Mid-Atlantic
U.S. states in the northern half of the Mid-Atlantic region are indicated in dark red; states in the southern half of the Mid-Atlantic region are indicated in pink.
U.S. states in the northern half of the Mid-Atlantic region are indicated in dark red; states in the southern half of the Mid-Atlantic region are indicated in pink.
Coordinates: 41°N 77°W / 41°N 77°W / 41; -77
Composition
Metropolitan areas
Largest cityNew York
Area
 • Total191,299.86 sq mi (495,464.4 km2)
 • Land174,468.45 sq mi (451,871.2 km2)
 • Water16,831.41 sq mi (43,593.2 km2)  8.80%
Population
 • Total60,783,913
 • Density320/sq mi (120/km2)
GDP (nominal)
 • Q3 2022$5.233 trillion

The Mid-Atlantic is a region of the United States located in the overlap between the Northeastern and Southeastern states of the United States. Its exact definition differs upon source, but the region typically includes Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia[3] with some additional sources including or excluding other areas in parts of the Northeast region and the South Atlantic states, for practical reasons.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] The region has its origin in 18th century, and its states were each among the Thirteen Colonies of pre-revolutionary British America.

The Mid-Atlantic region played an instrumental and historic role in the nation's founding and the development of the nation. Each of the seven states were members of the Thirteen Colonies that sent delegates to the Second Continental Congress, which assembled in Philadelphia and unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence, and formalized the Continental Army under George Washington's command during the American Revolutionary War. Following independence, the states again gathered in Philadelphia at the Constitutional Convention, in 1788, where they ratified the United States Constitution, which remains the oldest and longest-standing written and codified national constitution in force in the world.[10]

The Mid-Atlantic region was settled during the colonial era between the early 17th century and the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War in 1783 by European Americans of primarily Dutch, German, Swedish, English, and other Western European ethnicities. Religious pluralism and freedoms existed in the original Thirteen Colonies and were particularly prevalent in Province of Pennsylvania and the geographic region that ultimately broke from Pennsylvania to form the Delaware Colony. Among the 13 colonies, the Province of Maryland was the only colony with a substantial Catholic population.

Following the American Revolutionary War, the Mid-Atlantic region hosted each of the historic capitals of the United States. The nation's capital was constructed in Washington, D.C. in the late 18th century, and relocated there from Philadelphia in 1800.

In the early part of the 19th century, New York and Pennsylvania overtook Virginia as the nation's two most populous states, and the Mid-Atlantic region overtook New England as the most important trading and industrial center in the nation. During this period, large numbers of German, Irish, Italian, Jewish, Polish, and other immigrants arrived in the region's coastal cities, including Baltimore, Newark, New York City, Philadelphia, and interior cities such as Pittsburgh, and Rochester, Albany, and Buffalo, with their skyscrapers and subways, which emerged as icons of modernity and American economic and cultural power in the 20th century.

In the late 19th century, the region played a vital and historic role in the development of American culture, commerce, trade, and industry sectors. Historian Frederick Jackson Turner labeled it "the typically American."[11]

The Northeast Corridor and Interstate 95 in the region link an almost contiguous urban sprawl, which includes large and small cities and their respective suburbs and forms the Northeast megalopolis, one of the world's most important concentrations of finance, media, communications, education, medicine, and technology. The Mid-Atlantic is a relatively affluent region of the nation; nearly half of the nation's 100 highest-income counties based on median household income are located in the Mid-Atlantic, and 33 of the nation's top 100 counties based on per capita income are in the region. Most of the Mid-Atlantic states rank among the 15 highest-income states in the nation by both median household income and per capita income.

