoto Protocol.

 Vanuatu 1986[284] See United States–Vanuatu relations

The United States and Vanuatu established diplomatic relations on September 30, 1986 - three months to the day after Vanuatu had established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.[285] Relations were often tense in the 1980s, under the prime ministership of Father Walter Lini in Vanuatu, but eased after that. At present, bilateral relations consist primarily in United States aid to Vanuatu.

Countries with strained relations with the United States

See also: United States sanctions

Current

Formerly

Countries with visa services suspended

[288]

Countries with no embassy

[288]

Unrecognized countries with only informal relations with the United States

Former countries

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The current government led by the Taliban is unrecognized by the United States government.
  2. ^ Since 1979, Iran and the U.S. have had hostile relations, with official relations being severed in 1980.
  3. ^ North Korea does not have formal relations with the U.S.
  4. ^ Relations have been severed since 2012.

References

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets. United States Department of State.

  1. ^ "All Countries". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 12, 2021.
  2. ^ "On the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the United States and the Cook Islands". United States Department of State. Retrieved September 26, 2023.
  3. ^ a b c "On the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations Between the United States and Niue". September 25, 2023. Retrieved September 25, 2023.
  4. ^ "Argentina - Countries - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  5. ^ "Belize - Countries - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  6. ^ "Bolivia - Countries - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  7. ^ "Brazil - Countries - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  8. ^ Developing a partnership with Brazil - An emerging power Bassoli, Douglas. US Army War College. April 3, 2004.
  9. ^ http://www.wilsoncenter.org/news/docs/RL33456.pdf Archived July 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ US Congress Report on Brazil-US Relations Archived July 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
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