Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
Native name
Huáwèi jìshù yǒuxiàn gōngsī
Founded15 September 1987; 35 years ago (1987-09-15)
FounderRen Zhengfei
Area served
Key people
Ren Zhengfei (CEO)
Liang Hua (chairman)
Meng Wanzhou (deputy chairwoman & CFO)
He Tingbo (Director)
RevenueDecrease CN¥636.9 billion (US$92.6 billion) (2022)[1]
Decrease CN¥72.501 billion (US$11.08 billion) (2020)
Increase CN¥35.6 billion (US$5.2 billion) (2022)
Total assetsIncrease CN¥876.854 billion (US$140 billion) (2022)
Total equityIncrease CN¥330.408 billion (US$50.49 billion) (2020)
Number of employees
208,000 (2022)[2]
ParentHuawei Investment & Holding[3]
SubsidiariesHonor (2013–2020)
Chinasoft International
FutureWei Technologies
iSoftStone Edit this at Wikidata
Footnotes / references
"Huawei" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese华为
Traditional Chinese華為
Literal meaning"Splendid Achievement" or "Chinese Achievement"
Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
Simplified Chinese华为技术有限公司
Traditional Chinese華為技術有限公司

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. (/ˈhwɑːw/ HWAH-way; Chinese: 华为; pinyin: Huáwéii) is a Chinese multinational technology corporation headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong. It designs, develops, manufactures and sells telecommunications equipment, consumer electronics, smart devices and various rooftop solar products.

The corporation was founded in 1987 by Ren Zhengfei, a former officer in the People's Liberation Army (PLA).[5] Initially focused on manufacturing phone switches, Huawei has expanded its business to include building telecommunications networks, providing operational and consulting services and equipment to enterprises inside and outside of China, and manufacturing communications devices for the consumer market.[6]

Huawei has deployed its products and services in more than 170 countries and areas.[7] It overtook Ericsson in 2012 as the largest telecommunications equipment manufacturer in the world,[8] and overtook Apple in 2018 as the second-largest manufacturer of smartphones in the world, behind Samsung Electronics.[9] In July 2020, Huawei surpassed Samsung and Apple in the number of phones shipped worldwide for the first time.[10] In 2022, Huawei reported annual revenue of US$92.6 billion.[1]

Although successful internationally, Huawei has faced difficulties in some markets, arising from its state support, links to the PLA and Ministry of State Security (MSS), and concerns that Huawei's infrastructure equipment may enable surveillance by the Chinese government.[11][12] With the development of 5G wireless networks, there have been calls from the US and its allies to not do any kind of business with Huawei or other Chinese telecommunications companies such as ZTE.[13] Huawei has argued that its products posed "no greater cybersecurity risk" than those of any other vendor, and that the US has not shown evidence of espionage.[14] However, experts point out that the 2014 Counter-Espionage Law and 2017 National Intelligence Law of the People's Republic of China are far-reaching legislation that compels Huawei and other companies to cooperate in gathering intelligence for the Chinese government.[15] According to former staff "it is no secret that employees often work with intelligence officials embedded in the company",[16][5][failed verification] with 25,000 Huawei employees previously serving in the MSS or the PLA, including former chairwoman Sun Yafang.[17][18][better source needed] Western intelligence has implicated Huawei in several hacks of telecom networks[19][20], while several rival telecom manufacturers like Nortel and Cisco Systems have traced industrial espionage back to Huawei.[21][22][23]

Questions regarding the extent of state influence on Huawei exist. Huawei is considered a national champion in China's "techno-nationalist development strategies", and has received extensive support including financing from state-owned banks,[24] plus China has engaged in diplomatic lobbying and threatened trade reprisals against countries who considered blocking Huawei's participation from 5G.[16][11] Huawei has assisted in the surveillance and mass detention of Uyghurs in Xinjiang internment camps, resulting in sanctions by the United States Department of State.[25][26][27][28] Huawei also tested a facial recognition AI that recognizes ethnicity-specific features to alert government authorities of members of an ethnic group.[29]

In the midst of an ongoing trade war between China and the United States, Huawei was restricted from doing commerce with US companies due to alleged previous willful violations of US sanctions against Iran. On 29 June 2019, former US President Donald Trump reached an agreement to resume trade talks with China and announced that he would ease the aforementioned sanctions on Huawei.[30] Huawei cut 600 jobs at its Santa Clara research center in June, and in December 2019 founder Ren Zhengfei said it was moving the center to Canada because the restrictions would block them from interacting with US employees.[31][32] In 2020, Huawei agreed to sell the Honor brand to a state-owned enterprise of the Shenzhen municipal government to "ensure its survival", after the US sanctions against them.[33] In November 2022, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) banned sales or import of equipment made by Huawei for national security reasons.[34] In 2023, the European Commission banned Huawei from providing telecommunication services.[35]


According to the company founder Ren Zhengfei, the name Huawei comes from a slogan he saw on a wall, Zhonghua youwei meaning "China has promise" (Chinese: 中华有为; pinyin: Zhōng huá yǒu wéi), when he was starting up the company and needed a name.[36] Zhonghua or Hua means China,[37] while youwei means "promising/to show promise".[38][39] Huawei has also been translated as "splendid achievement" or "China is able", which are possible readings of the name.[40]

In Chinese pinyin, the name is Huáwéi,[41] and pronounced [xwǎwéɪ] in Mandarin Chinese; in Cantonese, the name is transliterated with Jyutping as Waa4-wai4 and pronounced [waː˩wɐi˩]. However, pronunciation of Huawei by non-Chinese varies in other countries, for example "Hoe-ah-wei" in Belgium and the Netherlands.[42]

The company had considered changing the name in English out of concern that non-Chinese people may find it hard to pronounce,[43] but decided to keep the name, and launched a name recognition campaign instead to encourage a pronunciation closer to "Wah-Way" using the words "Wow Way".[44][45] Ren states, "We will not change the name of our brand and will teach foreigners how to pronounce it. We have to make sure they do not pronounce it like 'Hawaii.'"[46]: 85 


Early years

During the 1980s, the Chinese government tried to modernize the country's underdeveloped telecommunications infrastructure. A core component of the telecommunications network was telephone exchange switches, and in the late 1980s, several Chinese research groups endeavored to acquire and develop the technology, usually through joint ventures with foreign companies.

Ren Zhengfei, a former deputy director of the People's Liberation Army engineering corps, founded Huawei in 1987 in Shenzhen. The company reports that it had RMB 21,000 (about $5,000 at the time) in registered capital from Ren Zhengfei and five other investors at the time of its founding where each contributed RMB 3,500.[47] These five initial investors gradually withdrew their investments in Huawei. The Wall Street Journal has suggested, however, that Huawei received approximately "$46 billion in loans and other support, coupled with $25 billion in tax cuts" since the Chinese government had a vested interest in fostering a company to compete against Apple and Samsung.[48][49]

Ren sought to reverse engineer and steal foreign technologies with local researchers. China borrowed liberally from Qualcomm and other industry leaders (PBX as an example) in order to enter the market. At a time when all of China's telecommunications technology was imported from abroad, Ren hoped to build a domestic Chinese telecommunication company that could compete with, and ultimately replace, foreign competitors.[50]

During its first several years the company's business model consisted mainly of reselling private branch exchange (PBX) switches imported from Hong Kong.[6][51] Meanwhile, it was reverse-engineering imported switches and investing heavily in research and development to manufacture its own technologies.[6] By 1990 the company had approximately 600 R&D staff and began its own independent commercialization of PBX switches targeting hotels and small enterprises.[52]

In order to grow despite difficult competition from Alcatel, Lucent, and Nortel Networks, in 1992 Huawei focused on low-income and difficult to access market niches.[46]: 12  Huawei's sales force traveled from village to village in underdeveloped regions, gradually moving into more developed areas.[46]: 12 

The company's first major breakthrough came in 1993 when it launched its C&C08 program controlled telephone switch. It was by far the most powerful switch available in China at the time. By initially deploying in small cities and rural areas and placing emphasis on service and customizability, the company gained market share and made its way into the mainstream market.[53]

Huawei also won a key contract to build the first national telecommunications network for the People's Liberation Army, a deal one employee described as "small in terms of our overall business, but large in terms of our relationships".[54] In 1994, founder Ren Zhengfei had a meeting with General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party Jiang Zemin, telling him that "switching equipment technology was related to national security, and that a nation that did not have its own switching equipment was like one that lacked its own military." Jiang reportedly agreed with this assessment.[6]

In the 1990s, Canadian telecom giant Nortel outsourced production of their entire product line to Huawei.[21] They subsequently outsourced much of their product engineering to Huawei as well.[55]

Another major turning point for the company came in 1996 when the government in Beijing adopted an explicit policy of supporting domestic telecommunications manufacturers and restricting access to foreign competitors. Huawei was promoted by both the government and the military as a national champion, and established new research and development offices.[6]

Foreign expansion

Huawei Offices
In Voorburg, Netherlands
In Markham, Ontario, Canada

Beginning in the late 1990s, Huawei built communications networks throughout sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East.[56] It has become the most important Chinese telecommunications company operating in these regions.[56]

In 1997, Huawei won a contract to provide fixed-line network products to Hong Kong company Hutchison Whampoa.[53] Later that year, Huawei launched wireless GSM-based products and eventually expanded to offer CDMA and UMTS. In 1999, the company opened a research and development (R&D) centre in Bengaluru, India to develop a wide range of telecom software.[52]

In May 2003, Huawei partnered with 3Com on a joint venture known as H3C, which was focused on enterprise networking equipment. It marked 3Com's re-entrance into the high-end core routers and switch market, after having abandoned it in 2000 to focus on other businesses. 3Com bought out Huawei's share of the venture in 2006 for US$882 million.[57][58]

In 2004, Huawei signed a $10 billion credit line with China Development Bank to provide low-cost financing to customers buying its telecommunications equipment to support its sales outside of China. This line of credit was tripled to $30 billion in 2009.[59]

In 2005, Huawei's foreign contract orders exceeded its domestic sales for the first time. Huawei signed a global framework agreement with Vodafone. This agreement marked the first time a telecommunications equipment supplier from China had received Approved Supplier status from Vodafone Global Supply Chain.[60][non-primary source needed]

In 2007, Huawei began a joint venture with US security software vendor Symantec Corporation, known as Huawei Symantec, which aimed to provide end-to-end solutions for network data storage and security. Huawei bought out Symantec's share in the venture in 2012, with The New York Times noting that Symantec had fears that the partnership "would prevent it from obtaining United States government classified information about cyber threats".[61]

In May 2008, Australian carrier Optus announced that it would establish a technology research facility with Huawei in Sydney.[62] In October 2008, Huawei reached an agreement to contribute to a new GSM-based HSPA+ network being deployed jointly by Canadian carriers Bell Mobility and Telus Mobility, joined by Nokia Siemens Networks.[63] Huawei delivered one of the world's first LTE/EPC commercial networks for TeliaSonera in Oslo, Norway in 2009.[52] Norway-based telecommunications Telenor instead selected Ericsson due to security concerns with Huawei.[64]

Huawei Marine Networks delivered the HANNIBAL submarine communications cable system for Tunisie Telecom across the Mediterranean Sea to Italy in 2009.[65]: 310 

In July 2010, Huawei was included in the Global Fortune 500 2010 list published by the US magazine Fortune for the first time, on the strength of annual sales of US$21.8 billion and net profit of US$2.67 billion.[66][67]

In October 2012, it was announced that Huawei would move its UK headquarters to Green Park, Reading, Berkshire.[68]

Huawei also has expanding operations in Ireland since 2016. As well as a headquarters in Dublin, it has facilities in Cork and Westmeath.[69]

In September 2017, Huawei created a Narrowband IoT city-aware network using a "one network, one platform, N applications" construction model utilizing 'Internet of things' (IoT), cloud computing, big data, and other next-generation information and communications technology, it also aims to be one of the world's five largest cloud players in the near future.[70][71]

In April 2019, Huawei established the Huawei Malaysia Global Training Centre (MGTC) at Cyberjaya, Malaysia.[72]

In November 2020, Telus dropped Huawei in favor of Samsung, Ericsson, and Nokia for their 5G/Radio Access Network[73]