The region is home to eight of the top 25 ranked universities in the nation: Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, Columbia University and NYU in New York City, Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey, the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore,Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., and the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia according to U.S. News & World Report Best Colleges Ranking.[12][13][14]

Composition

Definitions of the geographic components of the Mid-Atlantic region differ slightly among sources.[15] Generally speaking, the region is inclusive of the states and federal district of Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, with some additional sources including or excluding other areas in parts of the Northeast region and the South Atlantic states, for practical reasons.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

The United States Census Bureau defines the Mid-Atlantic as a sub-region of the Northeast and only includes New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania.[5] The Bureau of Labor Statistics excludes New York;[3] the Environmental Protection Agency excludes New York and New Jersey;[7] and the U.S. Department of Transportation - United States Maritime Administration includes North Carolina.[8] In 2004, the United States Geological Survey within the context of Ground-Water Vulnerability to Nitrate Contamination, defined the region as including Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Washington, D.C., and parts of New Jersey, New York, and North Carolina.[6]

West Virginia and Virginia are atypical of this region in a few ways. These states both primarily lie within the Southern American dialect region,[16] and the major religious tradition is largely Evangelical Christian, with 30% in Virginia and 39% in West Virginia identifying as evangelicals.[17] Although a few of West Virginia's eastern panhandle counties are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, the major portion of the state is rural and there are no major or even large cities.[18]

History

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Shipping containers at Port Newark–Elizabeth Marine Terminal in the Port of New York and New Jersey

Shipping and trade have been important to the Mid-Atlantic economy since the beginning of the colonial era. The explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to see the region in 1524. Henry Hudson later extensively explored that region in 1611 and claimed it for the Dutch, who then created a fur-trading post in Albany in 1614. Jamestown, Virginia was the first permanent English colony in North America, it was established seven years earlier in 1607.

From early colonial times, the Mid-Atlantic region was settled by a wider range of European people than in New England or the South. The Dutch New Netherland settlement along the Hudson River in New York City and New Jersey, and for a time, New Sweden along the Delaware River in Delaware, divided the two great bulwarks of English settlement from each other. The original English settlements in the region notably provided refuge to religious minorities, Maryland to Roman Catholics and Pennsylvania to Quakers and Anabaptist Pennsylvania Dutch. In time, all these settlements fell under English colonial control, but the region continued to be a magnet for people of diverse nationalities.

The area that came to be known as the Middle Colonies served as a strategic bridge between the North and South. The New York and New Jersey campaign during the American Revolutionary War saw more battles than any other theater of the conflict. Philadelphia, midway between the northern and southern colonies, was home to the Continental Congress, the convention of delegates who organized the American Revolution. Philadelphia also was the birthplace of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and the United States Constitution in 1787, while the United States Bill of Rights was drafted and ratified and the first Supreme Court of the United States sat for the first time, in the first capital under the Constitution of New York.

While early settlers were mostly farmers, traders, and fishermen, the Mid-Atlantic states provided the young United States with heavy industry and served as the "melting pot" of new immigrants from Europe. Cities grew along major ports, shipping routes, and waterways, including New York City and Newark on opposite sides of the Hudson River, Philadelphia on the Delaware River, Allentown on the Lehigh River, and Baltimore on the Chesapeake Bay.

Major states, cities, and urban areas

New York City
Philadelphia
Baltimore
Washington, D.C.

Metropolitan areas

Largest metropolitan statistical areas by population in the Mid-Atlantic Region
MSA 2020 Census 2010 Census
1 New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA 20,140,470 18,897,109
2 Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV 6,385,162 5,649,540
3 Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD 6,245,051 5,965,343
4 Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD 2,844,510 2,710,489
5 Pittsburgh, PA 2,370,930 2,356,285
6 Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC 1,799,674 1,713,954
7 Richmond, VA 1,314,434 1,186,501
8 Buffalo-Cheektowaga, NY 1,166,902 1,135,509
9 Rochester, NY 1,090,135 1,079,671
10 Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY 899,262 870,716
Top ten largest cities by population in the Mid-Atlantic Region
City 2020 Census Total area
1 New York, NY 8,804,190 472.43 sq mi
2 Philadelphia, PA 1,603,797 142.70 sq mi
3 Washington, D.C. 689,545 68.35 sq mi
4 Baltimore, MD 585,708 92.05 sq mi
5 Virginia Beach, VA 459,470 497.50 sq mi
6 Newark, NJ 311,549 25.88 sq mi
7 Pittsburgh, PA 302,971 58.35 sq mi
8 Jersey City, NJ 292,449 21.03 sq mi
9 Buffalo, NY 278,349 52.48 sq mi
10 Chesapeake, VA 249,422 350.95 sq mi
Top ten largest towns/townships by population in the Mid-Atlantic region[20]
Township 2020 Census
1. Hempstead, NY 793,409
2. Brookhaven, NY 485,773
3. Islip, NY 339,938
4. Oyster Bay, NY 301,332
5. N. Hempstead, NY 237,639
6. Babylon, NY 218,223
7 Huntington, NY 204,127
8 Ramapo, NY 148,919
9 Lakewood Township, NJ 135,158
10. Amherst, NY 129,595

