West Coast of the United States
Location of the West Coast (red)

in the United States (tan)

Country United States
Principal citiesLos Angeles
San Diego
San Jose
San Francisco
Portland
Seattle
Anchorage
Honolulu
Largest cityLos Angeles
Largest metropolitan areaGreater Los Angeles
Area
 • Total1,009,688 sq mi (2,615,080 km2)
 • Land895,287 sq mi (2,318,780 km2)
 • Water21,433 sq mi (55,510 km2)
 • Coastal28,913 sq mi (74,880 km2)
Highest elevation20,310 ft (6,190.5 m)
Lowest elevation−279 ft (−85 m)
Population
 (2019 estimate)
 • Total53,492,270[a]
Time zone
PacificUTC−8:00
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7:00
AlaskaUTC−9:00
 • Summer (DST)UTC−8:00
HawaiiUTC−10:00

The West Coast of the United States, also known as the Pacific Coast, Pacific states, and the western seaboard, is the coastline along which the Western United States meets the North Pacific Ocean. The term typically refers to the contiguous U.S. states of California, Oregon, and Washington, but sometimes includes Alaska and Hawaii, especially by the United States Census Bureau as a U.S. geographic division.

With the exclusion of Alaska, the Democratic Party has dominated West Coast politics in contemporary history, with the states consistently voting for Democrats in elections at various levels. Four out of five West Coast states have voted for Democrats in presidential elections since 1992, three of which have done so since 1988.

Definition

There are conflicting definitions of which states comprise the West Coast of the United States, but the West Coast always includes California, Oregon, and Washington as part of that definition. Under most circumstances, however, the term encompasses the three contiguous states and Alaska, as they are all located in North America. For census purposes, Hawaii is part of the West Coast, along with the other four states.[2] Encyclopædia Britannica refers to the North American region as part of the Pacific Coast, including Alaska and British Columbia. Although the encyclopedia acknowledges the inclusion of Hawaii in some capacity as part of the region, the editors wrote that "it has little in common geologically with the mainland states."[3]

Several dictionaries offer different definitions of the West Coast. Lexico restricts the West Coast's definition to "the western seaboard of the U.S. from Washington to California."[4] However, Macmillan Dictionary provides a less specific definition as "the western coast of the U.S., along the Pacific Ocean."[5] As for the Cambridge Dictionary, the West Coast is "the area of the Pacific coast in the U.S. that includes California."[6]

History

See also: Settlement of the Americas, History of Mesoamerica, and Native Americans in the United States

The history of the West Coast begins with the arrival of the earliest known humans of the Americas, Paleo-Indians, crossing the Bering Strait from Eurasia into North America over a land bridge, Beringia, that existed between 45,000 BCE and 12,000 BCE (47,000–14,000 years ago). Small isolated groups of hunter-gatherers migrated alongside herds of large herbivores far into Alaska. Between 16,500 BCE and 13,500 BCE (18,500–15,500 years ago), ice-free corridors developed along the Pacific coast and valleys of North America and possibly by sea.[7]

Alaska Natives, indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, and California indigenous peoples eventually descended from the Paleo-Indians. They developed various languages and established trade routes.[citation needed]

Later, Spanish, British, French, Russian, and American explorers and settlers began colonizing the area.[citation needed]

Climate

See also: Pacific Coast Ranges

The West Coast of the United States has an oceanic climate in its Northwestern, Northern, and Eastern edge towards the U.S.-Canada border, but from the California border towards the U.S.-Mexico border the climate is mediterranean. The coastline sees significantly mild temperatures when compared to the inland areas during summer. In far Northern California there is a difference of 17 °C (30 °F) between Eureka and Willow Creek in spite of only 25 miles (40 km) separating the locations and Willow Creek being located at a 500 metres (1,600 ft) elevation. Slightly narrower fluctuations can be seen all through the coastline, and could partially be explained by the cold currents in the Pacific Ocean moderating coastal temperatures and the mountain ranges blocking the maritime air from moving farther inland than its foothills during summer. Coastal fog is also prevalent in keeping shoreline temperatures cool. This does not only occur in the San Francisco Bay Area, but it also affects Santa Monica in Los Angeles, Southern California, with very little yearly temperature differences but with cool summers similar to those expected in Northern Europe. A short journey inland and summer temperatures are comparable with the rest of the United States on the same latitudes, sometimes warmer due to prevailing winds from the Nevada and Arizona hot desert climate.[citation needed]

