The Electronics Portal

Modern surface-mount electronic components on a printed circuit board, with a large integrated circuit at the top.
Modern surface-mount electronic components on a printed circuit board, with a large integrated circuit at the top.

The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons using electronic devices. Electronics uses active devices to control electron flow by amplification and rectification, which distinguishes it from classical electrical engineering, which only uses passive effects such as resistance, capacitance and inductance to control electric current flow. (Full article...)

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These are Good articles, which meet a core set of high editorial standards.

  • The Linn Isobarik DMS (with in-built crossover) in a domestic setting
    The Linn Isobarik DMS (with in-built crossover) in a domestic setting
  • Image 2Constant k filters, also k-type filters, are a type of electronic filter designed using the image method.  They are the original and simplest filters produced by this methodology and consist of a ladder network of identical sections of passive components. Historically, they are the first filters that could approach the ideal filter frequency response to within any prescribed limit with the addition of a sufficient number of sections. However, they are rarely considered for a modern design, the principles behind them having been superseded by other methodologies which are more accurate in their prediction of filter response. (Full article...)
    Constant k filters, also k-type filters, are a type of electronic filter designed using the image method. They are the original and simplest filters produced by this methodology and consist of a ladder network of identical sections of passive components. Historically, they are the first filters that could approach the ideal filter frequency response to within any prescribed limit with the addition of a sufficient number of sections. However, they are rarely considered for a modern design, the principles behind them having been superseded by other methodologies which are more accurate in their prediction of filter response. (Full article...)
  • Image 4An antimetric electrical network is an electrical network that exhibits anti-symmetrical electrical properties. The term is often encountered in filter theory, but it applies to general electrical network analysis. Antimetric is the diametrical opposite of symmetric; it does not merely mean "asymmetric" (i.e., "lacking symmetry").  It is possible for networks to be symmetric or antimetric in their electrical properties without being physically or topologically symmetric or antimetric. (Full article...)
    An antimetric electrical network is an electrical network that exhibits anti-symmetrical electrical properties. The term is often encountered in filter theory, but it applies to general electrical network analysis. Antimetric is the diametrical opposite of symmetric; it does not merely mean "asymmetric" (i.e., "lacking symmetry"). It is possible for networks to be symmetric or antimetric in their electrical properties without being physically or topologically symmetric or antimetric. (Full article...)
  • Image 5The impedance analogy is a method of representing a mechanical system by an analogous electrical system.  The advantage of doing this is that there is a large body of theory and analysis techniques concerning complex electrical systems, especially in the field of filters. By converting to an electrical representation, these tools in the electrical domain can be directly applied to a mechanical system without modification.  A further advantage occurs in electromechanical systems:  Converting the mechanical part of such a system into the electrical domain allows the entire system to be analysed as a unified whole. The mathematical behaviour of the simulated electrical system is identical to the mathematical behaviour of the represented mechanical system.  Each element in the electrical domain has a corresponding element in the mechanical domain with an analogous constitutive equation. All laws of circuit analysis, such as Kirchhoff's circuit laws, that apply in the electrical domain also apply to the mechanical impedance analogy. (Full article...)
    The impedance analogy is a method of representing a mechanical system by an analogous electrical system. The advantage of doing this is that there is a large body of theory and analysis techniques concerning complex electrical systems, especially in the field of filters. By converting to an electrical representation, these tools in the electrical domain can be directly applied to a mechanical system without modification. A further advantage occurs in electromechanical systems: Converting the mechanical part of such a system into the electrical domain allows the entire system to be analysed as a unified whole.

    The mathematical behaviour of the simulated electrical system is identical to the mathematical behaviour of the represented mechanical system. Each element in the electrical domain has a corresponding element in the mechanical domain with an analogous constitutive equation. All laws of circuit analysis, such as Kirchhoff's circuit laws, that apply in the electrical domain also apply to the mechanical impedance analogy. (Full article...)
  • Image 6A numerically-controlled oscillator (NCO) is a digital signal generator which creates a synchronous (i.e. clocked), discrete-time, discrete-valued representation of a waveform, usually sinusoidal. NCOs are often used in conjunction with a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) at the output to create a direct digital synthesizer (DDS).Numerically-controlled oscillators offer several advantages over other types of oscillators in terms of agility, accuracy, stability and reliability. NCOs are used in many communications systems including digital up/down converters used in 3G wireless and software radio systems, digital phase-locked loops, radar systems, drivers for optical or acoustic transmissions, and multilevel FSK/PSK modulators/demodulators. (Full article...)
    A numerically-controlled oscillator (NCO) is a digital signal generator which creates a synchronous (i.e. clocked), discrete-time, discrete-valued representation of a waveform, usually sinusoidal. NCOs are often used in conjunction with a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) at the output to create a direct digital synthesizer (DDS).

    Numerically-controlled oscillators offer several advantages over other types of oscillators in terms of agility, accuracy, stability and reliability. NCOs are used in many communications systems including digital up/down converters used in 3G wireless and software radio systems, digital phase-locked loops, radar systems, drivers for optical or acoustic transmissions, and multilevel FSK/PSK modulators/demodulators. (Full article...)
  • Image 8A composite image filter is an electronic filter consisting of multiple image filter sections of two or more different types.The image method of filter design determines the properties of filter sections by calculating the properties they have in an infinite chain of such sections.  In this, the analysis parallels transmission line theory on which it is based.  Filters designed by this method are called image parameter filters, or just image filters.  An important parameter of image filters is their image impedance, the impedance of an infinite chain of identical sections. (Full article...)
    A composite image filter is an electronic filter consisting of multiple image filter sections of two or more different types.