Recent performance

Huawei expo at IFA 2018 in Berlin

By 2018, Huawei had sold 200 million smartphones.[74] They reported that strong consumer demand for premium range smart phones helped the company reach consumer sales in excess of $52 billion in 2018.[75]

Huawei announced worldwide revenues of $105.1 billion for 2018, with a net profit of $8.7 billion.[76] Huawei's Q1 2019 revenues were up 39% year-over-year, at US$26.76 billion.[77]

In 2019, Huawei reported revenue of US$122 billion.[78] By the second quarter of 2020, Huawei had become the world's top smartphone seller, overtaking Samsung for the first time.[10] In 2021, Huawei was ranked the second-largest R&D investor in the world by the EU Joint Research Centre (JRC) in its EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard[79] and ranked fifth in the world in US patents according to a report by Fairview Research's IFI Claims Patent Services.[80][46]: 10 

However, heavy international sanctions saw Huawei's revenues drop by 32% in the 2021 third quarter.[81] Linghao Bao, an analyst at policy research firm Trivium China said the "communications giant went from being the second-largest smartphone maker in the world, after Samsung, to essentially dead."[82] By the end of third quarter in 2022, Huawei revenue had dropped a further 19.7% since the beginning of the year.[83]

Corporate affairs

Huawei classifies itself as a "collective" entity and prior to 2019 did not refer to itself as a private company. Richard McGregor, author of The Party: The Secret World of China's Communist Rulers, said that this is "a definitional distinction that has been essential to the company's receipt of state support at crucial points in its development".[84] McGregor argued that "Huawei's status as a genuine collective is doubtful."[84] Huawei's position has shifted in 2019 when, Dr. Song Liuping, Huawei's chief legal officer, commented on the US government ban, said: "Politicians in the US are using the strength of an entire nation to come after a private company." (emphasis added).[85]


Ren Zhengfei is the founder and CEO of Huawei and has the power to veto any decisions made by the board of directors.[86][87] Huawei also has rotating co-CEOs.[46]: 11 

Huawei disclosed its list of board of directors for the first time in 2010.[88] Liang Hua is the current chair of the board. As of 2019, the members of the board are Liang Hua, Guo Ping, Xu Zhijun, Hu Houkun, Meng Wanzhou (CFO and deputy chairwoman), Ding Yun, Yu Chengdong, Wang Tao, Xu Wenwei, Shen-Han Chiu, Chen Lifang, Peng Zhongyang, He Tingbo, Li Yingtao, Ren Zhengfei, Yao Fuhai, Tao Jingwen, and Yan Lida.[89]

Guo Ping is the Chairman of Huawei Device, Huawei's mobile phone division.[90] Huawei's Chief Ethics & Compliance Officer is Zhou Daiqi[91] who is also Huawei's Chinese Communist Party Committee Secretary.[92] Their chief legal officer is Song Liuping.[85]


At its founding in 1987, Huawei was established as a collectively-owned enterprise.[46]: 213  Collectively-owned enterprises were an intermediary corporate ownership status between state-owned enterprises and private businesses.[93][46]: 213  The Chinese government began issuing licenses for private businesses starting in 1992.[46]: 213 

Huawei states it is an employee-owned company, but this remains a point of dispute.[86][94] Ren Zhengfei retains approximately 1 percent of the shares of Huawei's holding company, Huawei Investment & Holding,[94] with the remainder of the shares held by a trade union committee (not a trade union per se, and the internal governance procedures of this committee, its members, its leaders or how they are selected all remain undisclosed to the public) that is claimed to be representative of Huawei's employee shareholders.[86][95] The company's trade union committee is registered with and pay dues to the Shenzhen federation of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, which is controlled by the Chinese Communist Party.[96] About half of Huawei staff participate in this structure (foreign employees are not eligible), and hold what the company calls "virtual restricted shares". These shares are non-tradable and are allocated to reward performance.[97] When employees leave Huawei, their shares revert to the company, which compensates them for their holding.[98] Although employee shareholders receive dividends,[95] their shares do not entitle them to any direct influence in management decisions, but enables them to vote for members of the 115-person Representatives' Commission from a pre-selected list of candidates.[95] The Representatives' Commission selects Huawei Holding's board of directors and Board of Supervisors.[99]

Academics Christopher Balding of Fulbright University and Donald C. Clarke of George Washington University have described Huawei's virtual stock program as "purely a profit-sharing incentive scheme" that "has nothing to do with financing or control".[100] They found that, after a few stages of historical morphing, employees do not own a part of Huawei through their shares. Instead, the "virtual stock is a contract right, not a property right; it gives the holder no voting power in either Huawei Tech or Huawei Holding, cannot be transferred, and is cancelled when the employee leaves the firm, subject to a redemption payment from Huawei Holding TUC at a low fixed price".[101][86] Balding and Clarke add, "given the public nature of trade unions in China, if the ownership stake of the trade union committee is genuine, and if the trade union and its committee function as trade unions generally function in China, then Huawei may be deemed effectively state-owned."[86] Suspicions that Huawei is state-owned were reinforced in 2021, when Huawei did not report its ultimate beneficial ownership in Europe as required by European anti-money laundering laws.[102]

Academic Toshio Goto of the Japan University of Economics has argued that Huawei's ownership structure is a function of its formation amid the Chinese reforms[103]: 13 , with the only mechanism for concentrating employee ownership under Shenzen's 1997 Provisions on State-owned Company Employee Stock Option Plans being to do so via Huawei's trade union.[103]: 25  In contrast to Balding and Clarke, Goto writes that the Huawei's virtual shares are substantially equivalent to voting stock, and that nominal ownership through the trade union does not change the legal and financial independence of employee ownership from the union itself.[103]: 25  Goto concludes that the firm is effectively owned by employees and therefore it is not effectively state-owned.[103]: 25  In analyzing Huawei's corporate governance and ownership structure, Academic Wang Jun of the Chinese University of Politics and Law also rejects the argument that Huawei is a state-owned enterprise controlled by a labor union, writing that normative practices and legal requirements distinguish between the shareholding vehicle of union-held employee assets and assets belonging to the union itself.[104] Academics Kunyuan Qiao of Cornell University and Christopher Marquis of the University of Cambridge likewise argued that Huawei is a private company owned collectively by its employees and is neither owned nor controlled directly by the Chinese government.[46]: 11 

Lobbying and public relations

In July 2021, Huawei hired Tony Podesta as a consultant and lobbyist, with a goal of nurturing the company's relationship with the Biden administration.[105][106]

Huawei has also hired public relations firms Ruder Finn, Wavemaker, Racepoint Global, and Burson Cohn & Wolfe for various campaigns.[107]

Corporate culture

According to its CEO and founder Ren, Huawei's corporate culture is the same as the culture of the CCP, "and to serve the people wholeheartedly means to be customer-centric and responsible to society."[46]: 9  Ren frequently states that Huawei's management philosophy and strategy are commercial applications of Maoism.[46]: 11 

Ren states that in the event of a conflict between Huawei's business interests and the CCP's interests, he would "choose the CCP whose interest is to serve the people and all human beings".[46]: 11  Qiao and Marquis observe that company founder Ren is a dedicated communist who seeks to ingrain communist values at Huawei.[46]: 9 


Huawei P9 was the first smartphone to be co-engineered with a Leica camera

As of the beginning of 2010, approximately 80% of the world's top 50 telecoms companies had worked with Huawei.[108]

In 2016, German camera company Leica has established a partnership with Huawei, and Leica cameras will be co-engineered into Huawei smartphones, including the P and Mate Series. The first smartphone to be co-engineered with a Leica camera was the Huawei P9.[109]

In August 2019, Huawei collaborated with eyewear company Gentle Monster and released smartglasses.[110] In November 2019, Huawei partners with Devialet and unveiled a new specifically designed speaker, the Sound X.[111] In October 2020, Huawei released its own mapping service, Petal Maps, which was developed in partnership with Dutch navigation device manufacturer TomTom.[112]

Products and services

Telecommunication networks

Huawei offers mobile and fixed softswitches, plus next-generation home location register and Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystems (IMS). Huawei sells xDSL, passive optical network (PON) and next-generation PON (NG PON) on a single platform. The company also offers mobile infrastructure, broadband access and service provider routers and switches (SPRS). Huawei's software products include service delivery platforms (SDPs), base station subsystems, and more.[113]

Global services

Huawei Global Services provides telecommunications operators with equipment to build and operate networks as well as consulting and engineering services to improve operational efficiencies.[114] These include network integration services such as those for mobile and fixed networks; assurance services such as network safety; and learning services, such as competency consulting.[113]


A Huawei Band 7 fitness tracker in Wilderness Green colour.

Huawei's Devices division provides white-label products to content-service providers, including USB modems, wireless modems and wireless routers for mobile Wi-Fi,[115] embedded modules, fixed wireless terminals, wireless gateways, set-top boxes, mobile handsets and video products.[116] Huawei also produces and sells a variety of devices under its own name, such as the IDEOS smartphones, tablet PCs and Huawei Smartwatch.[117][118]


Main article: List of Huawei phones

Huawei is the second-biggest smartphone maker in the world, after Samsung, as of the first quarter of 2019. Their portfolio of phones includes both high-end smartphones, its Huawei Mate series and Huawei P series, and cheaper handsets that fall under its Honor brand.[119]

Cheaper handsets fall under its Honor brand.[120] Honor was created in order to elevate Huawei-branded phones as premium offerings. In 2020, Huawei agreed to sell the Honor brand to a state-owned enterprise of the Shenzhen municipal government. Consequently, Honor was initially reported to be cut off from access to Huawei's IPs, which consists of more than 100,000 active patents by the end of 2020, and additionally cannot tap into Huawei's large R&D resources where $20 billion had been committed for 2021. However, Wired magazine noted in 2021 that Honor devices still had not differentiated their software much from Huawei phones and that core apps and certain engineering features, like the Honor-engineered camera features looked "virtually identical' across both phones.[33][120]

History of Huawei phones

The Huawei P30 with rear triple-lens Leica optics camera

In July 2003, Huawei established their handset department and by 2004, Huawei shipped their first phone, the C300. The U626 was Huawei's first 3G phone in June 2005 and in 2006, Huawei launched the first Vodafone-branded 3G handset, the V710. The U8220 was Huawei's first Android smartphone and was unveiled in MWC 2009. At CES 2012, Huawei introduced the Ascend range starting with the Ascend P1 S. At MWC 2012, Huawei launched the Ascend D1. In September 2012, Huawei launched their first 4G ready phone, the Ascend P1 LTE. At CES 2013, Huawei launched the Ascend D2 and the Ascend Mate. At MWC 2013, the Ascend P2 was launched as the world's first LTE Cat4 smartphone. In June 2013, Huawei launched the Ascend P6 and in December 2013, Huawei introduced Honor as a subsidiary independent brand in China. At CES 2014, Huawei launched the Ascend Mate2 4G in 2014 and at MWC 2014, Huawei launched the MediaPad X1 tablet and Ascend G6 4G smartphone. Other launched in 2014 included the Ascend P7 in May 2014, the Ascend Mate7, the Ascend G7 and the Ascend P7 Sapphire Edition as China's first 4G smartphone with a sapphire screen.[121]

In January 2015, Huawei discontinued the "Ascend" brand for its flagship phones, and launched the new P series with the Huawei P8.[122][123] Huawei also partnered with Google to build the Nexus 6P which was released in September 2015.[124]

In May 2018, Huawei stated that they will no longer allow unlocking the bootloader of their phones to allow installing third party system software or security updates after Huawei stops them. [125]

Huawei is currently the most well-known international corporation in China and a pioneer of the 5G mobile phone standard, which has come to be used globally in the last few years.[126]


Main article: Huawei MateBook series

Huawei Matebook 2-in-1 tablet

In 2016, Huawei entered the laptop markets with the release of its Huawei MateBook series of laptops.[127] They have continued to release laptop models in this series into 2020 with their most recent models being the MateBook X Pro and Matebook 13 2020.[128]


Main article: Huawei MatePad Pro

The Huawei MatePad Pro, launched in November 2019.[129] Huawei is number one in the Chinese tablet market and number two globally as of 4Q 2019.[130]


Main article: Huawei Watch

The Huawei Watch is an Android Wear-based smartwatch developed by Huawei. It was released at Internationale Funkausstellung Berlin on 2 September 2015.[131] It is the first smartwatch produced by Huawei.[131] Their latest watch, the Huawei Watch GT 2e, was launched in India in May 2020.[132]


Huawei has secured collaboration with a few automakers including Seres, Chery, BAIC Motor, Changan Automobile and GAC Group.[133]


Main article: AITO (marque)

The Aito brand (问界, Wenjie) is Huawei's premium EV brand in cooperation with Seres. In December 2021, the AITO M5 was unveiled as the first vehicle to be developed in cooperation with Huawei. The model was developed mainly by Seres and is essentially a restyled Seres SF5 crossover.[134] The model was sold under a new brand called AITO, which stands for "Adding Intelligence to Auto" and uses Huawei DriveONE and HarmonyOS, while the Seres SF5 used Huawei DriveONE and HiCar.[135]


The Avatr brand is Huawei's premium EV brand in cooperation with Changan Automobile and CATL.