Government and politics

State governments

Governors of the West Coast
State Governor Party Term
Start End
Mike Dunleavy
  Republican December 3, 2018 2022
Gavin Newsom   Democratic January 7, 2019 2023
David Ige
  Democratic December 1, 2014 2022
Kate Brown
  Democratic February 18, 2015 2023
Jay Inslee
  Democratic January 16, 2013 2025

Ideology and party strength

See also: Left Coast, Politics of Alaska, Politics of California, Politics of Hawaii, Politics of Oregon, and Politics of Washington (state)

In politics, the West Coast usually refers to the contiguous coastal states of California, Oregon, and Washington because of their similar political leanings. In 2017, The Oregonian columnist David Sarasohn described the West Coast as a "blue wall" of shared values on immigration, abortion, climate change, and civil liberties.[8] By 2016, the West Coast states legalized marijuana after California voted to do so.[9] According to a 2019 Pew Research Center poll, 72% of adults in Pacific states said that "climate change is affecting their local community at least some," higher than in any other region in the country.[10]

Since 1992, the three states have voted for Democrats in presidential elections without interruption, but Oregon and Washington also voted for the Democratic presidential candidate in 1988.[11] Although the three states have reliably voted Democratic, no Democratic presidential candidate from any of the three states has won their party's nomination as of 2020.[12]

In the 2010s, Democrats strengthened their political power along the West Coast. After winning a special election for a seat in the Washington state senate in 2017, Democrats built a government trifecta in all three West Coast states.[13] After the 2018 U.S. House of Representatives elections, Democrats controlled all West Coast congressional districts except Washington's 3rd, represented by a Republican.[14]

Even though Hawaii is not usually part of the West Coast in the political definition, it has been a Democratic stronghold. Before achieving statehood in 1959, Hawaii became a state favorable to Democrats to the point that they sought statehood for the territory. However, Southern Democrats opposed the move because it would mean additional votes against their region on several issues.[15] Since achieving statehood, Hawaii consistently voted for Democrats in presidential elections, except in 1972 and 1984.[16] In 2016, the Democratic Party unseated the lone Republican in the Hawaii Senate and controlled all seats in the state's upper house, which had not occurred anywhere in the country since 1980.[17]

Dissimilar to the rest of the West Coast, Alaska has been a reliable state for Republicans in presidential elections. Since achieving statehood, Alaska has voted for the Democratic presidential candidate only once in 1964. In 1960, the state narrowly voted for Republican Richard Nixon over Democrat John F. Kennedy and had voted for Republicans uninterrupted since 1968.[18]

Presidential election history

Parties
Democratic Republican Progressive
Presidential electoral votes in the Pacific States since 1852
Year Alaska[19] California[20] Hawaii[21] Oregon[22] Washington[23]
1852 No election Pierce No election No election No election
1856 No election Buchanan No election No election No election
1860 No election Lincoln No election Lincoln No election
1864 No election Lincoln No election Lincoln No election
1868 No election Grant No election Seymour No election
1872 No election Grant No election Grant No election
1876 No election Hayes No election Hayes No election
1880 No election Hancock No election Garfield No election
1884 No election Blaine No election Blaine No election
1888 No election Harrison No election Harrison No election
1892 No election Cleveland No election Harrison Harrison
1896 No election McKinley No election McKinley Bryan
1900 No election McKinley No election McKinley McKinley
1904 No election Roosevelt No election Roosevelt Roosevelt
1908 No election Taft No election Taft Taft
1912 No election Roosevelt No election Wilson Roosevelt
1916 No election Wilson No election Hughes Wilson
1920 No election Harding No election Harding Harding
1924 No election Coolidge No election Coolidge Coolidge
1928 No election Hoover No election Hoover Hoover
1932 No election Roosevelt No election Roosevelt Roosevelt
1936 No election Roosevelt No election Roosevelt Roosevelt
1940 No election Roosevelt No election Roosevelt Roosevelt
1944 No election Roosevelt No election Roosevelt Roosevelt
1948 No election Truman No election Dewey Truman
1952 No election Eisenhower No election Eisenhower Eisenhower
1956 No election Eisenhower No election Eisenhower Eisenhower
1960 Nixon Nixon Kennedy Nixon Nixon
1964 Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson
1968 Nixon Nixon Humphrey Nixon Humphrey
1972 Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon
1976 Ford Ford Carter Ford Ford
1980 Reagan Reagan Carter Reagan Reagan
1984 Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan
1988 Bush Bush Dukakis Dukakis Dukakis
1992 Bush Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton
1996 Dole Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton
2000 Bush Gore Gore Gore Gore
2004 Bush Kerry Kerry Kerry Kerry
2008 McCain Obama Obama Obama Obama
2012 Romney Obama Obama Obama Obama
2016 Trump Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton
2020 Trump Biden Biden Biden Biden
Year Alaska California Hawaii Oregon Washington

