Mid-Atlantic
Lower Manhattan skyline - June 2017.jpg
2015 Independence Hall - Philadelphia 01.JPG
Assateague Wetlands.jpg
Philadelphia skyline from South Street Bridge January 2020 (rotate 2 degrees perspective correction crop 4-1).jpg
Catskills beyond Hudson.jpg
Downtown Pittsburgh seen from Mt. Washington.jpg
Jersey City 2020.jpg
Washington dc skyline.jpg
Left-right from top: Lower Manhattan skyline, Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Assateague wetlands, Panorama of Philadelphia, View of the Catskills looking over Hudson River, Downtown Pittsburgh, Jersey City skyline, Panorama of Washington, D.C.
States in dark red are traditionally included in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast regions, while states in pink are traditionally included in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast regions.
States in dark red are traditionally included in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast regions, while states in pink are traditionally included in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast regions.
Coordinates: 41°N 77°W / 41°N 77°W / 41; -77Coordinates: 41°N 77°W / 41°N 77°W / 41; -77
Composition
Metropolitan areas
Largest cityNew York
Area
 • Total191,299.86 sq mi (495,464.4 km2)
 • Land174,468.45 sq mi (451,871.2 km2)
 • Water16,831.41 sq mi (43,593.2 km2)  8.80%
Population
 • Total60,783,913
 • Density320/sq mi (120/km2)
GDP (nominal)
 • 2021$4.0 trillion

The Middle Atlantic states, commonly shortened to Mid-Atlantic states, is a region of the United States generally located in the overlap between the Northeastern and Southeastern States. Its exact definition differs upon source, but the region typically includes Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. When discussing climate, Connecticut is sometimes included in the region, as its climate is closer to that of the Mid-Atlantic states than the rest of the New England states.[3] The Mid-Atlantic has played an important role in the development of American culture, commerce, trade, and industry;[4] in the late 19th century, the Mid-Atlantic was called "the typically American" region by Frederick Jackson Turner.

European Americans of the mid-Atlantic region have ancestry from its settlement by the Dutch, Swedes, English Catholics, and Quakers through to the period of British rule and beyond to the current day. Religious pluralism existed, particularly in Maryland, which was the only colony in the original Thirteen Colonies to have a substantial Catholic minority population. After the American Revolution, the Mid-Atlantic region hosted each of the historic capitals of the United States, including the current federal capital, Washington, D. C. In the early part of the 19th century, New York and Pennsylvania overtook Virginia as the most populous states and the New England states as the country's most important trading and industrial centers. Large numbers of German, Irish, Italian, Jewish, Polish, and other immigrants transformed the region, especially coastal cities such as New York City, Newark, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, but also interior cities such as Pittsburgh, Rochester, Albany, and Buffalo. New York, with its skyscrapers, subways, and the Headquarters of the United Nations, emerged in the 20th century as an icon of modernity and American economic and cultural power. By the 21st century, the coastal areas of the Mid-Atlantic were thoroughly urbanized.

The Northeast Corridor and Interstate 95 link an almost contiguous sprawl of suburbs and large and small cities, forming the Mid-Atlantic portion of the Northeast megalopolis, one of the world's most important concentrations of finance, media, communications, education, medicine, and technology. The Mid-Atlantic is a relatively affluent region of the nation, having 43 of the 100 highest-income counties in the nation, based on median household income, and 33 of the top 100, based on per capita income. Most of the Mid-Atlantic states rank among the 15 highest-income states in the nation, by median household income and per capita income. The region is home to some of the most prestigious universities in the nation and the world, including Columbia University, Cornell University, Johns Hopkins University, Princeton University, and the University of Pennsylvania, which rank among the top 20 universities in the United States, and the top 25 universities in the world.[5][6]

Composition

There are differing interpretations as to the composition of the Mid-Atlantic, with sources including in the region a number of states from New York to South Carolina.[7] A United States Geological Survey publication describes the Mid-Atlantic Region as all of Maryland, Delaware, the District of Columbia, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, along with the parts of New Jersey, New York, and North Carolina that drain into the Delaware and Chesapeake Bays and the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds.[8] Sometimes, the region's nucleus is considered to be the area centered on the Washington metropolitan area, including Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and West Virginia.[9] In contrast to other definitions (where the Mid-Atlantic overlaps the Northeast and Southeast), the United States Census Bureau defines the Middle Atlantic as a subregion of the Northeast consisting exclusively of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.[10]

West Virginia and Virginia are atypical of this region in a few ways. They are the only states to lie primarily within the Southern American dialect region,[11] and the major religious tradition in both states is Evangelical Christian, 30% in Virginia and 39% in West Virginia.[12] Although a few of West Virginia's eastern panhandle counties are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, the major portion of the state is rural and there are no major or even large cities.[13]

History

Shipping containers at the Port Newark–Elizabeth Marine Terminal, part of the Port of New York and New Jersey.

