The foreign relations of Canada are Canada's relations with other governments and nations. Canada is recognized as a middle power for its role in international affairs with a tendency to pursue multilateral solutions. Canada's foreign policy based on international peacekeeping and security is carried out through coalitions and international organizations, and through the work of numerous federal institutions. Canada's peacekeeping role during the 20th century has played a major role in shaping its global image. The Canadian government's foreign aid policy reflects an emphasis on meeting the Sustainable Development Goals, while also providing assistance in response to foreign humanitarian crises.
Canada's strong attachment to the British Empire led to major participation in British military efforts in the Second Boer War (1899–1902), World War I (1914–1918) and World War II (1939–1945). Since then, Canada has been an advocate for multilateralism, making efforts to resolve global issues in collaboration with other nations. During the Cold War, Canada was a major contributor to UN forces in the Korean War and founded the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) in cooperation with the United States to defend against potential aerial attacks from the Soviet Union.
Canada and the United States share the world's longest undefended border, cooperate on military campaigns and exercises, and are each other's largest trading partner. Canada has an independent foreign policy. For example, it maintains full relations with Cuba and declined to participate in the Vietnam War and the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Canada maintains historic ties to the United Kingdom and France and to other former British and French colonies through Canada's membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Canada is noted for having a positive relationship with the Netherlands, owing, in part, to its contribution to the Dutch liberation during World War II.
Canada was a founding member of the United Nations and has membership in the World Trade Organization, the G20 and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Canada is also a member of various other international and regional organizations and forums for economic and cultural affairs. Canada acceded to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 1976. Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and hosted the OAS General Assembly in 2000 and the 3rd Summit of the Americas in 2001. Canada seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC).
Main article: History of Canadian foreign relations
The foreign policies of Canada and its predecessor colonies were under British control until the 20th century. This included wars with the United States in 1775-1783 and 1812–1815. Economic ties with the U.S. were always close. Political tensions arose in the 19th century from anti-British feeling in the U.S. in the 1860s. Boundary issues caused diplomatic disputes resolved in the 1840s over the Maine boundary. and early 1900s, in the early 20th century over the Alaska boundary. There is ongoing discussion regarding the Arctic. Relations have been very friendly with the U.S. in the 20th and 21st centuries.Canada participated in Britain's wars, especially the Boer war, World War I and World War II. However, there was a bitter dispute between Francophone and Anglophone Canada during the First World War. Canada had its own seat in the League of Nations but played a small role in world affairs until the 1940s. Since then it has been active in NATO, the United Nations, and in promoting its middle-power status into an active role in world affairs.
In 1982, responsibility for trade was added with the creation of the Department of External Affairs and International Trade. In 1995, the name was changed to Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade.
Canada has often carried out its foreign policy through coalitions and international organizations, and through the work of numerous federal institutions (e.g.: the Royal Canadian Mounted Police International Peace Operations Branch  or deployments of personnel by the Correctional Service of Canada). Under the aegis of Canadian foreign policy, various departments and agencies conduct their own international relations and outreach activities. For example, the Canadian Forces and the Department of National Defence conduct defence diplomacy in support of national interests, including through the deployment of Canadian Defence Attachés, participation in bilateral and multilateral military forums (e.g., the System of Cooperation Among the American Air Forces), ship and aircraft visits, military training and cooperation, and other such outreach and relationship-building efforts.
There are two major elements of Canadian foreign relations, Canada-US relations and multilateralism.
Greg Donaghy, of Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs, argues:
Canada's international relations are the responsibility of the Department of Global Affairs, which is run by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, a position currently held by Melanie Joly. Traditionally the Prime Minister has played a prominent role in foreign affairs decisions. Foreign aid, formerly delivered through the Canadian International Development Agency, has been administered by DFATD since March 2013.
Canada's foreign aid was administered by the Canadian International Development Agency, which provided aid and assistance to other countries around the world through various methods. In March 2013 CIDA ceased to exist when it was folded into DFAIT, creating DFATD. The strategy of the Canadian government's foreign aid policy reflects an emphasis to meet the Millennium Development Goals, while also providing assistance in response to foreign humanitarian crises. However a growing focus on development, defence, and diplomacy in recent decades has produced a concentration of foreign aid funding to countries determined to be security risks to Canadian policy. For example, in 2004–2005 the largest recipients of Canada's official developmental assistance were Afghanistan and Iraq, two nations in conflict with the United States of America and its allies at the time. The structural emphasis on security and industry development has contributed to a fixed foreign policy that generally fails to consider global health and international social and economic inequalities. According to the OECD, 2019 official development assistance from Canada increased 0.5% to US$4.7 billion.[failed verification]
In addition, although Canada's foreign aid policies has been moulded with the intentions to be in accordance to the Millennium Development Goals, its focus on human security has slowly shifted away as new policy developments arose. The foreign aid provided by the country became less "people-centered" and less health-related. Canada's contributions have been quite inconsistent with regards to human security, which indicates that the reputation that the country has built throughout the years, in fact, exceeds the country's actual record. Canada's contributions internationally have been detrimental and crucial but it needs redirecting back to its original goals.