States and federal district

State or federal district 2020 Census Total area
1 New York 20,201,249 54,555 sq mi
2 Pennsylvania 13,002,700 46,055 sq mi
3 New Jersey 9,288,994 8,722.58 sq mi
4 Virginia 8,631,393 42,774.2 sq mi
5 Maryland 6,177,224 12,407 sq mi
6 West Virginia 1,793,716 24,230 sq mi
7 Delaware 989,948 2,489 sq mi
8 District of Columbia 689,545 68.35 sq mi
Historical population
CensusPop.Note
17902,085,066
18002,702,67929.6%
18103,466,54528.3%
18204,278,34923.4%
18305,362,69125.3%
18406,357,87318.6%
18508,046,64926.6%
18609,929,64823.4%
187011,515,59216.0%
188013,887,07520.6%
189016,566,26919.3%
190019,919,15920.2%
191024,427,36022.6%
192028,144,26715.2%
193032,768,58116.4%
194034,870,0746.4%
195038,951,02911.7%
196044,306,75913.7%
197048,818,78410.2%
198049,532,8981.5%
199051,637,6574.2%
200055,210,8656.9%
201057,999,6025.1%
202060,783,9134.8%
Source:1790–2020[21]

State capitals and federal district

Capital 2020 Census Total area
1 Washington, D.C. 689,545 68.35 sq mi
2 Richmond, Virginia 226,610 62.57 sq mi
3 Albany, New York 99,224 21.94 sq mi
4 Trenton, New Jersey 90,871 8.20 sq mi
5 Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 50,099 11.86 sq mi
6 Charleston, West Virginia 48,864 32.64 sq mi
7 Annapolis, Maryland 40,812 8.11 sq mi
8 Dover, Delaware 39,403 23.97 sq mi

Note: The Mid-Atlantic region is also home to the nation's capital, Washington, D.C.