Shipping and trade have been important to the Mid-Atlantic economy since the beginning of the colonial era. The explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to see the region in 1524. Henry Hudson later extensively explored that region in 1611 and claimed it for the Dutch, who then created a fur-trading post in Albany in 1614. Jamestown, Virginia was the first permanent English colony in North America, it was established seven years earlier in 1607.

From early colonial times, the Mid-Atlantic region was settled by a wider range of European people than in New England or the South. The Dutch New Netherland settlement along the Hudson River in New York City and New Jersey, and for a time, New Sweden along the Delaware River in Delaware, divided the two great bulwarks of English settlement from each other. The original English settlements in the region notably provided refuge to religious minorities, Maryland to Roman Catholics and Pennsylvania to Quakers and Anabaptist Pennsylvania Dutch. In time, all these settlements fell under English colonial control, but the region continued to be a magnet for people of diverse nationalities.

The area that came to be known as the Middle Colonies served as a strategic bridge between the North and South. The New York and New Jersey campaign during the American Revolutionary War saw more battles than any other theater of the conflict. Philadelphia, midway between the northern and southern colonies, was home to the Continental Congress, the convention of delegates who organized the American Revolution. The same city was the birthplace of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and the United States Constitution in 1787, while the United States Bill of Rights was drafted and ratified and the first Supreme Court of the United States sat for the first time, in the first capital under the Constitution at New York.

While early settlers were mostly farmers, traders, and fishermen, the Mid-Atlantic states provided the young United States with heavy industry and served as the "melting pot" of new immigrants from Europe. Cities grew along major ports, shipping routes, and waterways, including New York City and Newark on opposite sides of the Hudson River, Philadelphia on the Delaware River, Allentown on the Lehigh River, and Baltimore on the Chesapeake Bay.

Major cities and urban areas

New York City
Philadelphia
Baltimore
Washington, D.C.

Metropolitan areas

Largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas by Population in the Mid-Atlantic Region
MSA 2020 Census 2010 Census
1 New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA 20,140,470 18,897,109
2 Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV 6,385,162 5,649,540
3 Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD 6,245,051 5,965,343
4 Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD 2,844,510 2,710,489
5 Pittsburgh, PA 2,370,930 2,356,285
6 Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC 1,799,674 1,713,954
7 Richmond, VA 1,314,434 1,186,501
8 Buffalo-Cheektowaga, NY 1,166,902 1,135,509
9 Rochester, NY 1,090,135 1,079,671
10 Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY 899,262 870,716
Top Ten Largest Cities by Population in the Mid-Atlantic Region
City 2020 Census
1 New York, NY 8,804,190
2 Philadelphia, PA 1,603,797
3 Washington, D.C. 689,545
4 Baltimore, MD 585,708
5 Virginia Beach, VA 459,470
6 Newark, NJ 311,549
7 Pittsburgh, PA 302,971
8 Jersey City, NJ 292,449
9 Buffalo, NY 278,349
10 Chesapeake, VA 249,422
Historical population
Census Pop.
17902,085,066
18002,702,67929.6%
18103,466,54528.3%
18204,278,34923.4%
18305,362,69125.3%
18406,357,87318.6%
18508,046,64926.6%
18609,929,64823.4%
187011,515,59216.0%
188013,887,07520.6%
189016,566,26919.3%
190019,919,15920.2%
191024,427,36022.6%
192028,144,26715.2%
193032,768,58116.4%
194034,870,0746.4%
195038,951,02911.7%
196044,306,75913.7%
197048,818,78410.2%
198049,532,8981.5%
199051,637,6574.2%
200055,210,8656.9%
201057,999,6025.1%
202060,783,9134.8%
Source:1790–2020[15]

State capitals

Capital 2020 Census
1 Richmond, Virginia 226,610
2 Albany, New York 99,224
3 Trenton, New Jersey 90,871
4 Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 50,099
5 Charleston, West Virginia 48,864
6 Annapolis, Maryland 40,812
7 Dover, Delaware 39,403

Note: The Mid-Atlantic region is also home to the nation's capital, Washington, D.C.