The provinces have a high level of freedom to operate internationally, dating to 1886 and Quebec's first representative to France, Hector Fabre. Alberta has had representatives abroad, starting with Alberta House in London (37 Hill Street), since 1948, and British Columbia around 25 years before that. By 1984, Quebec had offices in ten countries including eight in the United States and three in other Canadian provinces while Ontario had thirteen delegations in seven countries.
List of countries with which Canada maintains diplomatic relations:
|1||United Kingdom||1 July 1926|
|2||United States||23 December 1926|
|3||France||31 January 1928|
|4||Japan||31 January 1928|
|5||Belgium||3 January 1939|
|6||Netherlands||3 January 1939|
|7||Ireland||11 September 1939|
|8||New Zealand||11 September 1939|
|9||South Africa||11 September 1939|
|10||Australia||2 November 1939|
|11||Argentina||14 November 1940|
|12||Brazil||14 November 1940|
|13||Chile||9 October 1941|
|14||China||6 November 1941|
|15||Serbia||9 February 1942|
|16||Norway||9 February 1942|
|17||Poland||9 February 1942|
|18||Russia||12 June 1942|
|19||Czech Republic||5 November 1942|
|20||Greece||5 November 1942|
|21||Mexico||30 January 1944|
|22||Peru||30 January 1944|
|23||Sweden||4 August 1944|
|24||Turkey||4 August 1944|
|25||Luxembourg||3 January 1945|
|26||Cuba||16 March 1945|
|27||India||6 April 1945|
|28||Denmark||5 December 1945|
|30||Iceland||6 June 1947|
|31||Italy||13 October 1947|
|32||Finland||21 November 1947|
|33||Philippines||4 December 1949|
|34||Pakistan||8 December 1949|
|35||Germany||15 December 1949|
|36||Uruguay||27 February 1951|
|37||Portugal||18 January 1952|
|38||Austria||9 August 1952|
|39||Colombia||6 November 1952|
|40||Venezuela||22 November 1952|
|41||Spain||21 February 1953|
|42||Indonesia||3 March 1953|
|43||Sri Lanka||20 August 1953|
|44||Dominican Republic||22 April 1954|
|45||Haiti||12 May 1954|
|46||Egypt||28 July 1954|
|47||Israel||28 July 1954|
|48||Lebanon||26 August 1954|
|49||Tunisia||9 September 1957|
|50||Ghana||30 October 1957|
|51||Malaysia||29 March 1958|
|52||Myanmar||9 August 1958|
|53||Nigeria||1 October 1960|
|54||Costa Rica||20 January 1961|
|56||Sierra Leone||27 April 1961|
|57||Sudan||29 May 1961|
|59||Iraq||27 June 1961|
|62||Panama||11 August 1961|
|63||Cyprus||14 August 1961|
|64||Guatemala||16 September 1961|
|65||Thailand||8 November 1961|
|66||Cameroon||7 December 1961|
|67||Tanzania||9 December 1961|
|68||El Salvador||29 December 1961|
|70||Chad||12 February 1962|
|71||Republic of the Congo||February 1962|
|73||Guinea||28 March 1962|
|74||Benin||27 April 1962|
|75||Burkina Faso||27 April 1962|
|76||Ivory Coast||27 April 1962|
|77||Niger||27 April 1962|
|78||Morocco||17 May 1962|
|79||Senegal||1 June 1962|
|80||Togo||7 June 1962|
|81||Democratic Republic of the Congo||12 June 1962|
|82||Central African Republic||13 June 1962|
|83||Jamaica||2 August 1962|
|84||Uganda||9 October 1962|
|85||Mali||7 January 1963|
|86||South Korea||14 January 1963|
|87||Trinidad and Tobago||28 February 1963|
|89||Kenya||5 May 1964|
|90||Hungary||11 June 1964|
|91||Zambia||24 October 1964|
|92||Jordan||23 December 1964|
|93||Malta||23 December 1964|
|94||Madagascar||7 January 1965|
|95||Nepal||18 January 1965|
|96||Kuwait||27 April 1965|
|97||Ethiopia||13 October 1965|
|98||Algeria||12 November 1965|
|99||Singapore||7 March 1966|
|100||Guyana||26 May 1966|
|101||Bulgaria||4 July 1966|
|102||Gambia||24 August 1966|
|103||Barbados||30 November 1966|
|104||Romania||4 April 1967|
|105||Lesotho||27 April 1967|
|106||Rwanda||8 July 1967|
|107||Mauritius||27 August 1967|
|108||Somalia||23 June 1968|
|109||Afghanistan||17 July 1968|
|110||Libya||26 October 1968|
|111||Mauritania||12 December 1968|