    The image method of filter design determines the properties of filter sections by calculating the properties they have in an infinite chain of such sections. In this, the analysis parallels transmission line theory on which it is based. Filters designed by this method are called image parameter filters, or just image filters. An important parameter of image filters is their image impedance, the impedance of an infinite chain of identical sections. (Full article...)
  • First-generation "chrome bumper" Naim NAIT
    First-generation "chrome bumper" Naim NAIT
  • Image 10Analogue filters are a basic building block of signal processing much used in electronics. Amongst their many applications are the separation of an audio signal before application to bass, mid-range, and tweeter loudspeakers; the combining and later separation of multiple telephone conversations onto a single channel; the selection of a chosen radio station in a radio receiver and rejection of others.Passive linear electronic analogue filters are those filters which can be described with linear differential equations (linear); they are composed of capacitors, inductors and, sometimes, resistors (passive) and are designed to operate on continuously varying (analogue) signals. There are many linear filters which are not analogue in implementation (digital filter), and there are many electronic filters which may not have a passive topology – both of which may have the same transfer function of the filters described in this article. Analogue filters are most often used in wave filtering applications, that is, where it is required to pass particular frequency components and to reject others from analogue (continuous-time) signals. (Full article...)
    Analogue filters are a basic building block of signal processing much used in electronics. Amongst their many applications are the separation of an audio signal before application to bass, mid-range, and tweeter loudspeakers; the combining and later separation of multiple telephone conversations onto a single channel; the selection of a chosen radio station in a radio receiver and rejection of others.

    Passive linear electronic analogue filters are those filters which can be described with linear differential equations (linear); they are composed of capacitors, inductors and, sometimes, resistors (passive) and are designed to operate on continuously varying (analogue) signals. There are many linear filters which are not analogue in implementation (digital filter), and there are many electronic filters which may not have a passive topology – both of which may have the same transfer function of the filters described in this article. Analogue filters are most often used in wave filtering applications, that is, where it is required to pass particular frequency components and to reject others from analogue (continuous-time) signals. (Full article...)
  • A Leslie speaker in a clear plastic cabinet
    A Leslie speaker in a clear plastic cabinet
  • Late model (c.1998) LS3/5A from Spendor, one of the BBC licensees
    Late model (c.1998) LS3/5A from Spendor, one of the BBC licensees
  • A low pass prototype constant k Π (pi) filter
    A low pass prototype constant k Π (pi) filter
  • NAD 3020 integrated amplifier
    NAD 3020 integrated amplifier

Selected image

Aust.-Synchrotron-Interior-Panorama,-14.06.2007.jpg

Credit: User:Jjron
The interior of the Australian Synchrotron facility. Dominating the image is the storage ring, with an experimental endstation at front right. In the middle of the storage ring is the booster synchrotron and linac

Selected biography

Thomas Edison, 1878.jpg

Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices which greatly influenced life worldwide into the 21st century. He was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production to the process of invention, and can therefore be credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory. Edison is considered one of the most prolific inventors in history, holding 1,097 U.S. patents, as well as many patents in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany.

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Selected article

Many e-readers, devices meant to replace traditional books, utilize electronic paper for their displays in order to further resemble paper books; one such example is the Kindle series by Amazon.
Many e-readers, devices meant to replace traditional books, utilize electronic paper for their displays in order to further resemble paper books; one such example is the Kindle series by Amazon.

Electronic paper, also sometimes electronic ink, e-ink or electrophoretic display, are display devices that mimic the appearance of ordinary ink on paper. Unlike conventional flat panel displays that emit light, an electronic paper display reflects ambient light like paper. This may make them more comfortable to read, and provide a wider viewing angle than most light-emitting displays. The contrast ratio in electronic displays available as of 2008 approaches newspaper, and newly (2008) developed displays are slightly better. An ideal e-paper display can be read in direct sunlight without the image appearing to fade.

Many electronic paper technologies hold static text and images indefinitely without electricity. Flexible electronic paper uses plastic substrates and plastic electronics for the display backplane. Applications of electronic visual displays include electronic shelf labels and digital signage, time tables at bus stations, electronic billboards, smartphone displays, and e-readers able to display digital versions of books and magazines. (Full article...)

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Consumer showcase

Inspiron e1505 ponderosa.JPG

Dell Computer's Inspiron laptop brand is a range of computers targeted at the consumer market. Current models in the range include the E1501/1501, E1405/640m, E1505/6400 and, E1705/9400. Some Inspiron machines offered in the past have been modified to become a higher or lower quality machine. An example of this is the first-generation Inspiron XPS and Inspiron 9100 (2004). Both machines shared the same options, Dell marked the XPS as an "ultimate gaming machine", while marking the 9100 as a "desktop replacement".

Selected design

P-120-row-220.jpg

Credit: Old Radio, commons:User:Julo
Diagram of Pionier radio set (made in Poland since 1948).

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