In presidential elections

Parties
Nonpartisan Federalist Democratic-Republican National Republican Democratic Whig Know Nothing Republican Constitutional Union Progressive
Presidential electoral votes in the Mid-Atlantic states since 1789
Year Delaware District of Columbia Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Virginia West Virginia
1789 Washington No election Washington Washington Gridlocked Washington Washington No election
1792 Washington No election Washington Washington Washington Washington Washington No election
1796 Adams No election Adams Adams Adams Jefferson Jefferson No election
1800 Adams No election Jefferson Adams Jefferson Jefferson Jefferson No election
1804 Pinckney No election Jefferson Jefferson Jefferson Jefferson Jefferson No election
1808 Pinckney No election Madison Madison Madison Madison Madison No election
1812 Clinton No election Madison Clinton Clinton Madison Madison No election
1816 King No election Monroe Monroe Monroe Monroe Monroe No election
1820 Monroe No election Monroe Monroe Monroe Monroe Monroe No election
1824 Crawford No election Jackson Jackson Adams Jackson Crawford No election
1828 Adams No election Adams Adams Jackson Jackson Jackson No election
1832 Clay No election Clay Jackson Jackson Jackson Jackson No election
1836 Harrison No election Harrison Harrison Van Buren Van Buren Van Buren No election
1840 Harrison No election Harrison Harrison Harrison Harrison Van Buren No election
1844 Clay No election Clay Clay Polk Polk Polk No election
1848 Taylor No election Taylor Taylor Taylor Taylor Cass No election
1852 Pierce No election Pierce Pierce Pierce Pierce Pierce No election
1856 Buchanan No election Fillmore Buchanan Frémont Buchanan Buchanan No election
1860 Breckinridge No election Breckinridge Lincoln Lincoln Lincoln Bell No election
1864 McClellan No election Lincoln McClellan Lincoln Lincoln No election Lincoln
1868 Seymour No election Seymour Seymour Seymour Grant No election Grant
1872 Grant No election Hendricks Grant Grant Grant Grant Grant
1876 Tilden No election Tilden Tilden Tilden Hayes Tilden Tilden
1880 Hancock No election Hancock Hancock Garfield Garfield Hancock Hancock
1884 Cleveland No election Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Blaine Cleveland Cleveland
1888 Cleveland No election Cleveland Cleveland Harrison Harrison Cleveland Cleveland
1892 Cleveland No election Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Harrison Cleveland Cleveland
1896 McKinley No election McKinley McKinley McKinley McKinley Bryan McKinley
1900 McKinley No election McKinley McKinley McKinley McKinley Bryan McKinley
1904 Roosevelt No election Parker Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Parker Roosevelt
1908 Taft No election Bryan Taft Taft Taft Bryan Taft
1912 Wilson No election Wilson Wilson Wilson Roosevelt Wilson Wilson
1916 Hughes No election Wilson Hughes Hughes Hughes Wilson Hughes
1920 Harding No election Harding Harding Harding Harding Cox Harding
1924 Coolidge No election Coolidge Coolidge Coolidge Coolidge Davis Coolidge
1928 Hoover No election Hoover Hoover Hoover Hoover Hoover Hoover
1932 Hoover No election Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Hoover Roosevelt Roosevelt
1936 Roosevelt No election Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt
1940 Roosevelt No election Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt
1944 Roosevelt No election Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt
1948 Dewey No election Dewey Dewey Dewey Dewey Truman Truman
1952 Eisenhower No election Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Stevenson
1956 Eisenhower No election Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower
1960 Kennedy No election Kennedy Kennedy Kennedy Kennedy Nixon Kennedy
1964 Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson
1968 Nixon Humphrey Humphrey Nixon Humphrey Humphrey Nixon Humphrey
1972 Nixon McGovern Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon
1976 Carter Carter Carter Ford Carter Carter Ford Carter
1980 Reagan Carter Carter Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Carter
1984 Reagan Mondale Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan
1988 Bush Dukakis Bush Bush Dukakis Bush Bush Dukakis
1992 Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Bush Clinton
1996 Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Dole Clinton
2000 Gore Gore Gore Gore Gore Gore Bush Bush
2004 Kerry Kerry Kerry Kerry Kerry Kerry Bush Bush
2008 Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama McCain
2012 Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Romney
2016 Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Trump Clinton Trump
2020 Biden Biden Biden Biden Biden Biden Biden Trump
Year Delaware District of Columbia Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Virginia West Virginia

Culture

Sports

The Mid-Atlantic is home to 33 professional sports franchises in the five major leagues and the two most prominent women's professional leagues:

NFL NHL MLB NBA MLS WNBA NWSL
New York/New Jersey Giants
Jets
Devils
Islanders
Rangers
Mets
Yankees
Knicks
Nets
NYC FC
Red Bulls
Liberty Gotham FC
Washington Commanders Capitals Nationals Wizards United Mystics Spirit
Philadelphia Eagles Flyers Phillies 76ers Union
Pittsburgh Steelers Penguins Pirates
Baltimore Ravens Orioles
Buffalo Bills Sabres

Notable golf tournaments in the Mid-Atlantic include the Barclays, Quicken Loans National and Atlantic City LPGA Classic. The US Open, held in New York, is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, whereas Washington Open is part of the ATP World Tour 500 series.

Notable motorsports tracks include Watkins Glen International, Dover Motor Speedway and Pocono Raceway, which have hosted Formula One, IndyCar, NASCAR, World Sportscar Championship and IMSA races. Also, the Englishtown and Reading drag strips such have hosted NHRA national events. Pimlico Race Course at Baltimore and Belmont Park at New York host the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes horse races, which are part of the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing.

Economy

With a GDP of nearly $4.75 trillion, the Mid-Atlantic economy would be fourth largest in the world if calculated separately, only behind the remaining United States, China, and Japan. This economic prosperity is buoyed by a significant financial services and banking sector, healthcare and chemicals industry, and telecommunications and entertainment conglomerates.

According to the Global Financial Centres Index,[16] the Mid-Atlantic region is home to the leading financial center in the world (New York) at #1, with Washington also present at #15.

Notable companies (over $100 billion market cap) headquartered in the region include:

Company Headquarters Market Cap ($billions) Global Rank
Chase New York, New York $447.91 13
Johnson and Johnson New Brunswick, New Jersey $430.06 15
Mastercard Harrison, New York $364.48 22
Pfizer New York, New York $272.39 29
PepsiCo Harrison, New York $232.01 40
Verizon Communications New York, New York $225.96 45
Comcast-NBC Philadelphia, Pennsylvania $211.42 50
Merck Kenilworth, New Jersey $192.90 60
Danaher Washington, District of Columbia $190.74 61
Morgan Stanley New York, New York $169.08 73
American Express New York, New York $147.98 89
Bristol Myers Squibb New York, New York $147.23 91
Citigroup New York, New York $127.27 105
Goldman Sachs New York, New York $115.43 118
BlackRock New York, New York $114.67 120
International Business Machines North Castle, New York $111.45 124
Estee Lauder New York, New York $108.67 130
Lockheed Martin Bethesda, Maryland $105.24 137

See also

References

  1. ^ Bureau, US Census. "2020 Census Apportionment Results". The United States Census Bureau.
  2. ^ "GDP by State | U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)".
  3. ^ "Middle Atlantic states - region, United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  4. ^ "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-09.
  5. ^ "National University Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  6. ^ "Best Global Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  7. ^ "Merriam-Webster". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2017-08-30.
  8. ^ Earl A. Greene et al. "Ground-Water Vulnerability to Nitrate Contamination in the Mid-Atlantic Region". USGS Fact Sheet FS 2004-3067. 2005. Retrieved 25 April 2013. Note: Although the locator map appears to exclude part of northwestern Pennsylvania, other more detailed maps in this article include all of the state. Often, when discussing climate, southern Connecticut is included with the Middle Atlantic.
  9. ^ "Word Net Definition". Wordnetweb.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2009-04-09.
  10. ^ "Census Regions and Divisions of the United States" (PDF). United States Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, United States Census Bureau, Geography Division. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2013.
  11. ^ Labov, William, Sharon Ash and Charles Boberg, Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change, Mouton de Gruyter, 2005 Southern Regional Map
  12. ^ "Religious Landscape Study". Religions.pewforum.org. 11 May 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  13. ^ "U.S. Census 2000 Report" (PDF). Census.gov. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  14. ^ Earl A. Greene et al. "Ground-Water Vulnerability to Nitrate Contamination in the Mid-Atlantic Region". USGS Fact Sheet FS 2004-3067. 2005. Retrieved 25 April 2013. Note: Although the locator map appears to exclude part of northwestern Pennsylvania, other more detailed maps in this article include all of the state.
  15. ^ "Historical Population Change Data (1910–2020)". Census.gov. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 29, 2021. Retrieved May 1, 2021.
  16. ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 30" (PDF). Retrieved February 21, 2022.

Bibliography