|112||Botswana||19 December 1968|
|113||Eswatini||10 February 1969|
|114||Burundi||7 June 1969|
|—||Holy See||15 October 1969|
|115||Fiji||10 October 1970|
|116||Liberia||24 February 1971|
|117||Tonga||11 June 1971|
|118||Samoa||11 June 1971|
|119||Bangladesh||14 February 1972|
|120||Bahamas||23 November 1972|
|121||Saudi Arabia||8 May 1973|
|122||Vietnam||21 August 1973|
|123||Mongolia||30 November 1973|
|124||Bahrain||2 February 1974|
|125||Oman||2 February 1974|
|126||Qatar||2 February 1974|
|127||Grenada||7 February 1974|
|128||Laos||15 June 1974|
|129||Mozambique||25 June 1975|
|130||Papua New Guinea||16 September 1975|
|131||Yemen||30 December 1975|
|132||Guinea-Bissau||26 March 1976|
|133||Seychelles||1 July 1976|
|134||Cape Verde||20 July 1976|
|135||Suriname||2 November 1976|
|136||Comoros||16 June 1977|
|137||Angola||3 February 1978|
|138||Djibouti||13 June 1978|
|139||Solomon Islands||7 July 1978|
|140||São Tomé and Príncipe||13 December 1978|
|141||Dominica||21 December 1978|
|142||Saint Lucia||22 February 1979|
|143||Kiribati||12 July 1979|
|144||Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||19 September 1979|
|145||Zimbabwe||19 April 1980|
|146||Vanuatu||30 July 1980|
|147||Equatorial Guinea||20 August 1980|
|148||Tuvalu||23 September 1980|
|149||Antigua and Barbuda||1 November 1981|
|150||Belize||24 November 1981|
|151||Maldives||14 December 1981|
|152||Saint Kitts and Nevis||11 October 1983|
|153||Brunei||15 November 1983|
|154||Albania||10 September 1987|
|155||Namibia||21 March 1990|
|156||Estonia||26 August 1991|
|157||Latvia||26 August 1991|
|158||Lithuania||26 August 1991|
|159||Cambodia||25 November 1991|
|160||Slovenia||7 January 1992|
|161||Ukraine||27 January 1992|
|162||Armenia||31 January 1992|
|163||Kyrgyzstan||17 February 1992|
|164||Moldova||20 February 1992|
|165||Tajikistan||28 March 1992|
|166||Belarus||21 May 1992|
|167||Kazakhstan||21 May 1992|
|168||Turkmenistan||21 May 1992|
|169||Uzbekistan||21 May 1992|
|170||Azerbaijan||10 July 1992|
|171||Georgia||23 July 1992|
|172||Slovakia||1 January 1993|
|173||Croatia||14 April 1993|
|174||Eritrea||28 October 1993|
|175||Bosnia and Herzegovina||14 December 1995|
|176||Andorra||14 February 1996|
|177||Liechtenstein||12 March 1996|
|178||North Macedonia||4 July 1996|
|179||Marshall Islands||14 August 1997|
|180||Palau||27 August 1997|
|181||Nauru||11 September 1997|
|182||San Marino||24 November 1997|
|183||Federated States of Micronesia||3 March 1998|
|184||East Timor||5 February 2003|
|185||Bhutan||25 June 2003|
|186||Montenegro||5 September 2006|
|187||Monaco||13 March 2008|
|—||Kosovo||7 April 2009|
|188||South Sudan||22 December 2011|
|—||Cook Islands||20 May 2023|
|—||Niue||13 September 2023|
|Country||Formal relations began||Notes|
|Algeria||1962||See Algeria-Canada relations
Algeria is Canada's top trading partner in Africa.
|Angola||1978||See Embassy of Angola in Ottawa
Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1976.
|Côte d'Ivoire||1962||See Canada–Ivory Coast relations
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||See Canada–Democratic Republic of the Congo relations
|Egypt||1954||See Canada–Egypt relations
Both countries established embassies in their respective capitals in 1954.
|Ethiopia||1956||See Canada–Ethiopia relations
|Kenya||1965||See Canada–Kenya relations
|Lesotho||1966||See Canada–Lesotho relations|
|Madagascar||1965||See Canada–Madagascar relations|
|Mali||1978||See Canada–Mali relations
|Mozambique||See Canada–Mozambique relations
|Namibia||See Canada–Namibia relations
|Senegal||1962||See Canada–Senegal relations|
|South Africa||1939||See Canada–South Africa relations
Canada established diplomatic relations with numerous countries, including South Africa, as World War II broke out.