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
19002,634,285
19104,448,53468.9%
19205,877,78832.1%
19308,622,01146.7%
194010,228,55618.6%
195015,114,96447.8%
196021,198,04440.2%
197026,524,13125.1%
198031,799,70519.9%
199039,127,30623.0%
200045,025,63715.1%
201049,880,10210.8%
2019 (est.)53,492,2707.2%
Source: 1910–2010[24]
2019 estimate[25]
Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast and second-largest in the United States
Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast and second-largest in the United States

According to the 2019 population estimates from the United States Census Bureau, 16 of the 20 largest cities on the West Coast exist in California. Los Angeles, San Diego, and San Jose lead the West Coast in population with more than a million people in each city, with Los Angeles being nearly three times the size of San Diego's population. Behind four California cities, Seattle and Portland are respectively fifth and sixth in population. Hawaii's capital, Honolulu, is the 13th largest city, and Alaska's largest city, Anchorage, is 17th on the West Coast.[26]

Major Cities
City City Population

Los Angeles
3,990,456

San Francisco
883,305

Seattle
744,955

San Diego
1,425,976

San Jose
1,030,119

Oakland
428,827

Portland
653,115

Sacramento
501,529

Fresno
530,093

Long Beach
467,354

[27][28][29][30][31]

Culture

Since the West Coast has been populated by immigrants and their descendants more recently than the East Coast, its culture is considerably younger. Additionally, its demographic composition underlies its cultural difference from the rest of the United States. California's history first as a major Spanish colony, and later Mexican territory, has given the lower West Coast a distinctive Hispanic American tone, which it also shares with the rest of the Southwest. Similarly, two of the three cities in which Asian Americans have concentrated, San Francisco and Los Angeles,[32][33][34] are located on the West Coast, with significant populations in other West Coast cities. San Francisco's Chinatown, the oldest in North America, is a noted cultural center.

The West Coast also has a proportionally large share of green cities within the United States, which manifests itself in different cultural practices such as bicycling and organic gardening.[35]

In the Pacific Northwest, Portland and Seattle are both considered among the coffee capitals of the world.[36] While Starbucks originated in Seattle, both cities are known for small-scale coffee roasters and independent coffeeshops. The culture has also been significantly shaped by the environment, especially by its forests, mountains, and rain. This may account for the fact that the Northwest has many high-quality libraries and bookshops (most notably Powell's Books and the Seattle Central Library) and a "bibliophile soul".[37] The region also has a marginal, but growing independence movement based on bioregionalism and a Cascadian identity.[38] The Cascadian flag has become a popular image at Seattle Sounders and Portland Timbers games.[citation needed]

Alaska is widely known for its outdoors and its inhabitants engage in a range of activities which are unique to the state. Some of these activities can be experienced through the state's annual events, such as the Iron Dog snowmobile race from Anchorage to Nome and on to Fairbanks. Other events include the World Ice Art Championships (Fairbanks) and the Sitka Whalefest (Sitka).[citation needed]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The population total consists of the combined population of Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington, according to 2019 population estimates provided by the United States Census Bureau.[1]