The Luxeed brand (智界, Zhijie) is Huawei's premium EV brand in cooperation with Chery, with the first vehicle being the Luxeed S7, previously called the Chery EH3,[136] an upcoming premium electric executive sedan due to be unveiled in Q3 2023, and would be the first car to have the Harmony OS 4 system on board.[137]


EMUI (Emotion User Interface)

Main article: EMUI

Emotion UI (EMUI) is a ROM/OS developed by Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. and based on Google's Android Open Source Project (AOSP). EMUI is pre-installed on most Huawei Smartphone devices and its subsidiaries the Honor series.[138]

Harmony OS

Main article: Harmony OS

On 9 August 2019, Huawei officially unveiled Harmony OS at its inaugural developers' conference HDC in Dongguan. Huawei described Harmony as a free, microkernel-based distributed operating system for various types of hardware, with faster inter-process communication than QNX or Google's "Fuchsia" microkernel, and real-time resource allocation. The ARK compiler can be used to port Android APK packages to the OS. Huawei stated that developers would be able to "flexibly" deploy Harmony OS software across various device categories; the company focused primarily on IoT devices, including "smart displays", wearable devices, and in-car entertainment systems, and did not explicitly position Harmony OS as a mobile OS.[139][140]

Huawei Mobile Services (HMS)

Huawei Mobile Services (HMS) is Huawei's solution to GMS (Google Mobile services), it was created to work over Android System, so Android applications can work over Huawei HMS Mobile phones, if those don't use Google Mobile Services. HMS is part of Huawei ecosystem which Huawei developed complete solutions for several scenarios. One of their major application is called Huawei AppGallery, which is Huawei app store created as a competitor to Google's Android Play Store. As of December 2019 it was in version 4.0 and as of 16 January 2020 the company reports it has signed up 55,000 apps using its HMS Core software.[141]

Competitive position

Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. was the world's largest telecom equipment maker in 2012[8] and China's largest telephone-network equipment maker.[142] With 3,442 patents, Huawei became the world's No. 1 applicant for international patents in 2014.[143][144] In 2019, Huawei had the second most patents granted by the European Patent Office.[145] In 2021, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)'s annual World Intellectual Property Indicators report ranked Huawei's number of patent applications published under the PCT System as 1st in the world, with 5464 patent applications being published during 2020.[146] This position is consistent with their previous ranking at 1st for 4411 PCT applications in 2019.[147]

As of 2023, Huawei is the leading 5G equipment manufacturer and has the greatest market share of 5G equipment and has built approximately 70% of worldwide 5G base stations.[148]: 182 

Research and Development

As of 2021, more than half of Huawei's employees are involved in research.[149]: 119  In the same year, Huawei spent $22.1 billion on R&D, around 22.4% of its net sales, being one of the six companies in the world to spend more than $20 billion on R&D spending.[150]

The company has twenty one R&D institutes in countries including China, the United States,[151] Canada,[152] the United Kingdom,[153] Pakistan, Finland, France, Belgium, Germany, Colombia, Sweden, Ireland, India,[154] Russia, Israel, and Turkey.[155][156]

Huawei is considering opening a new research and development (R&D) center in Russia (2019/2020), which would be the third in the country after the Moscow and St. Petersburg R&D centers. Huawei also announced plans (November 2018) to open an R&D center in the French city of Grenoble, which would be mainly focused on smartphone sensors and parallel computing software development. The new R&D team in Grenoble was expected to grow to 30 researchers by 2020, said the company. The company said that this new addition brought to five the number of its R&D teams in the country: two were located in Sophia Antipolis and Paris, researching image processing and design, while the other two existing teams were based at Huawei's facilities in Boulogne-Billancourt, working on algorithms and mobile and 5G standards. The technology giant also intended to open two new research centers in Zürich and Lausanne, Switzerland. Huawei at the time employed around 350 people in Switzerland.[157][158]

Huawei also funds research partnerships with universities such as the University of British Columbia, the University of Waterloo, the University of Western Ontario, the University of Guelph, and Université Laval.[159][160]


Main article: Criticism of Huawei

Huawei has faced criticism for various aspects of its operations, largely involving allegations of its products containing backdoors for Chinese government espionage—consistent with domestic laws requiring Chinese citizens and companies to cooperate with state intelligence when warranted. Huawei executives have consistently denied these allegations, claiming that the company has never received any requests by the Chinese government to introduce backdoors in its equipment, would refuse to do so, and that Chinese law did not compel them to do so.[161][162][163][164]

Early business practices

Huawei employed a complex system of agreements with local state-owned telephone companies that seemed to include illicit payments to the local telecommunications bureau employees. During the late 1990s, the company created several joint ventures with their state-owned telecommunications company customers. By 1998, Huawei had signed agreements with municipal and provincial telephone bureaus to create Shanghai Huawei, Chengdu Huawei, Shenyang Huawei, Anhui Huawei, Sichuan Huawei, and other companies. The joint ventures were actually shell companies, and were a way to funnel money to local telecommunications employees so that Huawei could get deals to sell them equipment. In the case of Sichuan Huawei, for example, local partners could get 60–70 percent of their investment returned in the form of annual 'dividends'.[165]

Allegations of state support

Observers have noted that the Chinese government has granted Huawei much more comprehensive support than other domestic companies facing troubles abroad, such as ByteDance, since Huawei is considered a "national champion" along with Alibaba Group and Tencent.[16][166] For instance after Huawei CFO Meng Wanzhou was detained in Canada pending extradition to the United States for fraud charges, China immediately arrested Michael Kovrig and Michael Spavor in what was widely viewed as "hostage diplomacy".[16][167] China has also imposed tariffs on Australian imports in 2020, in apparent retaliation for Huawei and ZTE being excluded from Australia's 5G network in 2018.[16]

In June 2020, when the UK mulled reversing an earlier decision to permit Huawei's participation in 5G, China threatened retaliation in other sectors like power generation and high-speed rail. US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo reassured the UK saying "the US stands with our allies and partners against the Chinese Communist Party's coercive bullying tactics," and "the US stands ready to assist our friends in the UK with any needs they have, from building secure and reliable nuclear power plants to developing trusted 5G solutions that protect their citizens' privacy".[168] On 7 October 2020, the U.K. Parliament's Defence Committee released a report concluding that there was evidence of collusion between Huawei and Chinese state and the Chinese Communist Party, based upon ownership model and government subsidies it has received. Huawei responded by saying "this report lacks credibility as it is built on opinion rather than fact".[169]

In November 2019, the Chinese ambassador to Denmark, in meetings with high-ranking Faroese politicians, directly linked Huawei's 5G expansion with Chinese trade, according to a sound recording obtained by Kringvarp Føroya. According to Berlingske, the ambassador threatened with dropping a planned trade deal with the Faroe Islands, if the Faroese telecom company Føroya Tele did not let Huawei build the national 5G network. Huawei said they did not knоw about the meetings.[170]

The Wall Street Journal has suggested that Huawei received approximately "$46 billion in loans and other support, coupled with $25 billion in tax cuts" since the Chinese government had a vested interest in fostering a company to compete against Apple and Samsung.[48] In particular, China's state-owned banks such as the China Development Bank and the Export-Import Bank of China make loans to Huawei customers which substantially undercut competitors' financing with lower interest and cash in advance, with China Development Bank providing a credit line totaling US$30 billion between 2004 and 2009. In 2010, the European Commission launched an investigation into China's subsidies that distorted global markets and harmed European vendors, and Huawei offered the initial complainant US$56 million to withdraw the complaint in an attempt to shut down the investigation. Then-European Trade Commissioner Karel De Gucht found that Huawei leveraged state support to underbid competitors by up to 70 percent.[24][171]

Cyber intrusion by US intelligence

In 2014, the National Security Agency penetrated Huawei's corporate networks in China to search for links between the company and the People's Liberation Army. It was able to monitor accounts belonging to Huawei employees and its founder Ren Zhengfei.[22]

Allegations of military ties and espionage

See also: Concerns over Chinese involvement in 5G wireless networks and Chinese intelligence activity abroad

Company founder and CEO Ren Zhengfei stated "we never participate in espionage and we do not allow any of our employees to do any act like that. And we absolutely never install backdoors. Even if we were required by Chinese law, we would firmly reject that".[172][173] Chinese Premier Li Keqiang was quoted saying "the Chinese government did not and will not ask Chinese companies to spy on other countries, such kind of action is not consistent with the Chinese law and is not how China behaves." Huawei has cited the opinion of Zhong Lun Law Firm, whose lawyers testified to the FCC that the National Intelligence Law doesn't apply to Huawei. The opinion of Zhong Lun lawyers, reviewed by British law firm Clifford Chance, has been distributed widely by Huawei as an "independent legal opinion", although Clifford Chance added a disclaimer stated that "the material should not be construed as constituting a legal opinion on the application of PRC law".[174][175] Follow up reporting from Wired cast doubt on the findings of Zhong Lun, particularly because the Chinese "government doesn't limit itself to what the law explicitly allows" when it comes to national security.[176] "All Chinese citizens and organisations are obliged to cooperate upon request with PRC intelligence operations—and also maintain the secrecy of such operations", as explicitly stipulated in Article 7 of the 2017 PRC national intelligence-gathering activities law.[177]

Experts have pointed out that "under [President] Xi's intensifying authoritarianism [since] Beijing promulgated a new national intelligence law" in 2017, as well as the 2014 Counter-Espionage Law, both of which are vaguely defined and far-reaching. The two laws "[compel] Chinese businesses to work with Chinese intelligence and security agencies whenever they are requested to do so", suggesting that Huawei or other domestic major technology companies could not refuse to cooperate with Chinese intelligence. Jerome Cohen, a New York University law professor and Council on Foreign Relations adjunct senior fellow stated "Not only is this mandated by existing legislation but, more important, also by political reality and the organizational structure and operation of the Party-State’s economy. The Party is embedded in Huawei and controls it".[15] One former Huawei employee said "The state wants to use Huawei, and it can use it if it wants. Everyone has to listen to the state. Every person. Every company and every individual, and you can't talk about it. You can't say you don't like it. That's just China." The new cybersecurity law also requires domestic companies, and eventually foreign subsidiaries, to use state-certified network equipment and software so that their data and communications are fully visible to China's Cybersecurity Bureau.[16][5][174][175] University of Nottingham's Martin Thorley has suggested that Huawei would have no recourse to oppose the CCP's request in court, since the Party controls the police, the media, the judiciary and the government.[15] Klon Kitchen has suggested that 5G dominance is essential to China in order to achieve its vision where "the prosperity of state-run capitalism is combined with the stability and security of technologically enabled authoritarianism".[178]

In 2019, Henry Jackson Society researchers conducted an analysis of 25,000 Huawei employee CVs and found that some had worked or trained with China's Ministry of State Security, the People's Liberation Army (PLA), its academies, and a military unit accused of hacking US corporations, including 11 alumni from a PLA information engineering school.[17] One of the study researchers says this shows "a strong relationship between Huawei and all levels of the Chinese state, Chinese military and Chinese intelligence. This to me appears to be a systemized, structural relationship."[179] Charles Parton, a British diplomat, said this "give the lie to Huawei's claim that there is no evidence that they help the Chinese intelligence services. This gun is smoking."[17] Huawei said that while it does not work on Chinese military or intelligence projects, it is no secret that some employees have a previous government background. It criticised the report's speculative language such as ‘believes’, ‘infers’, and ‘cannot rule out’.[180]