Canada currently has a development assistance program in Zambia, which is focused on the health sector to provide Zambians with equal access to quality health care. Canada and Zambia are currently in the process of negotiating a Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement.
|Country||Formal relations began||Notes|
|Argentina||1940-04||See Argentina–Canada relations
Canada's first ambassador to Buenos Aires, began his assignment in 1945. In 2011 Canada's largest imports were decorative items gold, wines and Iron and steel pipes. Canada's largest exports to Argentina were Energy-related products; telephones sets, and fertilizers. Bilateral trade in 2014 was $2.19 billion. Both countries are members of the Organization of American States and the Cairns Group.
|Antigua and Barbuda||1981||
Antigua & Barbuda and Canada are two of fifteen commonwealth realms, members of: the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations. Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1967.
|Bahamas||1973||The Commonwealth of the Bahamas and Canada are two of fifteen commonwealth realms, members of: the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations.
|Barbados||1966-11-30||See Barbados–Canada relations
Barbados and Canada are both members of: the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations.
In 1907, the Government of Canada opened a Trade Commissioner Service to the Caribbean region located in Bridgetown, Barbados. Following Barbadian independence from the United Kingdom in November 1966, the Canadian High Commission was established in Bridgetown, Barbados in September 1973. There is a Barbadian High Commission in Ottawa and a Barbadian Consulate in Toronto. The relationship between both nations today partly falls within the larger context of Canada–Caribbean relations.
The nations of Belize and Canada are two of fifteen commonwealth realms, members of: the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations.
|Brazil||1941-05||See Brazil–Canada relations|
|Chile||1941||See Canada–Chile relations
Canada and Chile are both members of: the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations.
|Colombia||1953-01||See Canada–Colombia relations|
|Cuba||1945||See Canada–Cuba relations
Canada has maintained consistently cordial relations with Cuba, in spite of considerable pressure from the United States, and the island is also one of the most popular travel destinations for Canadian citizens. Canada-Cuba relations can be traced back to the 18th century, when vessels from the Atlantic provinces of Canada traded codfish and beer for rum and sugar. Cuba was the first country in the Caribbean selected by Canada for a diplomatic mission. Official diplomatic relations were established in 1945, when Emile Vaillancourt, a noted writer and historian, was designated Canada's representative in Cuba. Canada and Mexico were the only two countries in the hemisphere to maintain uninterrupted diplomatic relations with Cuba following the Cuban Revolution in 1959.
Canada and the Commonwealth of Dominica are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, and the United Nations.
|El Salvador||29 December 1961||See Canada–El Salvador relations
|Greenland||See Canada-Greenland relations
Greenland (within the Kingdom of Denmark), and Canada are connected through indigenous culture and language, which is shared by the Inuit across Arctic Canada and also Alaska. Both nations maintain cooperation and good relations through the Arctic Council and under the auspices of the Arctic Coastal States. In addition, both act as close partners at: Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC), Nordic Council, Nordic Atlantic Cooperation, and the West Nordic Foundation. Through the expansion of self-government in Greenland since 1979 both nations, but especially the administration at Nuuk have attached strategic importance to their bilateral relations with Canada in the areas of the politics, economic and trade relations and in the fields of education, science and culture.
|Grenada||1974-02-07||See Grenada–Canada relations
Canada and Grenada are two of fifteen commonwealth realms, members of: the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations.
|Guyana||1964||See Canada–Guyana relations
Canada and the Co-Operative Republic of Guyana are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations.
|Haiti||1954||See Canada–Haiti relations
Canada and Haiti are both members of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations.
|Jamaica||1962||See Canada–Jamaica relations
Canada and Jamaica are two of fifteen commonwealth realms, members of: the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations.
|Mexico||1944-01||See Canada–Mexico relations
Despite the fact that historic ties between the two nations have been coldly dormant, relations between Canada and Mexico have positively changed in recent years; seeing as both countries brokered the North American Free Trade Agreement. Although on different sides of the Cold War spectrum (Canada was a member of NATO while Mexico was in the Non-Aligned Movement, the two countries were still allies in World War II.)
|Panama||1961||See Canada–Panama relations
|Peru||1940||See Canada–Peru relations
|Trinidad and Tobago||1962-08-31||See Canada–Trinidad and Tobago relations
Canada and the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations.
|United States||1927-02-18||See Canada–United States relations
Relations between Canada and the United States span more than two centuries, marked by a shared British colonial heritage, conflict during the early years of the U.S., and the eventual development of one of the most successful international relationships in the modern world. The most serious breach in the relationship was the War of 1812, which saw an American invasion of then British North America and counter invasions from British-Canadian forces. The border was demilitarized after the war and, apart from minor raids, has remained peaceful. Military collaboration began during the World Wars and continued throughout the Cold War, despite Canadian doubts about certain American policies. A high volume of trade and migration between the U.S. and Canada has generated closer ties, despite continued Canadian fears of being overwhelmed by its neighbour, which is ten times larger in population, wealth and debt.
|Uruguay||1953-01||See Canada–Uruguay relations
|Venezuela||1953-01||See Canada–Venezuela relations
In February 1948 there was a Canadian consulate-general in Caracas and a Venezuelan consulate-general in Montreal. In that year the Venezuelan Consul General, on behalf of the government of Venezuela, made a rapprochement with Canada in order to open direct diplomatic representations between the two countries; but the Canadian government delayed the opening of a diplomatic mission in Venezuela because of the lack of enough suitable personnel to staff a Canadian mission in Venezuela and the impossibility of Canada beginning a representation in Venezuela in that year without considering a policy of expansion of Canadian representation abroad.
