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Electronics is a scientific and engineering discipline that studies and applies the principles of physics to design, create, and operate devices that manipulate electrons and other charged particles. Electronics is a subfield of electrical engineering, but it differs from it in that it focuses on using active devices such as transistors, diodes, and integrated circuits to control and amplify the flow of electric current and to convert it from one form to another, such as from alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) or from analog to digital. Electronics also encompasses the fields of microelectronics, nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and quantum electronics, which deal with the fabrication and application of electronic devices at microscopic, nanoscopic, optical, and quantum scales.

Electronics have a profound impact on various aspects of modern society and culture, such as communication, entertainment, education, health care, industry, and security. The main driving force behind the advancement of electronics is the semiconductor industry, which produces the basic materials and components for electronic devices and circuits. The semiconductor industry is one of the largest and most profitable sectors in the global economy, with annual revenues exceeding $481 billion in 2018. The electronics industry also encompasses other sectors that rely on electronic devices and systems, such as e-commerce, which generated over $29 trillion in online sales in 2017. (Full article...)

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Sir Joseph John Thomson, OM, FRS (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) often known as J. J. Thomson, was an English physicist. Thomson is credited for the discovery of the electron, of isotopes, and the invention of the mass spectrometer. Thomson conducted a series of experiments with cathode ray tubes which led him to the discovery of electrons and subatomic particles.

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In physics, Coulomb's law is an inverse-square law indicating the magnitude and direction of electrostatic force that one stationary, electrically charged object of small dimensions exerts on another. It is named after Charles-Augustin de Coulomb who used a torsion balance to establish it.

The magnitude of the electrostatic force between two point charges is directly proportional to the magnitudes of each charge and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the charges.

For calculating the direction and magnitude of the force simultaneously, one will wish to consult the full vector version of the Law

where is the electrostatic force vector, is the charge on which the force acts, is the acting charge, is the distance vector between the two charges, is position vector of , is position vector of , is a unit vector pointing in the direction of , and is a constant called the permittivity of free space.

This vector equation indicates that opposite charges attract, and like charges repel. When is negative, the force is attractive. When positive, the force is repulsive.

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Bose headphones are a family of headphone products sold by the Bose Corporation. The company pioneered the development of headphones that use active noise cancellation technology. It took Bose about 10 years to develop the first QuietComfort Headphones, released in 1989. The current revision provides active equalization as well as active noise reduction.

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