In December 2021, Bloomberg News stated that Australian intelligence in 2012 detected a backdoor in the country's telecom network and shared its findings with the United States, who reported similar hacks. It was reportedly caused by a software update from Huawei carrying malicious code that transmitted data to China before deleting itself. Investigators managed to reconstruct the exploit and determined that Huawei technicians must have pushed the update through the network on behalf of China's spy agencies. Huawei said updates would have required authorisation from the customer and that no tangible evidence was presented. China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs called the accusation a "slander". Australian telecom operators Optus and Vodafone disputed that they were compromised.[22][23] In addition, senior security officials in Uganda and Zambia admitted that Huawei played key roles enabling their governments to spy on political opponents.[16] Inside the African Union headquarters, whose computer systems were supplied by Huawei and paid for by the Chinese government, IT staff discovered that data transfers on its servers peaked after hours from January 2012 to January 2017, with the African Union's internal data sent to unknown servers hosted in Shanghai.[16] In May 2019, a Huawei Mediapad M5 belonging to a Canadian IT engineer living in Taiwan was found to be sending data to servers in China despite never being authorized to do so, as the apps could not be disabled and continued to send sensitive data even after appearing to be deleted.[181] At the end of 2019, United States officials disclosed to the United Kingdom and Germany that Huawei has had the ability to covertly exploit backdoors intended for law enforcement officials since 2009, as these backdoors are found on carrier equipment like antennas and routers, and Huawei's equipment is widely used around the world due to its low cost.[182][183] The United Kingdom established a lab that it ran, but which was paid for by Huawei, to evaluate Huawei equipment.[65]: 322  After eight years of study, the lab did not identify any Huawei backdoor, but concluded that Huawei's equipment had bugs that could be exploited by hackers.[65]: 322 


Yale University economist Stephen Roach documented a "backdoor" from Huawei supplied equipment. European telecom Vodafone disclosed in 2011 that its Italian fixed line network contained a security vulnerability in its Huawei-installed software.[149]: 118–119  Huawei fixed the vulnerability at Vodafone's request.[149]: 118  Vodafone has not acknowledged nor denied that any suspicious data capture or systems control activity happened when the backdoor was open.[149]: 118 

A 2012 White House-ordered security review found no evidence that Huawei spied for China and said instead that security vulnerabilities on its products posed a greater threat to its users. The details of the leaked review came a week after a US House Intelligence Committee report which warned against letting Huawei supply critical telecommunications infrastructure in the United States.[184]

Huawei has been at the center of espionage allegations over Chinese 5G network equipment. In 2018, the United States passed a defense funding bill that contained a passage barring the federal government from doing business with Huawei, ZTE, and several Chinese vendors of surveillance products, due to security concerns.[185][186][187] The Chinese government has threatened economic retaliation against countries that block Huawei's market access.[188]

Similarly in November 2018, New Zealand blocked Huawei from supplying mobile equipment to national telecommunications company Spark New Zealand's 5G network, citing a "significant network security risk" and concerns about China's National Intelligence Law.[189][190]

Between December 2018 and January 2019, German and British intelligence agencies initially pushed back against the US' allegations, stating that after examining Huawei's 5G hardware and accompanying source code, they have found no evidence of malevolence and that a ban would therefore be unwarranted.[191][192] Additionally, the head of Britain's National Cyber Security Centre (the information security arm of GCHQ) stated that the US has not managed to provide the UK with any proof of its allegations against Huawei and also their agency had concluded that any risks involving Huawei in UK's telecom networks are "manageable".[193][192] The Huawei Cyber Security Evaluation Centre (HCSEC), set up in 2010 to assuage security fears as it examined Huawei hardware and software for the UK market, was staffed largely by employees from Huawei but with regular oversight from GCHQ, which led to questions of operating independence from Huawei.[194] On 1 October 2020, an official report released by National Cyber Security Centre noted that "Huawei has failed to adequately tackle security flaws in equipment used in the UK's telecoms networks despite previous complaints", and flagged one vulnerability of "national significance" related to broadband in 2019. The report concluded that Huawei was not confident of implementing the five-year plan of improving its software engineering processes, so there was "limited assurance that all risks to UK national security" could be mitigated in the long-term.[195] On 14 July 2020, the United Kingdom Government announced a ban on the use of company's 5G network equipment, citing security concerns.[196] In October 2020, the British Defence Select Committee announced that it had found evidence of Huawei's collusion with the Chinese state and that it supported accelerated purging of Huawei equipment from Britain's telecom infrastructure by 2025, since they concluded that Huawei had "engaged in a variety of intelligence, security, and intellectual property activities" despite its repeated denials.[169][197] In November 2020, Huawei challenged the UK government's decision, citing an Oxford Economics report that it had contributed £3.3 billion to the UK's GDP.[198]

In March 2019, Huawei filed three defamation claims over comments suggesting ties to the Chinese government made on television by a French researcher, a broadcast journalist and a telecommunications sector expert.[199] In June 2020 ANSSI informed French telecommunications companies that they would not be allowed to renew licenses for 5G equipment made from Huawei after 2028.[200] On 28 August 2020, French President Emmanuel Macron assured the Chinese government that it did not ban Huawei products from participating in its fifth-generation mobile roll-out, but favored European providers for security reasons. The head of the France's cybersecurity agency also stated that it has granted time-limited waivers on 5G for wireless operators that use Huawei products, a decision that likely started a "phasing out" of the company's products.[201]

In February 2020, US government officials claimed that Huawei has had the ability to covertly exploit backdoors intended for law enforcement officials in carrier equipment like antennas and routers since 2009.[182][202]

In mid July 2020, Andrew Little, the Minister in charge of New Zealand's signals intelligence agency the Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB), announced that New Zealand would not join the United Kingdom and United States in banning Huawei from the country's 5G network.[203][204]

Following the 2020 China–India skirmishes, India announced that Huawei would be blocked from participating in the country's 5G network for national security reasons.[205]

In May 2022, Canada's industry minister Francois-Philippe Champagne announced that Canada will ban Huawei from the country's 5G network, in an effort to protect the safety and security of Canadians, as well as to protect Canada's infrastructure.[206] The Canadian federal government cited national security concerns for the move, saying that the suppliers could be forced to company with "extrajudicial directions from foreign governments" in ways that could "conflict with Canadian laws or would be detrimental to Canadian interests". Telcos will be prevented from procuring new 4G or 5G equipment from Huawei and ZTE and must remove all ZTE- and Huawei-branded 5G equipment from their networks by 28 June 2024.[207]

Allegations of fraud and conspiracy to subvert sanctions against Iran

See also: Extradition case of Meng Wanzhou

In December 2012, Reuters reported that "deep links" existed as early as 2010 between Huawei through Meng Wanzhou (who was then CFO of the firm) and an Iranian telecom importer named Skycom.[208] The US had long-standing sanctions on Iran, including against the importation of US technology goods into Iran. On 22 August 2018, the Trump administration and a New York court, including staffers of Trump's cabinet officially issued an arrest warrant for Meng to stand trial in the United States.[209][210] On 1 December 2018, Meng was arrested in Canada at the behest of the Trump administration.[211] She faces extradition to the United States on charges of violating the sanctions regime.[212]

On 28 January 2019, the Trump administration's cabinet and federal prosecutors formally indicted Meng and Huawei with 13 counts of bank and wire fraud (in order to mask the sale that is illegal under sanctions of US technology to Iran), obstruction of justice, and misappropriating trade secrets.[213][214] The department also filed a formal extradition request for Meng with Canadian authorities that same day. Huawei responded to the charges and said that it "denies that it or its subsidiary or affiliate have committed any of the asserted violations", as well as asserted Meng was similarly innocent. The China Ministry of Industry and Information Technology believed the charges brought on by the United States were "unfair".[215]

On 27 May 2020, the B.C. Supreme Court judge ruled that extradition proceedings against the Huawei executive should proceed, denying the claim of double criminality brought by Meng's defense team.[216] On 24 September 2021, the Department of Justice announced it had suspended its charges against Meng Wanzhou after she entered into a deferred prosecution agreement with them in which she conceded she helped misrepresent the relationship between Huawei and its subsidiary Skycom to HSBC in order to transact business with Iran, but did not have to plead guilty.[217] Meng returned to China on 25 September 2021.[218][219]

On 1 December 2022, the prosecution asked a judge to dismiss bank fraud and other charges against her,[220] and the judge dismissed the charges.[221]

Patent infringement

Huawei has settled with Cisco Systems, Motorola, and PanOptis in patent infringement lawsuits.[222][223][224] In 2018, a German court ruled against Huawei and ZTE in favor of MPEG LA, which holds patents related to Advanced Video Coding.[225]

Allegations of intellectual property theft

Huawei has been accused of intellectual property theft.[226][227]

Brian Shields, former chief security officer at Nortel, said that his company was compromised in 2004 by Chinese hackers; executive credentials were accessed remotely, and entire computers were taken over. He does not believe Huawei was directly involved. Nortel sought for but failed to receive help from the RCMP. The CSIS said it approached the company but was rebuffed. Cybersecurity experts have doubts about a hack of such magnitude as described by Shields, calling it "unlikely". The allegation nonetheless added to the suspicion that industrial espionage allowed Huawei to quickly advance its product development.[228][21]

In 2017, a jury found that Huawei had misappropriated trade secrets of T-Mobile US but awarded damages only for a breach of supplier contract; it did not compensate T-Mobile for claims of espionage.[229]

In 2019, Huawei's chief legal officer stated "In the past 30 years, no court has ever concluded that Huawei engaged in malicious IP company can become a global leader by stealing from others."[230]

In February 2020, the United States Department of Justice charged Huawei with racketeering and conspiring to steal trade secrets from six US firms.[231] Huawei said those allegations, some going back almost 20 years, had never been found as a basis for any significant monetary judgment.[232][233]

Involvement in North Korea

Documents leaked in 2019 revealed that Huawei "secretly helped the North Korean government build and maintain the country's commercial wireless network," possibly in violation of international sanctions.[234]

Involvement in Xinjiang internment camps

Further information: Uyghur genocide

Huawei has assisted in the surveillance and mass detention of Uyghurs in Xinjiang internment camps, resulting in sanctions by the United States Department of State.[25][26][27][28] Huawei also tested a facial recognition AI that recognizes ethnicity-specific features to alert government authorities of members of an ethnic group.[29] In January 2021, it was reported that Huawei previously filed a patent with the China National Intellectual Property Administration for a technology to identify Uyghur pedestrians.[235]

In 2019, the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, a think tank often described as hawkish in Australian media,[236] accused Huawei of assisting in the mass detention of Uyghurs in the Xinjiang internment camps.[26][27][237] Huawei technology used by the Xinjiang internal security forces for data analysis,[238] and companies supplying Huawei operating in the Xinjiang region are accused of using forced labour.[239] However, Huawei denied these reports.[240]

US sanctions

Further information: United States sanctions against China

Developments up to ban on semiconductor sales in 2020

In August 2018, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (NDAA 2019) was signed into law, containing a provision that banned Huawei and ZTE equipment from being used by the US federal government, citing security concerns.[241] Huawei filed a lawsuit over the act in March 2019,[242] alleging it to be unconstitutional because it specifically targeted Huawei without granting it a chance to provide a rebuttal or due process.[243]

Additionally, on 15 May 2019, the Department of Commerce added Huawei and 70 foreign subsidiaries and "affiliates" to its Entity List under the Export Administration Regulations, citing the company having been indicted for "knowingly and willfully causing the export, re-export, sale and supply, directly and indirectly, of goods, technology and services (banking and other financial services) from the United States to Iran and the government of Iran without obtaining a license from the Department of Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC)".[244] This restricts US companies from doing business with Huawei without a government license.[245][246][247] Various US-based companies immediately froze their business with Huawei to comply with the regulation.[248]

The May 2019 ban on Huawei was partial: it did not affect most non-American produced chips, and the Trump administration granted a series of extensions on the ban in any case,[249] with another 90-day reprieve issued in May 2020.[250] In May 2020, the US extended the ban to cover semiconductors customized for Huawei and made with US technology.[251] In August 2020, the US again extended the ban to a blanket ban on all semiconductor sales to Huawei.[251] The blanket ban took effect in September 2020.[252]