In the interest of protecting Canadian trade with Venezuela and considering the difficulties for business in being without a Canadian representation in Caracas, Canada was pushed to accept the Venezuelan offer of exchanging diplomatic missions. Finally Canada elevated the former office of the Canadian Consulate General in Caracas to the category of embassy in 1953.
Venezuela established an embassy in Canada in 1952. Since then there have been good commercial relations between the two countries, especially in technology, oil and gas industry, telecommunications and others. In June 2019, Canada closed its embassy in Caracas due to diplomatic visas unable to be renewed under President Maduro's government.
|Country||Formal relations began||Notes|
|See Afghanistan–Canada relations|
|Armenia||1992||See Armenia–Canada relations|
|Azerbaijan||1992||See Azerbaijan–Canada relations
|Bangladesh||1972||See Bangladesh–Canada relations
|Brunei||1984-05-07||See Brunei–Canada relations|
|China||1970-10-13||See Canada–China relations
Since 2003, China has emerged as Canada's second largest trading partner, passing Britain and Japan. China now accounts for approximately six percent of Canada's total world trade. According to a recent study by the Fraser Institute, China replaced Japan as Canada's third-largest export market in 2007, with CA$9.3 billion flowing into China in 2007. Between 1998 and 2007, exports to China grew by 272 percent, but only represented about 1.1 per cent of China's total imports. In 2007, Canadian imports of Chinese products totalled C$38.3 billion. Between 1998 and 2007, imports from China grew by almost 400 percent. Leading commodities in the trade between Canada and China include chemicals, metals, industrial and agricultural machinery and equipment, wood products, and fish products.
In July 2019, the UN ambassadors from 22 nations, including Canada, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC condemning China's mistreatment of the Uyghurs as well as its mistreatment of other minority groups, urging the Chinese government to close the Xinjiang re-education camps.
|Georgia||1992-07-23||See Canada–Georgia relations
|India||1947-08-15||See Canada–India relations
In 2004, bilateral trade between India and Canada was at about C$2.45 billion. However, India's Smiling Buddha nuclear test led to connections between the two countries being frozen, with allegations that India broke the terms of the Colombo Plan. Although Jean Chrétien and Roméo LeBlanc both visited India in the late 1990s, relations were again halted after the Pokhran-II tests. In 2023, Justin Trudeau accused the Indian government of involvement in the killing of a Sikh-Canadian leader, Hardeep Singh Nijjar on Canadian soil. “Any involvement of a foreign government in the killing of a Canadian citizen on Canadian soil is an unacceptable violation of our sovereignty,” the Prime Minister stated to the House of Commons.
|Indonesia||1952||See Canada–Indonesia relations
|Iran||1955 ended 2012||See Canada–Iran relations
Canadian-Iranian relations date back to 1955, up to which point the Canadian Consular and Commercial Affairs in Iran was handled by the British Embassy. A Canadian diplomatic mission was constructed in Tehran in 1959 and raised to embassy status in 1961. Due to rocky relations after the Iranian Revolution, Iran did not establish an embassy in Canada until 1991 when its staff, which had been living in a building on Roosevelt Avenue in Ottawa's west end, moved into 245 Metcalfe Street in the Centretown neighbourhood of Ottawa which was upgraded to embassy status, however in 2012, Canada severed all diplomatic ties with Iran in regard to Iran's treatment of human rights.
|Iraq||1961-02 to 1991–12
|See Canada and the Iraq War, Embassy of Iraq in Ottawa
|Israel||1950||See Canada–Israel relations
At the United Nations in 1947, Canada was one of the thirty-three countries that voted in favour of the creation of a Jewish homeland. Canada delayed granting de facto recognition to Israel until December 1948, and finally gave full de jure recognition to the new nation on 11 May 1949, only after it was admitted into the United Nations (UN). A week later, Avraham Harman became Israel's first consul general in Canada. In September 1953, the Canadian Embassy opened in Tel Aviv and Israeli Ambassador to Canada, Michael Comay, was appointed, although a non-resident Canadian Ambassador to Israel was not appointed until 1958.