References

  1. ^ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  2. ^ Kiprop, Victor (11 January 2019). "Which States Are on the West Coast?". World Atlas. Archived from the original on 25 September 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  3. ^ "Pacific Coast". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 December 2015. Archived from the original on 30 October 2020. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  4. ^ "West Coast". Lexico. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  5. ^ "the West Coast". Macmillan Dictionary. Macmillan Education. Archived from the original on 26 August 2019. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  6. ^ "the West Coast". Cambridge Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 23 August 2019. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  7. ^ "First Americans Endured 20,000-Year Layover – Jennifer Viegas, Discovery News". Retrieved 2009-11-18. Archaeological evidence, in fact, recognizes that people started to leave Beringia for the New World around 40,000 years ago, but rapid expansion into North America did not occur until about 15,000 years ago, when the ice had literally broken.
  8. ^ Sarasohn, David (3 December 2017). "David Sarasohn: Trump batters against West coast blue wall". The Oregonian. Archived from the original on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  9. ^ Fuller, Thomas; Healy, Jack; Johnson, Kirk (11 November 2016). "Amid Tide of Red on Electoral Map, West Coast Stays Defiantly Blue". The New York Times. San Francisco. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  10. ^ Hefferon, Meg (2 December 2019). "Most Americans say climate change impacts their community, but effects vary by region". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  11. ^ Monkovic, Toni (22 August 2016). "50 Years of Electoral College Maps: How the U.S. Turned Red and Blue". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  12. ^ Sarasohn, David (26 September 2018). "The Rise of West Coast Democrats". The New Republic. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  13. ^ Weigel, David (9 November 2017). "Democrats now control all branches of state government along the West Coast". Archived from the original on 26 September 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  14. ^ Bump, Philip (12 November 2018). "With the exception of 38 miles in Washington, the entire continental West Coast is now blue". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  15. ^ Sprunt, Barbara (21 August 2020). "Simmering Disputes Over Statehood Are About Politics And Race. They Always Have Been". NPR. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  16. ^ Eagle, Nathan (7 August 2018). "The Hawaii Republican Party's Slow Path To Extinction". Honolulu Civil Beat. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  17. ^ Bussewitz, Cathy (9 November 2016). "Chang wins seat, securing all-Democrat Hawaii Senate". Honolulu: Associated Press. Archived from the original on 13 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  18. ^ Martinson, Erica (5 November 2016). "Alaska has a long history of voting strongly Republican for president. Will it continue?". Anchorage Daily News. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  19. ^ "Alaska Presidential Election Voting History". 270 To Win. Retrieved 2020-11-22.
  20. ^ "California Presidential Election Voting History". 270 To Win. Retrieved 2020-11-22.
  21. ^ "Hawaii Presidential Election Voting History". 270 To Win. Retrieved 2020-11-22.
  22. ^ "Oregon Presidential Election Voting History". 270 To Win. Retrieved 2020-11-22.
  23. ^ "Washington Presidential Election Voting History". 270 To Win. Retrieved 2020-11-22.
  24. ^ "Resident Population Data – 2010 Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
  25. ^ "QuickFacts Nevada; United States". United States Census Bureau. 2 March 2019. Archived from the original on 27 December 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  26. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2019". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  27. ^ "U.S. Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  28. ^ "U.S. Census Region Map". 2000-08-17. Archived from the original on 2000-08-17. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  29. ^ "California Cities by Population". www.california-demographics.com. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  30. ^ "Oregon Cities by Population". www.oregon-demographics.com. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  31. ^ "Washington Cities by Population". www.washington-demographics.com. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  32. ^ "Selected Population Profile in the United States". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved June 25, 2011.
  33. ^ Lee, Sharon M. (1998). "Asian Americans: Diverse and Growing" (PDF). Population Bulletin. Population Reference Bureau. 53 (2): 1–40. PMID 12321628. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
  34. ^ Ng, Franklin (1998). The History and Immigration of Asian Americans. Taylor & Francis. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-8153-2690-8. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
  35. ^ "Top ten green U.S. cities". Mother Nature Network. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
  36. ^ "World's 10 best cities for coffee". USA Today. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
  37. ^ "Pacific Northwest: bicycles, bookshops, weirdness and coffee". The Guardian. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
  38. ^ "The People Who Wouldn't Mind if the Pacific Northwest Were Its Own Country". Vice. Retrieved February 22, 2015.

Coordinates: 39°N 122°W / 39°N 122°W / 39; -122