Further developments after the semiconductor ban

The sanctions regime established in September 2020 negatively affected Huawei production, sales and financial projections.[253][254][255] However, on 29 June 2019 at the G20 summit, the US President made statements implicating plans to ease the restrictions on US companies doing business with Huawei.[256][30][257] Despite this statement, on 15 May 2020, the U.S. Department of Commerce extended its export restrictions to bar Huawei from producing semiconductors derived from technology or software of US origin, even if the manufacturing is performed overseas.[258][259][260] In June 2020, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) designated Huawei a national security threat, thereby barring it from any US subsidies.[13] In July 2020, the Federal Acquisition Regulation Council published a Federal Register notice prohibiting all federal government contractors from selling Huawei hardware to the federal government and preventing federal contractors from using Huawei hardware.[261]

In November 2020, Donald Trump issued an executive order prohibiting any American company or individual from owning shares in companies that the United States Department of Defense has listed as having links to the People's Liberation Army, which included Huawei.[262][263][264] In January 2021, the Trump administration revoked licenses from US companies such as Intel from supplying products and technologies to Huawei.[265] In June 2021, the FCC voted unanimously to prohibit approvals of Huawei gear in US telecommunication networks on national security grounds.[266]

In June 2021, the administration of Joe Biden began to persuade the United Arab Emirates to remove the Huawei Technologies Co. equipment from its telecommunications network, while ensuring to further distance itself from China. It came as an added threat to the $23 billion arms deal of F-35 fighter jets and Reaper drones between the US and the UAE. The Emirates got a deadline of four years from Washington to replace the Chinese network.[267] A report in September 2021 analyzed how the UAE was struggling between maintaining its relations with both the United States and China. While Washington had a hawkish stance towards Beijing, the increasing Emirati relations with China have strained those with America. In that light, the Western nation has raised concerns for the UAE to beware of the security threat that the Chinese technologies like Huawei 5G telecommunications network possessed. However, the Gulf nations like the Emirates and Saudi Arabia defended their decision of picking Chinese technology over the American, saying that it is much cheaper and had no political conditions.[268]

On 18 November 2020, an opposition motion calling on the government for a decision on the participation of Huawei in Canada's 5G network and a plan on combating what it called "Chinese aggression" passed 179 to 146. The non-binding motion was supported by the NDP and Bloc Québécois.[269] In May 2022, Canada's government banned Huawei and ZTE equipment from the country's 5G network, with companies having until 28 June 2024 to remove 5G equipment from these Chinese vendors.[270] Christopher Parsons of the University of Toronto's Citizen Lab stated that continued use of Huawei and ZTE equipment "would have given the Chinese government leverage over Canada".[271]

On 25 November 2022, the FCC issued a ban on Huawei for national security reasons, citing the national security risk posed by the technology owned by China.[272]

Huawei's stockpiling of processors 2018-2020

Before the 15 September 2020 deadline, Huawei was in "survival mode" and stockpiled "5G mobile processors, Wifi, radio frequency and display driver chips and other components" from key chip suppliers and manufacturers, including Samsung, SK Hynix, TSMC, MediaTek, Realtek, Novatek, and RichWave.[252] Even in 2019, Huawei spent $23.45 billion on the stockpiling of chips and other supplies in 2019, up 73% from 2018.[252]

On its most crucial business, namely, its telecoms business (including 5G) and server business, Huawei has stockpiled 1.5 to 2 years' worth of chips and components.[273] It began massively stockpiling from 2018, when Meng Wanzhou, the daughter of Huawei's founder, was arrested in Canada upon US request.[273] Key Huawei suppliers included Xilinx, Intel, AMD, Samsung, SK Hynix, Micron and Kioxia.[273] On the other hand, analysts predicted that Huawei could ship 195 million units of smartphones from its existing stockpile in 2021, but shipments may drop to 50 million in 2021 if rules are not relaxed.[252]

Own development of non-Western processors

In late 2020, it was reported that Huawei had planned to build a semiconductor manufacturing facility in Shanghai that did not involve US technology.[274] The plan may have helped Huawei obtain necessary chips after its existing stockpile became depleted, which would have helped the company chart a sustainable path for its telecoms business.[274] Huawei had also planned to collaborate with the government-run Shanghai IC R&D Center, which is partially owned by the state-owned enterprise Huahong Group.[274] Huawei may have been purchasing equipment from Chinese firms such as AMEC and Naura, as well as using foreign tools which it could still find on the market.[274]

In August 2023, the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA), a US trade association, alleged that Huawei was building a collection of secret semiconductor-fabrication facilities across China, a shadow manufacturing network that would let the company skirt US sanctions.[275][276][277] Huawei was receiving an estimated $30 billion in state funding from the government at the time and had acquired at least two existing plants, with plans to construct at least three others.[275][277] The United States Department of Commerce had put Huawei on its entity list in 2019,[277] eventually "prohibiting it from working with American companies in almost all circumstances." However, if Huawei were to function under the names of other companies without disclosing its own involvement, it might have been able to circumvent those restrictions to "indirectly purchase American chipmaking equipment and other supplies that would otherwise be prohibited."[275]

On 6 September 2023, Huawei launched its new Mate 60 smartphone. The phone is powered by a new Kirin 9000s chip, made in China by Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corp (SMIC).[278] This processor was the first to use the new 7 nanometre SMIC technology. TechInsights had stated in 2022 that it believed SMIC had managed to produce 7 nm chips, even though faced by a harsh sanctions regime, by adapting simpler machines that it could still purchase from ASML.[278] Holger Mueller of Constellation Research Inc. said that this showed that the US sanctions might have had the effect of sending China's chip-making industry into overdrive: “If SMIC really has perfected its 7nm process, this would be a major advance that can help Huawei remain at the forefront of the smartphone industry.”[279] TechInsights found evidence that the processor had been manufactured using SMIC's N+2 7 nm node.[280] One of its analysts, Dan Hutcheson, who had led the breakdown of the new device, stated that it demonstrates "impressive technical progress China’s semiconductor industry has made" despite not having EUV tools, and that “the difficulty of this achievement also shows the resilience of the country’s chip technological ability". However other analysts have said that such an achievement may lead to harsher sanctions against it.[281]

Replacement operating systems (Deepin & Harmony OS)

Main articles: Deepin and Harmony OS

After the US sanctions regime started in summer 2018, Huawei started working on its own in-house operating system codenamed "HongMeng OS": in an interview with Die Welt, executive Richard Yu stated in 2019 that an in-house OS could be used as a "plan B" if it were prevented from using Android or Windows as the result of US action.[282][283][284] Huawei filed trademarks for the names "Ark", "Ark OS", and "Harmony" in Europe, which were speculated to be connected to this OS.[285][286] On 9 August 2019, Huawei officially unveiled Harmony OS at its inaugural HDC developers' conference in Dongguan with the ARK compiler which can be used to port Android APK packages to the OS.[139][140]

In September 2019, Huawei began offering the Linux distribution Deepin as a pre-loaded operating system on selected Matebook models in China.[287]

Whereas at first the official Huawei line was that Harmony OS was not intended for smartphones, in June 2021 Huawei began shipping its smartphones[288] with Harmony OS by default in China (in Europe it kept Android, in its own version EMUI, as the default). The operating system proved a success in China, rising from no market share at all to 10 per cent of the Chinese market for smartphones within two years (from mid-2021 to mid-2023), at the expense of Android.[289]


Some or all Huawei products are banned in Australia, Canada, India, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States.[290][291][292][293]

In October 2022, the UK extended the deadline by a year to the end of 2023 for removing core Huawei equipment from network functions. The ban, originally announced in 2020 following US pressure, calls for the phasing out of all Huawei gear from UK's 5G network by the end of 2027, which remains unchanged.[294]

In 2023, it was reported that the German government was looking at potentially banning Huawei products from part of the country's 5G network due to security concerns. Germany is said to be putting the matter under consideration but is hesitant, due to its hesitancy of singling out the Chinese company.[295]