|Japan||1928-12||See Canada–Japan relations
The two countries enjoy an amicable companionship in many areas; diplomatic relations between both countries officially began in 1950 with the opening of the Japanese consulate in Ottawa. In 1929, Canada opened its Tokyo legation, the first in Asia; and in that same year, Japan its Ottawa consulate to legation form.
|Kazakhstan||1992||See Canada–Kazakhstan relations|
Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1992.
|Lebanon||1954||See Canada–Lebanon relations
Canada established diplomatic relations with Lebanon in 1954, when Canada deployed "Envoy Extraordinaire" to Beirut. In 1958, Canada sent its first ambassador. The embassy was closed in 1985 and reopened in January 1995. Lebanon opened a consulate in Ottawa in 1946. A consulate-general replaced the consulate in 1949, and it was upgraded to full embassy status in 1958.
|Malaysia||1957-08-31||See Canada–Malaysia relations|
|Mongolia||1973-11-30||See Canada–Mongolia relations
Though Canada and Mongolia established diplomatic ties in 1973, ad hoc linkages and minor activities occurred between the two countries mainly through the Canada-Mongolia Society, which disbanded in 1980. When Mongolia formed a democratic government in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Canada began to support Mongolia with donor activities through the International Development Research Centre, Canadian International Development Agency and several non-governmental organizations.
|North Korea||2001-02-06 to 2010-03-26||See Canada–North Korea relations
Canada and North Korea share very little trade due to the destabilizing element North Korea has caused in the Asia Pacific region. Canada is represented by the Canadian Ambassador resident in Seoul, and North Korea is represented through its office at the UN in New York City.
|Pakistan||1947-08-15||See Canada–Pakistan relations
|Philippines||1949||See Canada–Philippines relations
|Qatar||See Canada–Qatar relations|
|Saudi Arabia||1973-05||See Canada–Saudi Arabia relations
Saudi Arabia is Canada's second largest trade partner among the seven countries of the Arabian Peninsula, totalling more than $2 billion in trade in 2005, nearly double its value in 2002, trade totalled $3.8 in 2014. Canada chiefly imports petroleum, and oil from Saudi Arabia, while The largest exporting good are such as cereals, railway/tramway equipment; machinery equipment and paper in 2010.
|Singapore||1965-12-15||See Canada–Singapore relations
|South Korea||1963-01-14||See Canada–South Korea relations|
Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1992.
|Thailand||1947||See Canada-Thailand relations
|Turkey||1943||See Canada–Turkey relations
|United Arab Emirates||See Canada–United Arab Emirates relations|
|Vietnam||1973-08-21||See Canada–Vietnam relations
|Yemen||1975-12 (North Yemen)
1976-05 (South Yemen)
1989-09 (united Yemen)
|Country||Formal relations began||Notes|
|Albania||1987-09-10||See Albania–Canada relations
|Belarus||15 April 1992|
|Belgium||1939-01||See Belgium–Canada relations
|Cyprus||1960-08-16||See Canada–Cyprus relations
Canadian bilateral political relations with Cyprus stemmed initially from Cypriot Commonwealth membership at independence in 1960 (that had followed a guerrilla struggle with Britain). These relations quickly expanded in 1964 when Canada became a major troop contributor to UNFICYP. The participation lasted for the next 29 years, during which 50,000 Canadian soldiers served and 28 were killed. In large measure Canadian relations with Cyprus continue to revolve around support for the ongoing efforts of the UN, G8 and others to resolve the island's divided status.
|Czech Republic||1993||See Canada–Czech Republic relations
|Denmark||1949-10-14||See Canada–Denmark relations
|Finland||1947-11-21||See Canada–Finland relations
|France||1882||See Canada–France relations
Canada and the Republic of France are members of: the Canada-France Inter-Parliamentary Association, the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), the G8, the G20, NATO, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, and the United Nations. In the 2007 and 2008, French President Nicolas Sarkozy, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, and Quebec Premier Jean Charest all spoke in favour of a Canada – EU free trade agreement. In October 2008, Sarkozy became the first French President to address the National Assembly of Quebec. In his speech he spoke out against Quebec separatism, but recognized Quebec as a nation within Canada. He said that, to France, Canada was a friend, and Quebec was family.
|Germany||See Canada–Germany relations
|Greece||1937||See also Canada–Greece relations
|Holy See||1969||See Canada–Holy See relations
Although the Roman Catholic Church has been territoriality established in Canada since the founding of New France in the early 17th century, Holy See–Canada relations were only officially established under the papacy of Paul VI in the 1960s.
|Hungary||1964||See Canada–Hungary relations
|Iceland||1942||See Canada–Iceland relations
|Ireland||1929-12-28||See Canada–Ireland relations
Canada and Ireland enjoy friendly relations, the importance of these relations centres on the history of Irish migration to Canada. Roughly 4 million Canadians have Irish ancestors, or approximately 14% of Canada's population.
