Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe (SEE) is a geographical subregion of Europe, consisting primarily of the Balkans, as well as adjacent regions and archipelagos. Sovereign states and territories that are included in the region are Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia (alternatively placed in Central Europe), Cyprus (alternatively placed in West Asia), Greece (alternatively placed in the broader region of Southern Europe), Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania (alternatively placed in Central Europe), Serbia, and the European part of Turkey (alternatively placed in the broader region of Southern Europe, also in West Asia with the rest of the country). Sometimes, Moldova (alternatively placed in Eastern Europe) and Slovenia (alternatively placed in Central Europe) are also included. The largest cities of the region are Istanbul, Athens, Bucharest, Sofia, and Belgrade.

There are overlapping and conflicting definitions of the region, due to political, economic, historical, cultural, and geographical considerations.


The first known use of the term "Southeast Europe" was by Austrian researcher Johann Georg von Hahn (1811–1869) as a broader term than the traditional Balkans,[1] a concept based on the boundaries of the Balkan Peninsula (the countries that have been described as being entirely within the Balkan region are: Albania, Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Montenegro, and North Macedonia[2]).

Geographical Southeast Europe

Countries that are geographically, at least partially, described to be within the region are as follows:[3]

CIA World Factbook

Regions of Europe based on CIA World Factbook. Southeastern Europe in brown
Regions of Europe based on CIA World Factbook. Southeastern Europe in brown

In the CIA World Factbook, the description of each country includes information about "Location" under the heading "Geography", where the country is classified into a region. The following countries are included in their classification "Southeast Europe":[11]

In this classification, Slovenia is included in Central Europe,[12] Greece in Southern Europe,[13] and Moldova in Eastern Europe.[14]

Notable views

See also



  1. ^ Hösch, Nehring, Sundhaussen (Hrsg.), Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas, S. 663, ISBN 3-8252-8270-8
  2. ^ Istituto Geografico De Agostini, L'Enciclopedia Geografica – Vol.I – Italia, 2004, Ed. De Agostini p.78
  3. ^ a b Jelavich 1983a, p. 1-3.
  4. ^ Armstrong, Werwick. Anderson, James (2007). "Borders in Central Europe: From Conflict to Cooperation". Geopolitics of European Union Enlargement: The Fortress Empire. Routledge. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-134-30132-4.((cite book)): CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  5. ^ Andrew Geddes, Charles Lees, Andrew Taylor : "The European Union and South East Europe: The Dynamics of Europeanization and multilevel governance", 2013, Routledge
  6. ^ Klaus Liebscher, Josef Christl, Peter Mooslechner, Doris Ritzberger-Grünwald : "European Economic Integration and South-East Europe: Challenges and Prospects", 2005, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited
  7. ^ Which Continent – Is Cyprus in Europe or Asia?, Sporcle, 21 December 2018
  8. ^ Is Cyprus in Europe or Asia?, World Atlas, 8 August 2019
  9. ^ Cyprus: In Europe, In Limbo, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 3 December 2018
  10. ^ "A List of Countries That Make up the Balkan Peninsula".
  11. ^ CIA. "The World Factbook". Archived from the original on June 1, 2007.
  12. ^ "Slovenia". CIA. 6 October 2022.
  13. ^ "Greece". CIA. 11 October 2022.
  14. ^ "Moldova". CIA. 12 October 2022.
  15. ^ "South-East Europe". Archived from the original on 1 May 2008. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  16. ^ "Programme summary", South East Europe (SEE): Operational Programme, South East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme, 28 November 2013, p. 6
  17. ^ Harry G. Broadman (2004). Building Market Institutions in South Eastern Europe: Comparative Prospects for Investment and Private Sector Development. World Bank Publications. p. xviii. ISBN 978-0-8213-5776-7.
  18. ^ World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; Council of Europe Development Bank (2006). Health and Economic Development in South-eastern Europe. World Health Organization. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-92-890-2295-8.
  19. ^ "South East Europe Regular Economic Report". World Bank.
  20. ^ "Regional Office in South Eastern Europe - Global Focus".


Further reading