See also


  1. ^ a b "Huawei expects 2022 revenues to remain flat year-on-year". 3 January 2023. Retrieved 11 April 2023.
  2. ^ "Huawei Annual Report 2022". Huawei. Retrieved 4 April 2023.
  3. ^ Zhong, Raymond (25 April 2019). "Who Owns Huawei? The Company Tried to Explain. It Got Complicated". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  4. ^ Huawei Investment & Holding Co., Ltd. 2020 Annual Report (PDF) (Report). Huawei Investment & Holding Co. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  5. ^ a b c "Who is the man behind Huawei and why is the U.S. intelligence community so afraid of his company?". Los Angeles Times. 10 April 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d e Ahrens, Nathaniel (February 2013). "China's Competitiveness Myth, Reality, and Lessons for the United States and Japan. Case Study: Huawei" (PDF). Center for Strategic and International Studies. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  7. ^ Vance, Ashlee; Einhorn, Bruce (15 September 2011). "At Huawei, Matt Bross Tries to Ease U.S. Security Fears". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  8. ^ a b "Who's afraid of Huawei?". The Economist. 3 August 2012. Archived from the original on 3 August 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2018. Huawei has just overtaken Sweden's Ericsson to become the world's largest telecoms-equipment-maker.
  9. ^ Gibbs, Samuel (1 August 2018). "Huawei beats Apple to become second-largest smartphone maker". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 August 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  10. ^ a b Pham, Sherisse (30 July 2020). "Samsung slump makes Huawei the world's biggest smartphone brand for the first time, report says". CNN. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  11. ^ a b Yap, Chuin-Wei (25 December 2019). "State Support Helped Fuel Huawei's Global Rise". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 28 July 2023.
  12. ^ Allen-Ebrahimian, Bethany (24 June 2020). "Defense Department produces list of Chinese military-linked companies". Axios. Archived from the original on 25 June 2020. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  13. ^ a b McCabe, David (30 June 2020). "F.C.C. Designates Huawei and ZTE as National Security Threats". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2 July 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  14. ^ McCaskill, Steve (28 February 2019). "Huawei: US has no evidence for security claims". TechRadar. Archived from the original on 1 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  15. ^ a b c "Huawei says it would never hand data to China's government. Experts say it wouldn't have a choice". CNBC. 5 March 2019.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h Brandao, Doowan Lee, Shannon (30 April 2021). "Huawei Is Bad for Business". Foreign Policy.((cite web)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ a b c Mendick, Robert (6 July 2019). "'Smoking gun': Huawei staff employment records link them to Chinese military agencies". National Post.
  18. ^ "Open Source Center Views China's Huawei Technologies". Federation of American Scientists. Open Source Enterprise. 5 October 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2022.
  19. ^ "Chinese Spies Accused of Using Huawei in Secret Australia Telecom Hack - BNN Bloomberg". 16 December 2021.
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ a b c Kehoe, John (26 May 2014). "How Chinese hacking felled telecommunication giant Nortel". Australian Financial Review. Archived from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019. Cite error: The named reference "Kehoe" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  22. ^ a b c "Chinese Spies Accused of Using Huawei in Secret Australia Telecom Hack". BNN Bloomberg. 16 December 2021.
  23. ^ a b Chang, Charis (17 December 2021). "Key details of Huawei security breach in Australia revealed". Retrieved 27 July 2023.
  24. ^ a b "There is a Solution to the Huawei Challenge". 14 October 2020.
  25. ^ a b "Documents link Huawei to China's surveillance programs". The Washington Post. 14 December 2021. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  26. ^ a b c Wheeler, Caroline (22 December 2019). "Chinese tech giant Huawei 'helps to persecute Uighurs'". The Times. Archived from the original on 11 May 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  27. ^ a b c VanderKlippe, Nathan (29 November 2019). "Huawei providing surveillance tech to China's Xinjiang authorities, report finds". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 2 December 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  28. ^ a b Kelly, Laura; Mills Rodrigo, Chris (15 July 2020). "US announces sanctions on Huawei, citing human rights abuses". The Hill. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  29. ^ a b Harwell, Drew; Dou, Eva (8 December 2020). "Huawei tested AI software that could recognize Uighur minorities and alert police, report says". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  30. ^ a b "US and China agree to restart trade talks". BBC. 29 June 2019. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  31. ^ "Huawei moving US research center to Canada". Associated Press. 3 December 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  32. ^ McLeod, James (9 December 2019). "'Who's going to make the first move?': Canada not alone in the Huawei dilemma". Financial Post. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  33. ^ a b Lawler, Richard (17 November 2020). "Huawei sells Honor phone brand to 'ensure' its survival". Engadget. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  34. ^ Bartz, Diane; Alper, Alexandra (25 November 2022). "U.S. bans Huawei, ZTE equipment sales citing national security risk". Reuters. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  35. ^ Chee, Foo Yun (15 June 2023). "Breton urges more EU countries to ban Huawei, ZTE from networks". Reuters. Retrieved 17 June 2023.
  36. ^ "任正非:华为名源自中华有为 我们要教外国人怎么念_科技频道_凤凰网". Phoenix Television. Archived from the original on 3 June 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  37. ^ "中华". MDBG.
  38. ^ "有为". MDBG.
  39. ^ "有为 yǒuwéi". LINE Dict. Archived from the original on 28 September 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  40. ^ Vaswani, Karishma (6 March 2019). "Huawei: The story of a controversial company". BBC News. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  41. ^ "华为". MDBG.
  42. ^ Segers, Rien (29 January 2016). Multinational Management: A Casebook on Asia's Global Market Leaders. Springer. p. 87. ISBN 9783319230122.
  43. ^ Thomson, Ainsley (4 September 2013). "Huawei Mulled Changing Its Name as Foreigners Found it Too Hard". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 7 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  44. ^ "Wow Way or Huawei? A readable Chinese brand is the first key in unlocking America's market". South China Morning Post. 10 January 2018. Archived from the original on 7 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  45. ^ Miller, Matthew (10 January 2018). "Huawei launches unlocked Mate 10 Pro in US, backed by Wonder Woman". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 5 March 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Marquis, Christopher; Qiao, Kunyuan (2022). Mao and Markets: The Communist Roots of Chinese Enterprise. Kunyuan Qiao. New Haven: Yale University Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctv3006z6k. ISBN 978-0-300-26883-6. JSTOR j.ctv3006z6k. OCLC 1348572572. S2CID 253067190.
  47. ^ "Huawei, a self-made world-class company or agent of China's global strategy?". Ash Center. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  48. ^ a b "Huawei reportedly got by with a lot of help from the Chinese government". 26 December 2019.
  49. ^ "Huawei denies receiving billions in financial aid from Chinese government".
  50. ^ Peilei Fan, "Catching Up through Developing Innovation Capacity: Evidence from China's Telecom Equipment Industry," Technovation 26 (2006): 359–368
  51. ^ "The Startup: Who is Huawei". BBC Future. Archived from the original on 15 November 2019. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  52. ^ a b c "Milestones". Huawei. Archived from the original on 9 July 2016.
  53. ^ a b Christine Chang; Amy Cheng; Susan Kim; Johanna Kuhn Osius; Jesus Reyes; Daniel Turgel (2009). "Huawei Technologies: A Chinese Trail Blazer In Africa". Business Today. Archived from the original on 9 October 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
  54. ^ Gilley, Bruce (28 December 2000). "Huawei's Fixed Line to Beijing". Far Eastern Economic Review: 94–98.
  55. ^ Smith, Jim. "Did Outsourcing and Corporate Espionage Kill Nortel?". Assembly Magazine. Archived from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  56. ^ a b Murphy, Dawn C. (2022). China's rise in the Global South : the Middle East, Africa, and Beijing's alternative world order. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-1-5036-3060-4. OCLC 1249712936.
  57. ^ Hochmuth, Phil (29 November 2006). "3Com buys out Huawei joint venture for $882 million". Network World. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  58. ^ "3Com exits enterprise network stage". ITworld. 26 March 2001. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  59. ^ Mcmorrow, Ryan (30 May 2019). "Huawei a key beneficiary of China subsidies that US wants ended". Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  60. ^ "Huawei Becomes an Approved Supplier for Vodafone's Global Supply Chain". Huawei. 20 November 2005. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
  61. ^ Perlroth, Nicole; Markoff, John (26 March 2012). "Symantec Dissolves Alliance with Huawei of China". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  62. ^ Marcus Browne (20 May 2008). "Optus opens up mobile research shop with Huawei". ZDNet Australia. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
  63. ^ "Bell teams up with rival Telus on 3G". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 17 December 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  64. ^ Klesty, Victoria; Solsvik, Terje (13 December 2019). "Norway's Telenor picks Ericsson for 5G, abandoning Huawei". Reuters. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  65. ^ a b c Shinn, David H.; Eisenman, Joshua (2023). China's Relations with Africa: a New Era of Strategic Engagement. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-21001-0.
  66. ^ "397. Huawei Technologies". Fortune. 26 July 2010. Archived from the original on 28 May 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
  67. ^ "Huawei Financial Results". Huawei. 31 December 2014. Archived from the original on 3 August 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  68. ^ "Reading move for Chinese communication giant / Reading Chronicle / News / Roundup". Reading Chronicle. 10 October 2012. Archived from the original on 23 April 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  69. ^ Quann, Jack. "Huawei announces 100 jobs as it opens new Dublin office". Newstalk. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
  70. ^ Bridgwater, Adrian. "Huawei CEO Ambitions: We Will Be One Of Five Major 'World Clouds'". Forbes. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  71. ^ "Huawei Creates the 'Nervous System' of Smart Cities and Launches IoT City Demo Based on NB-IoT with Weifang". AsiaOne. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  72. ^ "YB Dr Ong Kian Ming Deputy Minister of International Trade and Industry visits Huawei Malaysia Global Training Centre". Huawei. Archived from the original on 12 August 2019. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  73. ^ "Telus to build out 5G network without China's Huawei". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  74. ^ "Huawei Hits 200 Million Smartphone Sales in 2018". AnandTech. 25 December 2018. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  75. ^ "China's Huawei eyes smartphone supremacy this year after record 2018 sales". Reuters. 25 January 2018. Archived from the original on 24 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  76. ^ "Financial Highlights – About Huawei". huawei. Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  77. ^ Moore, Mike; Cherrayil, Naushad K. (23 April 2019). "Huawei revenue soars despite US allegations and restrictions". TechRadar. Archived from the original on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  78. ^ "Huawei Thumbs its Nose at the US Government With Record High Revenues | Tom's Hardware". 31 December 2019.
  79. ^ European Commission. Joint Research Centre (2021). The 2021 EU industrial R&D investment scoreboard. Luxembourg. doi:10.2760/472514. ISBN 978-92-76-44399-5. ISSN 2599-5731.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  80. ^ "Huawei Ranks No. 5 in U.S. Patents in Sign of Chinese Growth". 11 January 2022. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  81. ^ "Huawei Revenue Down 2.2% In First Three Quarters Of 2022". Agence France Presse. 27 October 2022. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  82. ^ Tewari, Suranjana (13 January 2023). "US-China chip war: America is winning". BBC News. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  83. ^ "Huawei generates $19.95 billion in 2022 Q3 as profit falls". TechNode. 28 October 2022. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  84. ^ a b McGregor, Richard (2012). The Party: The Secret World of China's Communist Rulers. New York: Harper Perennial. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-84614-173-7.
  85. ^ a b Bisset, Jennifer. "Huawei asks court to rule US ban unconstitutional". CNET. Archived from the original on 12 June 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  86. ^ a b c d e Balding, Christopher; Clarke, Donald C. (17 April 2019). "Who Owns Huawei?". p. 4. SSRN 3372669.
  87. ^ "Who is the man behind Huawei and why is the U.S. intelligence community so afraid of his company?". 10 April 2019. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  88. ^ Fletcher, Owen (18 April 2011). "Huawei Discloses Directors". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 18 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  89. ^ "Board of Directors – About Huawei". Huawei. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  90. ^ "Mr. Guo Ping – Huawei Executives". Huawei. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  91. ^ "Mr.Zhou Daiqi". Huawei. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  92. ^ Mo Han Aw, Florence. "Huawei – private or state-owned?". Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  93. ^ Yueh, Linda (7 July 2011). "Collectively-Owned Enterprises: Hybrid Ownership Form and the Partial Reform Strategy". Enterprising China: Business, Economic, and Legal Developments since 1979. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199205837.003.0005. ISBN 978-0-19-920583-7.
  94. ^ a b Zhong, Raymond (25 April 2019). "Who Owns Huawei? The Company Tried to Explain. It Got Complicated". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  95. ^ a b c Yang, Yuan (25 April 2019). "Huawei says employees control company through virtual shares". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 19 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  96. ^ Tao, Li (29 April 2019). "Huawei: Four key questions on ownership structure answered". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 10 June 2019. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  97. ^ Mackie. "Innovation in China".
  98. ^ Saarinen, Juha (28 May 2010). "Analysis: Who Really Owns Huawei?". IT News. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  99. ^ Shi, Wei (16 April 2019). "New research claims employees do not own Huawei". Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  100. ^ Zhong, Raymond (25 April 2019). "Who Owns Huawei? The Company Tried to Explain. It Got Complicated". The New York Times.