|Italy||1947||See Canada–Italy relations
|Kosovo||2009-04-07||See also International reaction to the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence
Canada recognized Kosovo on 18 March 2008.
|Latvia||1921||See Canada–Latvia relations
|Netherlands||1939-01||See Canada–Netherlands relations
|Norway||1942||See Canada–Norway relations
|Poland||1935||See Canada–Poland relations
|Portugal||January 1952||See Canada–Portugal relations
|Romania||1967-04-03||See Canada–Romania relations
|Russia||1942-06-12||See Canada–Russia relations
Canada and Russia benefit from extensive cooperation on trade and investment, energy, democratic development and governance, security and counter-terrorism, northern issues, and cultural and academic exchanges.
|Spain||1935||See Canada–Spain relations
|Sweden||See Canada–Sweden relations
Both countries have strong commitments to peacekeeping, UN reform, development assistance, environmental protection, sustainable development, and the promotion and protection of human rights.[dubious ] In additional, there are more than 300,000 Canadians of Swedish descent.
|Switzerland||1945||See Canada–Switzerland relations
|Ukraine||1992||See Canada–Ukraine relations, Embassy of Ukraine in Ottawa
Diplomatic relations were established between Canada and Ukraine on 27 January 1992. Canada opened its embassy in Kyiv In April 1992, and the Embassy of Ukraine in Ottawa opened in October of that same year, paid for mostly by donations from the Ukrainian-Canadian community. Ukraine opened a consulate general in Toronto in 1993 and announced plans to open another in Edmonton in 2008.
|United Kingdom||1880||See Canada–United Kingdom relations
London and Ottawa enjoy cooperative and intimate contact, which has grown deeper over the years; the two countries are related through history, the Commonwealth of Nations, and their sharing of the same Head of State and monarch.
|Country||Formal relations began||Notes|
|Australia||1939-09-12||See Australia–Canada relations
The Commonwealth of Australia and Canada are two of fifteen commonwealth realms, members of: the Commonwealth of Nations, the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership, the G20, and the United Nations.
|New Zealand||1942||See Canada–New Zealand relations
Canada and New Zealand are two of fifteen commonwealth realms, members of: the Commonwealth of Nations, the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership, the G20, and the United Nations. New Zealand and Canada have a longstanding relationship that has been fostered by both countries' shared history and culture, by their membership the Commonwealth of Nations and links between residents of both countries. The two countries have a common Head of State, currently King Charles III. New Zealand and Canada also have links through business or trade relations, the United Nations, the Commonwealth and mutual treaty agreements. New Zealand-Canada relations are important to both countries.
|Solomon Islands||7 July 1978||
Canada and the Solomon Islands are two of fifteen commonwealth realms, members of: the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations.
One important difference between Canadian and American foreign policy has been in relations with communist governments. Canada established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China (13 October 1970) long before the Americans did (1 January 1979). It also has maintained trade and diplomatic relations with communist Cuba, despite pressures from the United States.
Main article: Canadian Arms trade
Canadian Government guidance for export controls on weapons systems is published by Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. Automatic Firearms Country Control List, comprises a list of approved export nations which include as of 2014; (Albania, Australia, Belgium, Botswana, Bulgaria, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States).
Canada is and has been a strong supporter of multilateralism. The country is one of the world's leading peacekeepers, sending soldiers under the U.N. authority around the world. Canadian former Minister of Foreign Affairs and subsequent Prime Minister, Lester B. Pearson, is credited for his contributions to modern international peacekeeping, for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957. Canada is committed to disarmament, and is especially noted for its leadership in the 1997 Convention in Ottawa on the prohibition of the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines.
In the last century Canada has made efforts to reach out to the rest of the world and promoting itself as a "middle power" able to work with large and small nations alike. This was demonstrated during the Suez Crisis when Lester B. Pearson mollified the tension by proposing peacekeeping efforts and the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force. In that spirit, Canada developed and has tried to maintain a leading role in UN peacekeeping efforts.
Canada has long been reluctant to participate in military operations that are not sanctioned by the United Nations, such as the Vietnam War or the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, but does join in sanctioned operations such as the first Gulf War, Afghanistan and Libya. It participated with its NATO and OAS allies in the Kosovo Conflict and in Haiti respectively.
Despite Canada's track record as a liberal democracy that has embraced the values of the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Canada has not been involved in any major plan for Reform of the United Nations Security Council; although the Canadian government does support UN reform, in order to strengthen UN efficiency and effectiveness.
Canada hosted the third Summit of the Americas in Quebec City.