In presidential elections

Parties
Nonpartisan Federalist Democratic-Republican National Republican Democratic Whig Know Nothing Republican Constitutional Union Progressive
Presidential electoral votes in the Mid-Atlantic states since 1789
Year Delaware District of Columbia Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Virginia West Virginia
1789 Washington No election Washington Washington Gridlocked Washington Washington No election
1792 Washington No election Washington Washington Washington Washington Washington No election
1796 Adams No election Adams Adams Adams Jefferson Jefferson No election
1800 Adams No election Jefferson Adams Jefferson Jefferson Jefferson No election
1804 Pinckney No election Jefferson Jefferson Jefferson Jefferson Jefferson No election
1808 Pinckney No election Madison Madison Madison Madison Madison No election
1812 Clinton No election Madison Clinton Clinton Madison Madison No election
1816 King No election Monroe Monroe Monroe Monroe Monroe No election
1820 Monroe No election Monroe Monroe Monroe Monroe Monroe No election
1824 Crawford No election Jackson Jackson Adams Jackson Crawford No election
1828 Adams No election Adams Adams Jackson Jackson Jackson No election
1832 Clay No election Clay Jackson Jackson Jackson Jackson No election
1836 Harrison No election Harrison Harrison Van Buren Van Buren Van Buren No election
1840 Harrison No election Harrison Harrison Harrison Harrison Van Buren No election
1844 Clay No election Clay Clay Polk Polk Polk No election
1848 Taylor No election Taylor Taylor Taylor Taylor Cass No election
1852 Pierce No election Pierce Pierce Pierce Pierce Pierce No election
1856 Buchanan No election Fillmore Buchanan Frémont Buchanan Buchanan No election
1860 Breckinridge No election Breckinridge Lincoln Lincoln Lincoln Bell No election
1864 McClellan No election Lincoln McClellan Lincoln Lincoln No election Lincoln
1868 Seymour No election Seymour Seymour Seymour Grant No election Grant
1872 Grant No election Hendricks Grant Grant Grant Grant Grant
1876 Tilden No election Tilden Tilden Tilden Hayes Tilden Tilden
1880 Hancock No election Hancock Hancock Garfield Garfield Hancock Hancock
1884 Cleveland No election Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Blaine Cleveland Cleveland
1888 Cleveland No election Cleveland Cleveland Harrison Harrison Cleveland Cleveland
1892 Cleveland No election Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Harrison Cleveland Cleveland
1896 McKinley No election McKinley McKinley McKinley McKinley Bryan McKinley
1900 McKinley No election McKinley McKinley McKinley McKinley Bryan McKinley
1904 Roosevelt No election Parker Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Parker Roosevelt
1908 Taft No election Bryan Taft Taft Taft Bryan Taft
1912 Wilson No election Wilson Wilson Wilson Roosevelt Wilson Wilson
1916 Hughes No election Wilson Hughes Hughes Hughes Wilson Hughes
1920 Harding No election Harding Harding Harding Harding Cox Harding
1924 Coolidge No election Coolidge Coolidge Coolidge Coolidge Davis Coolidge
1928 Hoover No election Hoover Hoover Hoover Hoover Hoover Hoover
1932 Hoover No election Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Hoover Roosevelt Roosevelt
1936 Roosevelt No election Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt
1940 Roosevelt No election Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt
1944 Roosevelt No election Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt
1948 Dewey No election Dewey Dewey Dewey Dewey Truman Truman
1952 Eisenhower No election Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Stevenson
1956 Eisenhower No election Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower
1960 Kennedy No election Kennedy Kennedy Kennedy Kennedy Nixon Kennedy
1964 Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson
1968 Nixon Humphrey Humphrey Nixon Humphrey Humphrey Nixon Humphrey
1972 Nixon McGovern Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon
1976 Carter Carter Carter Ford Carter Carter Ford Carter
1980 Reagan Carter Carter Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Carter
1984 Reagan Mondale Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan
1988 Bush Dukakis Bush Bush Dukakis Bush Bush Dukakis
1992 Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Bush Clinton
1996 Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Dole Clinton
2000 Gore Gore Gore Gore Gore Gore Bush Bush
2004 Kerry Kerry Kerry Kerry Kerry Kerry Bush Bush
2008 Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama McCain
2012 Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Romney
2016 Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Trump Clinton Trump
2020 Biden Biden Biden Biden Biden Biden Biden Trump
Year Delaware District of Columbia Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Virginia West Virginia

Culture

Sports

The Mid-Atlantic is home to 33 professional sports franchises in the five major leagues and the two most prominent women's professional leagues:

NFL NHL MLB NBA MLS WNBA NWSL
New York/New Jersey Giants
Jets
Devils
Islanders
Rangers
Mets
Yankees
Knicks
Nets
NYC FC
Red Bulls
Liberty Gotham FC
Washington Commanders Capitals Nationals Wizards United Mystics Spirit
Philadelphia Eagles Flyers Phillies 76ers Union
Pittsburgh Steelers Penguins Pirates
Baltimore Ravens Orioles
Buffalo Bills Sabres

Notable golf tournaments in the Mid-Atlantic include the Barclays, Quicken Loans National and Atlantic City LPGA Classic.

Two high-level professional tennis tournaments are held in the region. The US Open, held in New York, is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, whereas the Washington Open is part of the ATP Tour 500 series and WTA 250 series.

Notable motorsports tracks include Watkins Glen International, Dover Motor Speedway and Pocono Raceway, which have hosted Formula One, IndyCar, NASCAR, World Sportscar Championship and IMSA races. Also, the Englishtown and Reading drag strips such have hosted NHRA national events. Pimlico Race Course at Baltimore and Belmont Park at New York host the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes horse races, which are part of the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing.

Economy

With a GDP nominal of over $5.2 trillion, the Mid-Atlantic economy would be third-largest in the world if calculated separately, only behind the remaining United States and China and nearly $1 trillion larger than next place Japan. This economic prosperity is buoyed by a significant financial services and banking sector, healthcare and chemicals industry, and telecommunications and entertainment conglomerates.

According to the Global Financial Centres Index,[22] the Mid-Atlantic region is home to the leading financial center in the world (New York) at #1, with Washington also present at #15.