  101. ^ "New research claims employees do not own Huawei". 16 April 2019. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  102. ^ Šimalčík, Matej (14 April 2021). "Can European AML Laws Reveal Who Owns Huawei?". China Observers. Retrieved 24 August 2022.
  103. ^ a b c d Goto, Toshio (2021). "Huawei's Employee Shareholding Scheme: Who Owns Huawei?". SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3856761. ISSN 1556-5068. S2CID 235669202.
  104. ^ 王军 Wang, Jun (2020). 超越陷阱:从中美贸易摩擦说起 Beyond the Trap: On Sino-US Trade Dispute. 当代世界出版社 Contemporary World Press. pp. 211–252. ISBN 9787509015551.
  105. ^ Lipman, Daniel; Swan, Betsy Woodruff (23 July 2021). "Huawei hiring former Democratic super lobbyist Tony Podesta". Politico. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  106. ^ Vogel, Kenneth P. (23 July 2021). "Tony Podesta is hired to lobby by Huawei and a Bulgarian energy company". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
  107. ^ Cook, Sarah (27 June 2023). "China's Foreign PR Enablers". The Diplomat. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  108. ^ Mucci, Jeff (5 February 2010). "Huawei Q&A: 95,000 employees and growing". RCR Wireless. Retrieved 21 June 2011.[dead link]
  109. ^ "Huawei and Leica Camera announce long-term technology partnership for the reinvention of smartphone photography". Leica Camera (Press release). Archived from the original on 26 April 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  110. ^ "Gentle Monster Collaborates With Huawei on a Fashionable Smart Eyewear". designscene. 28 August 2019.
  111. ^ "Devialet partners with Huawei for new speaker". TechCrunch. 26 November 2019.
  112. ^ Lambrechts 2020-01-20T02:35:45Z, Stephen (20 January 2020). "Huawei partners with TomTom for Google Maps alternative". TechRadar. Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  113. ^ a b "Information on the Company". Huawei. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  114. ^ Millet, Carol (9 May 2011). "Huawei clinches Everything Everywhere network upgrade deal". Mobile Magazine. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  115. ^ Oliver, Dave (8 June 2012). "Vodafone Mobile Wi-Fi R205 review". Wired UK. Archived from the original on 20 January 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  116. ^ Vendor Rating: Huawei. Gartner. 24 September 2010.
  117. ^ "Huawei watch smartwatch classy smartwatch android wear android smartwatch". 2 April 2015. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
  118. ^ Chyen Yee, Lee; Yuntao, Huang (19 April 2011). "INTERVIEW – Huawei makes aggressive push in consumer devices". Reuters. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  119. ^ Villas-Boas, Antonio; Eadicicco, Lisa (20 May 2019). "Why Huawei smartphones are so popular all over the world – except in the US, where stores don't sell them". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 10 June 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  120. ^ a b "Honor May Not Be as Free From Huawei as It Claims". WIRED. 7 November 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2022.
  121. ^ "About Us Huawei | Our History, Heritage & Who We Are". Huawei Malaysia. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  122. ^ "Huawei to drop 'Ascend' smartphone branding | Trusted Reviews". Trusted Reviews. 19 January 2015. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  123. ^ "Huawei is retiring the Ascend brand for future devices". Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  124. ^ Odeh, Lemuel Ekedegwa; Akinade, Muideen Olalekan (2017). "China's Footprint on Nigeria's Telecommunications Market". Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria. 26: 107–121. ISSN 0018-2540. JSTOR 48562081.
  125. ^ "Huawei will no longer allow bootloader unlocking (Update: Explanation from Huawei)". Android Authority. 25 May 2018.
  126. ^ Wu, Xiaobo; Murmann, Johann Peter; Huang, Can; Guo, Bin (2020). The Management Transformation of Huawei: From Humble Beginnings to Global Leadership. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108550987. ISBN 978-1-108-42643-5. S2CID 169357927.
  127. ^ "Huawei's MateBook is its spin on the Surface". Engadget. 21 February 2016. Archived from the original on 10 February 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  128. ^ Bonshor, Gavin. "Huawei Matebook X Pro and Matebook 13 2020 Models Available For Pre-Order". AnandTech. Archived from the original on 28 May 2020. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  129. ^ "Huawei Consumer Business Group 2019 Business Results". Huawei Consumer. 1 April 2020. Archived from the original on 14 June 2020. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  130. ^ "IDC: Q4 2019 China's Tablet Market Shipments Down 3.9% Year-on-Year". 25 February 2020. Archived from the original on 14 June 2020. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  131. ^ a b "IFA 2015 Sees Huawei's 1st Smart Watch". Twice. 2 September 2015. Archived from the original on 1 May 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
  132. ^ Mehrotra, Pranob (14 May 2020). "Huawei Watch GT 2e announced with Sp02 monitoring, 1.39" AMOLED display, 2 week battery life". XDA-Developers Android Forums. Archived from the original on 15 June 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  133. ^ "Huawei promises to share driving in its new smart car business". Light Reading.
  134. ^ Krijgsman, Lars (27 December 2021). "Aito M5: met een vleugje Huawei".
  135. ^ Krijgsman, Lars (27 December 2021). "Huawei Smart Selection AITO M5 surpassed 6000 orders".
  136. ^ "华为智选车奇瑞EH3谍照曝光:ADS 2.0智驾或成主要卖点". 29 May 2023. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  137. ^ Zhou, Yi (10 August 2023). "曝奇瑞+华为智选首款纯电轿跑无伪谍照". (in Chinese (China)). Retrieved 10 August 2023.
  138. ^ "Huawei confirms the new Mate 30 Pro won't come with Google's Android apps". 19 September 2019.
  139. ^ a b "Huawei reveals HarmonyOS, its alternative to Android". Engadget. Archived from the original on 30 November 2019. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  140. ^ a b Porter, Jon (9 August 2019). "Huawei's new operating system is called HarmonyOS". The Verge. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  141. ^ "Huawei pitches its alternative to Google Play Store". TechRadar. 16 January 2020. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  142. ^ "Huawei Climbs 'Food Chain' in Cisco Enterprise Challenge". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. 9 May 2011. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  143. ^ "China's Huawei leads international patent filings: WIPO". Reuters. 19 March 2015. Archived from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  144. ^ "Telecom giants in China lead int'l patent filings in 2014: WIPO". Want China Times. 20 March 2015. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  145. ^ "Respecting and Protecting Intellectual Property: The Foundation of Innovation Huawei White Paper on Innovation and Intellectual Property" (PDF). Huawei. 2020.
  146. ^ "World Intellectual Property Indicators 2021" (PDF). WIPO. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  147. ^ World Intellectual Property Organization. (2020). World Intellectual Property Indicators 2020. doi:10.34667/tind.42184. ISBN 9789280532012. Retrieved 26 August 2021. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  148. ^ Parzyan, Anahit (2023). "China's Digital Silk Road: Empowering Capabilities for Digital Leadership in Eurasia". China and Eurasian Powers in a Multipolar World Order 2.0: Security, Diplomacy, Economy and Cyberspace. Mher Sahakyan. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-003-35258-7. OCLC 1353290533.
  149. ^ a b c d Roach, Stephen S. (2022). Accidental Conflict: America, China, and the Clash of False Narratives. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-26901-7. OCLC 1347023475.
  150. ^ "Huawei Pumps $22 Billion Into R&D to Beat U.S. Sanctions". Bloomberg News. 25 April 2022. Retrieved 28 July 2023.
  151. ^ Some of Huawei's US operations include FutureWei Technologies Inc. (in at least Santa Clara CA, Plano TX, and Bridgetwater NJ), which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Huawei North America.
  152. ^ "Huawei Canada – Corporate Information". Huawei Canada. Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  153. ^ "Huawei and Imperial College Open Data Science Innovation Lab". Datacenter Dynamics. Archived from the original on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  154. ^ "CES 2016: Huawei unveils Mate 8 with Kirin 950 chipset". Tech Desk. 8 January 2016. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  155. ^ "Huawei has opened its R&D center in Istanbul on 27 February 2010". Huawei. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  156. ^ "Huawei – Invest in Turkey". Republic of Türkiye Investment Office. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  157. ^ "Huawei to open R&D centres in Switzerland". S-GE.
  158. ^ "Huawei achieves 27Gbps 5G speeds with Polar Code". Telecom Asia. Archived from the original on 31 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  159. ^ Armstrong, Peter (29 November 2019). "Huawei funds $56M in academic research in Canada. That has some experts concerned". CBC News. Archived from the original on 1 December 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  160. ^ Hainsworth, Jeremy (13 January 2020). "Canadian taxpayers, companies subsidizing Huawei research". Richmond News. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  161. ^ Kharpal, Arjun (5 March 2019). "Huawei says it would never hand data to China's government. Experts say it wouldn't have a choice". CNBC. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  162. ^ Sanger, David E.; Perlroth, Nicole (22 March 2014). "N.S.A. Breached Chinese Servers Seen as Security Threat". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  163. ^ Byford, Sam (27 February 2019). "Huawei chairman accuses American critics of hypocrisy over NSA hacks". The Verge. Archived from the original on 11 June 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  164. ^ "Huawei leader calls out U.S. for privacy contradictions". FierceWireless. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  165. ^ Harwit, Eric (2007). "Building China's Telecommunications Network: Industrial Policy and the Role of Chinese State-Owned, Foreign and Private Domestic Enterprises". The China Quarterly. 190 (190): 311–332. doi:10.1017/S030574100700121X. ISSN 0305-7410. JSTOR 20192772. S2CID 154057376.
  166. ^ "China's "National Champions": Alibaba, Tencent, and Huawei".
  167. ^ "Huawei's Meng Wanzhou flies back to China after deal with US". BBC News. 25 September 2021.
  168. ^ Doffman, Zak. "China Just Crossed Another Dangerous New Line For Huawei—But Is It Already Too Late?". Forbes.
  169. ^ a b Corera, Gordon (7 October 2020). "Huawei: MPs claim 'clear evidence of collusion' with Chinese Communist Party". BBC News. Archived from the original on 14 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  170. ^ Kruse, Simon; Winther, Lene (10 December 2019). "Afsløring: Kinas ambassadør truede færøsk leder på mørklagt møde". Berlingske (in Danish). Archived from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  171. ^ "ZTE and Huawei face EU investigation over predatory pricing". 18 May 2013.
  172. ^ Hamilton, Isobel Asher. "Huawei's security boss says the company would sooner 'shut down' than spy for China". Business Insider.
  173. ^ Feiner, Lauren (20 February 2019). "Huawei president promises not to spy on US as Trump considers banning the company's telecom equipment". CNBC.
  174. ^ a b Sinopsis, Jichang Lulu (8 February 2019). "Lawfare by proxy: Huawei touts "independent" legal advice by a CCP member". Sinopsis.
  175. ^ a b Reynolds, Sam (19 November 2019). "US Legal Expert: China Can Still Force Huawei to Build a Backdoor".
  176. ^ Simonite, Tom. "US Lawyers Don't Buy Huawei's Argument on Chinese Hacking". Wired. Archived from the original on 3 June 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  177. ^ Lulu, Jichang (8 February 2019). "Lawfare by proxy: Huawei touts "independent" legal advice by a CCP member". Sinopsis. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  178. ^ "Deep Dive: The Geopolitics of 5G".
  179. ^ Doffman, Zak. "Huawei Employees Linked To China's Military And Intelligence, Reports Claim". Forbes.
  180. ^ Kharpal, Arjun (8 July 2019). "Huawei staff share deep links with Chinese military, new study claims". CNBC.
  181. ^ Everington, Keoni (8 May 2019). "Huawei Mediapad M5 found to be snooping on engineer in Taiwan from China". Taiwan News. Archived from the original on 12 May 2019. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  182. ^ a b Reichert, Corinne. "US finds Huawei has backdoor access to mobile networks globally, report says". CNET. Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  183. ^ Pancevski, Bojan (12 February 2020). "WSJ News Exclusive | U.S. Officials Say Huawei Can Covertly Access Telecom Networks". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  184. ^ "Huawei - leaked report shows no evidence of spying". BBC News. 18 October 2012.
  185. ^ "Senate rejects Trump's plan to lift ZTE export ban". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 27 May 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  186. ^ "China Contributing $500 Million to Trump-Linked Project in Indonesia". National Review. 14 May 2018. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  187. ^ "New law bans US gov't from buying tech from Chinese giants ZTE and Huawei". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  188. ^ Doffman, Zak. "China Just Crossed A Dangerous New Line For Huawei: 'There Will Be Consequences'". Forbes. Archived from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  189. ^ Jolly, Jasper (28 November 2018). "New Zealand blocks Huawei imports over 'significant security risk'". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  190. ^ "China intelligence law a 'known concern' in Huawei 5G ban - GCSB Minister Andrew Little". Radio New Zealand. 14 January 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  191. ^ The Local (16 December 2018). "German IT watchdog says 'no evidence' of Huawei spying". The Local Germany. Archived from the original on 13 September 2019. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  192. ^ a b Stubbs, Jack; Chee, Foo Yun (20 February 2019). "Britain managing Huawei risks, has no evidence of spying: official". Reuters. Archived from the original on 28 June 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  193. ^ "Huawei risk can be managed, say UK cyber-security chiefs". BBC News. 18 February 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2022.
  194. ^ "Here's how GCHQ scours Huawei hardware for malicious code". Wired UK.
  195. ^ "Huawei 'failed to improve UK security standards'". BBC News. 1 October 2020.
  196. ^ BBC News (14 July 2020). "Huawei 5G kit must be removed from UK by 2027". BBC News. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  197. ^ "UK parliament committee says Huawei colludes with the Chinese state". Reuters. 9 October 2020. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
  198. ^ "Huawei claims £3.3bn contribution to UK economy". Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  199. ^ "There's no proof to show Huawei was spying in Europe, France says". 31 January 2020.
  200. ^ "France introduces de facto ban on Huawei 5G equipment by 2028". Politico. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  201. ^ "France Says It's Not Banning Huawei Though Phase Out Started". 24 July 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  202. ^ Pancevski, Bojan (12 February 2020). "WSJ News Exclusive | U.S. Officials Say Huawei Can Covertly Access Telecom Networks". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020 – via