Canada is working on setting up military bases around the world, while reducing aid and diplomatic efforts. In the late 90s, Canada actively promoted the notion of human security as an alternative to business-as-usual approaches to foreign aid. However, by invoking the "three Ds" (defense, diplomacy, and development) as the fundamental basis for Canadian foreign policy, and then implementing this in a manner that conforms more to military security and trade interests, Canada has successfully distanced itself from the humanitarian objectives of foreign aid, with the human security goal far from being achieved.  Under the Harper government, emphasis on promoting Canada's military presence internationally has included an effort to rebrand Canada historically as a "warrior nation", in large measure to counter the image of only supporting peacekeeping and multilateralism.
Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and has been an active member, hosting the OAS General Assembly in Windsor, Ontario, in June 2000.
Main article: Canada–Caribbean relations
Many Caribbean Community countries turn to Canada as a valued partner. Canadians, particularly Canadian banks and utility companies play an important economic role in the development of former British West Indies colonies. Efforts to improve trade have included the idea of concluding a free trade agreement to replace the 1986 bilateral CARIBCAN agreement. At various times, several Caribbean countries have also considered joining Canadian Confederation as new provinces or territories, although no Caribbean nation has implemented such a proposal. Note that many Caribbean countries are also involved in the Commonwealth of Nations, below.
Canada maintains close links to the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms, with which Canada has strong historic ties and shares a monarch. It also remains a member of the Commonwealth.
Canada is an active participant in discussions stemming from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).
Canada is a member of the following organizations:
|Organization||Main article||Mission of Canada||Heads of mission from Canada|
|North Atlantic Treaty Organization||Canada–NATO relations||Mission of Canada to the North Atlantic Council (Brussels)||List of permanent representatives of Canada to NATO|
|Organization of American States||Canada–Latin America relations||Mission of Canada to the Organization of American States (Washington, D.C.)||List of permanent representatives and observers of Canada to the Organization of American States|
|United Nations||Canada and the United Nations||Mission of Canada to: the UN in New York, the UN in Geneva, the UN in Nairobi,
UNESCO in Paris, the FAO in Rome, the ICAO in Montreal
|List of ambassadors of Canada to the United Nations|
Further information: Former colonies and territories in Canada
Canada and the United States have negotiated the boundary between the countries over many years, with the last significant agreement having taken place in 1984 when the International Court of Justice ruled on the maritime boundary in the Gulf of Maine. Likewise, Canada and France had previously contested the maritime boundary surrounding the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, but accepted a 1992 International Court of Arbitration ruling.
Remaining disputes include managed maritime boundary disputes with the US (Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal Island).
A long-simmering dispute between Canada and the U.S. involves the issue of Canadian sovereignty over the Northwest Passage (the sea passages in the Arctic). Canada's assertion that the Northwest Passage represents internal (territorial) waters has been challenged by other countries, especially the U.S., which argue that these waters constitute an international strait (international waters). Canadians were incensed when Americans drove the reinforced oil tanker Manhattan through the Northwest Passage in 1969, followed by the icebreaker Polar Sea in 1985, both without asking for Canadian permission. In 1970, the Canadian government enacted the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act, which asserts Canadian regulatory control over pollution within a 100-nautical-mile (190 km) zone. In response, the Americans in 1970 stated, "We cannot accept the assertion of a Canadian claim that the Arctic waters are internal waters of Canada.... Such acceptance would jeopardize the freedom of navigation essential for United States naval activities worldwide." A compromise was reached in 1988, by an agreement on "Arctic Cooperation," which pledges that voyages of American icebreakers "will be undertaken with the consent of the Government of Canada." However the agreement did not alter either country's basic legal position. Essentially, the Americans agreed to ask for the consent of the Government of Canada without conceding that they were obliged to. In January 2006, David Wilkins, the American ambassador to Canada, said his government opposes Stephen Harper's proposed plan to deploy military icebreakers in the Arctic to detect interlopers and assert Canadian sovereignty over those waters.
Along with other nations in the Arctic Council, Canada, Sweden, Iceland, Norway, Finland, Denmark and Russia, the maritime boundaries in the far north will be decided after countries have completed their submissions, due in 2012. Russia has made an extensive claim based on the Russian position that everything that is an extension of the Lomonosov Ridge should be assigned to Russia. Their submission had been rejected when first submitted by the United Nations in 2001. The regions represent some of the most extreme environments on Earth yet there is a hope for hypothetically commercially viable oil and gas deposits.
In June 2019, the U.S. State Department spokesperson Morgan Ortagus said the US "view Canada’s claim that the waters of the Northwest Passage are internal waters of Canada as inconsistent with international law."
In brief remarks at the signing, Secretary-General Carrington expressed appreciation to the Government of Canada for its support, and pointed out that over the years "Canada had proven to be a "special friend" of the Caribbean at the regional and bilateral levels." "Our relations with the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) have grown to the extent that "it is now considered to be a highly valued international development partner for the region." Among the many important areas in which CIDA has provided grant assistance to the region has been that of trade and competitiveness, a most vital area as the region seeks to secure its place in the international economic and trading arena," the release quoted the Secretary-General as saying.