Notable companies (over $100 billion market cap) headquartered in the region include:

Company Headquarters Market cap ($ billions) Global rank
Chase New York, New York $447.91 13
Johnson and Johnson New Brunswick, New Jersey $430.06 15
Mastercard Harrison, New York $364.48 22
Pfizer New York, New York $272.39 29
PepsiCo Harrison, New York $232.01 40
Verizon Communications New York, New York $225.96 45
Comcast-NBC Philadelphia, Pennsylvania $211.42 50
Merck Kenilworth, New Jersey $192.90 60
Danaher Washington, District of Columbia $190.74 61
Morgan Stanley New York, New York $169.08 73
American Express New York, New York $147.98 89
Bristol Myers Squibb New York, New York $147.23 91
Citigroup New York, New York $127.27 105
Goldman Sachs New York, New York $115.43 118
BlackRock New York, New York $114.67 120
International Business Machines North Castle, New York $111.45 124
Estee Lauder New York, New York $108.67 130
Lockheed Martin Bethesda, Maryland $105.24 137

See also

References

  1. ^ Bureau, US Census. "2020 Census Apportionment Results". The United States Census Bureau.
  2. ^ "GDP by State | U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)" (PDF).
  3. ^ a b c d "Mid-Atlantic Home : Mid–Atlantic Information Office : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics". www.bls.gov. Retrieved January 14, 2024.
  4. ^ a b Schultz, Alex. "7 Beautiful Mid-Atlantic States". Touropia. Retrieved January 14, 2024.
  5. ^ a b c "Census Regions and Divisions of the United States" (PDF). United States Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, United States Census Bureau, Geography Division. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2013.
  6. ^ a b c Earl A. Greene et al. "Ground-Water Vulnerability to Nitrate Contamination in the Mid-Atlantic Region". Archived November 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine USGS Fact Sheet FS 2004-3067. 2005. Retrieved April 25, 2013. Note: Although the locator map appears to exclude part of northwestern Pennsylvania, other more detailed maps in this article include all of the state. Often, when discussing climate, southern Connecticut is included with the Middle Atlantic.
  7. ^ a b c EPA Region 3 (Mid-Atlantic) | Serving Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia and 7 federally recognized tribes. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (n.d.). https://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/epa-region-3-mid-atlantic
  8. ^ a b c Mid-Atlantic Gateway (Washington, DC). Mid-Atlantic Gateway (Washington, DC) | MARAD. (n.d.). https://www.maritime.dot.gov/about-us/gateway-offices/mid-atlantic-gateway-office-washington-dc
  9. ^ a b U.S. Department of Defense - Office of Small Business Programs. "Mid-Atlantic Regional Council". business.defense.gov. Retrieved January 14, 2024. ((cite web)): |last= has generic name (help)
  10. ^ Goodlatte says U.S. has the oldest working national constitution, Politifact Virginia website, September 22, 2014.
  11. ^ "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Retrieved April 9, 2009.
  12. ^ "National University Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  13. ^ "Best Global Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  14. ^ "U.S. News & World Report Best Colleges Ranking". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved January 14, 2024.
  15. ^ "Merriam-Webster". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved August 30, 2017.
  16. ^ Labov, William, Sharon Ash and Charles Boberg, Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change, Mouton de Gruyter, 2005 Southern Regional Map Archived June 5, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ "Religious Landscape Study". Religions.pewforum.org. May 11, 2015. Retrieved November 2, 2017.
  18. ^ "U.S. Census 2000 Report" (PDF). Census.gov. Retrieved November 2, 2017.
  19. ^ Earl A. Greene et al. "Ground-Water Vulnerability to Nitrate Contamination in the Mid-Atlantic Region" Archived 2017-11-17 at the Wayback Machine. USGS Fact Sheet FS 2004-3067. 2005. Retrieved 25 April 2013. Note: Although the locator map appears to exclude part of northwestern Pennsylvania, other more detailed maps in this article include all of the state.
  20. ^ "The Demographic Statistical Atlas of the United States - Statistical Atlas". statisticalatlas.com. Retrieved September 18, 2023.
  21. ^ "Historical Population Change Data (1910–2020)". Census.gov. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 29, 2021. Retrieved May 1, 2021.
  22. ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 30" (PDF). Retrieved February 21, 2022.

Bibliography