  203. ^ Thomas, Rachel (15 July 2020). "Andrew Little says New Zealand won't follow UK's Huawei 5G ban". Radio New Zealand. Archived from the original on 28 January 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  204. ^ Walton, Felix (27 July 2020). "Both the UK and the US have cancelled Huawei. Should NZ be next?". The Spinoff. Archived from the original on 18 January 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  205. ^ Chaudhary, Archana (13 August 2020). "China's Huawei, ZTE Set To Be Shut Out of India's 5G Trials". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  206. ^ "Canada to ban China's Huawei and ZTE from its 5G networks". BBC News. 20 May 2022. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  207. ^ "Canada bans Huawei equipment from 5G networks, orders removal by 2024". The Verge. 20 May 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  208. ^ Stecklow, Steve; Rochabrun, Marcelo (16 September 2020). "Top Huawei executives had close ties to company at center of U.S. criminal case". Reuters. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
  209. ^ Reisinger, Don. "Huawei caught up in legal mess over cell equipment sales to Iran". CNET. Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  210. ^ Warburton, Moira (28 May 2020). "Timeline: Key events in Huawei CFO Meng Wanzhou's extradition case". Reuters. Archived from the original on 28 May 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  211. ^ Zhong, Raymond (7 December 2018). "Meng Wanzhou Was Huawei's Professional Face, Until Her Arrest". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  212. ^ Wakabayashi, Daisuke; Rappeport, Alan (5 December 2018). "A Top Huawei Executive Is Arrested in Canada for Extradition to the U.S." The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  213. ^ "US files charges against China's Huawei and CFO Meng Wanzhou". BBC News. 28 January 2019. Archived from the original on 28 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  214. ^ Lee, Timothy B. (29 January 2019). "US indicts Huawei for stealing T-Mobile robot arm, selling US tech to Iran". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  215. ^ Maresca, Thomas (29 January 2019). "China calls on US to end 'unreasonable crackdown' on Huawei, other Chinese firms". USA Today. Archived from the original on 29 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  216. ^ "Huawei CFO Meng Wanzhou loses key court battle as B.C. judge rules extradition bid should proceed – CBC News". CBC. 27 May 2020. Archived from the original on 7 June 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  217. ^ Jacobs, Colleta. "Meng Wanzhou reaches deal in Huawei espionage case that will allow her to return to China, lawyer says". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 24 September 2021. "Huawei's Meng Wanzhou to be freed in US deal". BBC News. 24 September 2021. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  218. ^ "China welcomes Huawei executive home, but silent on freed Canadians". Retrieved 25 September 2021.
  219. ^ News, Bloomberg (26 September 2021). "Huawei CFO gets hero's welcome; Canadians land quietly". National Post. Retrieved 30 September 2021. ((cite news)): |last= has generic name (help)
  220. ^ "Huawei CFO Meng Wanzhou's bank fraud charges to be dismissed". South China Morning Post. 2 December 2022. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  221. ^ Chen, Shawna (3 December 2022). "Federal judge dismisses financial fraud charges against Huawei CFO Meng Wanzhou". Axios. Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  222. ^ Flynn, Laurie J. (29 July 2004). "Technology briefing: Cisco drops Huawei suit". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  223. ^ Long, David (31 August 2018). "Jury awards running royalty for willfully infringed SEPs subject to FRAND commitment (Optis v. Huawei)". Essential Patent Blog. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  224. ^ "$13M Huawei Patent Case Halted After Settlement News". Law360. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  225. ^ Anjorin, Seyi (20 November 2018). "German Court Slams Huawei, ZTE Over AVC Patent Infringement". The News Chronicle. Archived from the original on 21 November 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  226. ^ Chaffin, Larry (8 October 2012). "60 Minutes torpedoes Huawei in less than 15 minutes". Network World. Archived from the original on 11 June 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  227. ^ Markoff, John; Barboza, David (25 October 2010). "Huawei Technologies of China's Bold Push Into U.S." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 19 February 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  228. ^ Marlow, Iain (15 February 2012). "Nortel turned to RCMP about cyber hacking in 2004, ex-employee says". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  229. ^ Lerman, Rachel (18 May 2017). "Jury awards T-Mobile $4.8M in trade-secrets case against Huawei". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 25 July 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  230. ^ "Huawei owns over 80,000 patents worldwide – Xinhua |". Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  231. ^ O'Keeffe, Corinne Ramey and Kate (13 February 2020). "China's Huawei Charged With Racketeering, Stealing Trade Secrets". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 20 February 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  232. ^ "Huawei: US issues new charges of racketeering and theft". BBC News. 13 February 2020. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020.
  233. ^ Crichton, Danny (13 February 2020). "The US is charging Huawei with racketeering". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  234. ^ "Leaked documents reveal Huawei's secret operations to build North Korea's wireless network". Washington Post. 22 July 2019.
  235. ^ "Huawei patent mentions use of Uighur-spotting tech". BBC News. 13 January 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  236. ^ "Foreign veto laws: Labor warns of 'unprecedented power' and lack of oversight". the Guardian. 14 October 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  237. ^ Doffman, Zak. "Has Huawei's Darkest Secret Just Been Exposed By This New Surveillance Report?". Forbes. Archived from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  238. ^ Buckley, Chris; Mozur, Paul (22 May 2019). "How China Uses High-Tech Surveillance to Subdue Minorities". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 25 November 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  239. ^ Sabbagh, Dan (3 March 2020). "Tory MP asks BT if using Huawei complies with anti-slavery policy". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 22 April 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  240. ^ "Huawei refutes reports it helps China with surveillance, detention of Muslim minorities in Xinjiang". CBC. 20 January 2020.
  241. ^ Kastrenakes, Jacob (13 August 2018). "Trump signs bill banning government use of Huawei and ZTE tech". The Verge. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  242. ^ Mozur, Paul; Ramzy, Austin (6 March 2019). "Huawei Sues U.S. Government Over What It Calls an Unfair Ban". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  243. ^ Lecher, Colin (29 May 2019). "Huawei is challenging its US contracting ban as unconstitutional". The Verge. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  244. ^ "Addition of Entities to the Entity List". Federal Register. 21 May 2019. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
  245. ^ Webster, Graham (18 May 2019). "It's not just Huawei. Trump's new tech sector order could ripple through global supply chains". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
  246. ^ "Tech stocks slide on US decision to blacklist Huawei and 70 affiliates". TechCrunch. 16 May 2019. Archived from the original on 16 June 2020. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  247. ^ Kuo, Lily; Siddiqui, Sabrina (16 May 2019). "Huawei hits back over Trump's national emergency on telecoms 'threat'". The Guardian. Washington. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  248. ^ Satariano, Adam; Zhong, Raymond; Wakabayashi, Daisuke (20 May 2019). "U.S. Tech Suppliers, Including Google, Restrict Dealings With Huawei After Trump Order". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 27 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  249. ^ "Trump administration grants 90-day extension for US businesses to work with Huawei". CNBC. 18 November 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  250. ^ Keane, Sean. "Huawei ban timeline: Chinese company's CFO to testify in extradition case". CNET. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  251. ^ a b @bdellarocca (28 August 2020). "U.S. Further Tightens Huawei Blacklist, Putting a "Blanket Ban" on the Company". Lawfare. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  252. ^ a b c d "Huawei in 'survival mode' as suppliers race to beat US deadline". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  253. ^ Doffman, Zak. "Huawei Stops Smartphone Production Lines After Blacklisting, Report Claims". Forbes. Archived from the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  254. ^ Doffman, Zak. "Huawei Confirms $30 Billion Revenue Hit As Smartphone Sales Drop 40–60% (Updated)". Forbes. Archived from the original on 26 September 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  255. ^ "Huawei Braces for Phone Sales Drop of Up to 60 Million Overseas". 16 June 2019. Archived from the original on 10 March 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  256. ^ Miller, Matthew. "President Trump lifts US ban on Huawei at G20 summit". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 30 June 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  257. ^ "Trump appears to soften his tone on Huawei". CNN Politics. 29 June 2019. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  258. ^ Lyons, Kim (15 May 2020). "US moves to cut off Huawei from overseas chip manufacturers". The Verge. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  259. ^ "U.S.-China tensions rise as Trump administration moves to cut Huawei off from global chip suppliers". CNBC. 15 May 2020. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  260. ^ "Commerce Addresses Huawei's Efforts to Undermine Entity List, Restricts Products Designed and Produced with U.S. Technologies". U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  261. ^ "Federal Acquisition Regulation: Prohibition on Contracting With Entities Using Certain Telecommunications and Video Surveillance Services or Equipment". Federal Register. 14 July 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  262. ^ Chen, Shawna (12 November 2020). "Trump bans Americans from investing in 31 companies with links to Chinese military". Axios. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  263. ^ Pamuk, Humeyra; Alper, Alexandra; Ali, Idrees (12 November 2020). "Trump bans U.S. investments in firms linked to Chinese military". Reuters. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  264. ^ Swanson, Ana (12 November 2020). "Trump Bars Investment in Chinese Firms With Military Ties". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  265. ^ Freifeld, Karen; Alper, Alexandra (17 January 2021). "Trump admin slams China's Huawei, halting shipments from Intel, others -sources". Reuters. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
  266. ^ Shepardson, David (17 June 2021). "U.S. FCC votes to advance proposed ban on Huawei, ZTE gear". Reuters. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  267. ^ "Biden Prods UAE to Dump Huawei, Sowing Doubts on Key F-35 Sale". 11 June 2021. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  268. ^ England, Andrew; Kerr, Simeon (20 September 2021). "'More of China, less of America': how superpower fight is squeezing the Gulf". The Financial Times. Archived from the original on 10 December 2022. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  269. ^ Connolly, Amanda (18 November 2020). "Tory motion calling for action on Huawei, plan to combat Chinese aggression passes". Global News.
  270. ^ "Canada bans China's Huawei Technologies from 5G networks". Associated Press. 19 May 2022. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  271. ^ "Huawei ban won't solve the problem of Chinese spying on Canada, experts say".
  272. ^ "Analysis | FCC steps up campaign against Huawei and other Chinese tech companies". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  273. ^ a b c "Huawei builds up 2-year reserve of 'most important' US chips". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  274. ^ a b c d "Huawei develops plan for chip plant to help beat U.S. sanctions". Los Angeles Times. 1 November 2020. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  275. ^ a b c Ian King; Debby Wu (23 August 2023). "Huawei Building Secret Network for Chips, Trade Group Warns". Bloomberg. Retrieved 26 August 2023.
  276. ^ Charlotte Trueman (23 August 2023). "Huawei is attempting to avoid US chip sanctions, trade body alleges". Computer World. Retrieved 26 August 2023.
  277. ^ a b c Eric Revell (23 August 2023). "Huawei building secret chip network to dodge US sanctions: report". Fox Business. Retrieved 26 August 2023.
  278. ^ a b Murray, Warren (6 September 2023). "China dodges western 5G chip embargo with new Huawei Mate 60 phone". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 6 September 2023.
  279. ^ "Huawei's latest smartphone showcases China's chip manufacturing breakthrough". SiliconANGLE. 4 September 2023. Retrieved 6 September 2023.
  280. ^ "TechInsights Finds SMIC 7nm (N+2) in Huawei Mate 60 Pro | TechInsights". Retrieved 6 September 2023.
  281. ^ "Huawei's latest smartphone showcases China's chip manufacturing breakthrough". SiliconANGLE. 4 September 2023. Retrieved 7 September 2023.
  282. ^ "Huawei confirms it has its own OS on back shelf as a plan B". South China Morning Post. 14 March 2019. Archived from the original on 21 May 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  283. ^ Faulkner, Cameron (14 March 2019). "Huawei developed its own operating systems in case it's banned from using Android and Windows". The Verge. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  284. ^ Kharpal, Arjun (15 March 2019). "Huawei built software for smartphones and laptops in case it can't use Microsoft or Google". CNBC. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  285. ^ phones, John McCann 2019-05-28T09:07:56Z Mobile (28 May 2019). "Huawei may be building an Ark (OS) as it prepares for life after Android". TechRadar. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  286. ^ Lakshmanan, Ravie (15 July 2019). "Huawei wants to name its Android OS replacement 'Harmony' in Europe". The Next Web. Archived from the original on 16 July 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  287. ^ "Huawei selling MateBook laptops with Linux preinstalled to consumers in China". TechRepublic. 12 September 2019. Archived from the original on 13 September 2019. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  288. ^ Kharpal, Arjun (10 September 2020). "Huawei says its own operating system HarmonyOS will come to smartphones next year". CNBC. Retrieved 9 September 2023.
  289. ^ "Global Smartphone Sales Share by Operating System - Counterpoint Research". 30 August 2023. Retrieved 9 September 2023.
  290. ^ "Huawei: Banned and Permitted in Which Countries? List and FAQ". 5 December 2022.
  291. ^ "The Indian Government Bans Huawei From All Future 5G Contracts – CodeLifter". 17 November 2022. Retrieved 15 March 2023.
  292. ^ "Huawei and ZTE left out of India's 5G trials". BBC News. 5 May 2021. Retrieved 15 March 2023.
  293. ^ "China's Huawei looks to ports, factories to rebuild sales | The Asahi Shimbun: Breaking News, Japan News and Analysis". The Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved 15 March 2023.
  294. ^ "UK extends deadline to remove Huawei equipment from 5G network core". Reuters. 13 October 2022.
  295. ^ Marsh, Sarah; Rinke, Andreas (7 March 2023). "Germany could ban China's Huawei, ZTE from parts of 5G networks -source". Reuters.