Diplomatic missions of Canada[1]
  Countries that host a Canadian Embassy or High Commission
  Interests section and other representations
  Countries that do not host Canadian diplomatic missions
  Canada

The foreign relations of Canada are Canada's relations with other governments and nations. Canada is recognized as a middle power for its role in global affairs with a tendency to pursue multilateral and international solutions.[2][3][4] Canada is known for its strong commitment to international peace and security, as well as being a mediator in conflicts,[5] and for providing aid to developing countries.[6][7] The "golden age of Canadian diplomacy" refers to a period in Canadian history, typically considered to be the mid-20th century, when Canada experienced a high level of success in its foreign relations and diplomatic efforts.[8] The Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) is tasked with gathering and analyzing intelligence to prevent threats such as terrorism, espionage, and foreign interference,[9] while the Communications Security Establishment (CSE) is focused on cyber security and protecting Canada's digital infrastructure.[9]

Canada's peacekeeping role during the 20th century has played a major role in its positive global image.[10][11] Canada has long been reluctant to participate in military operations that are not sanctioned by the United Nations.[12] Since the 21st century, Canadian direct participation in UN peacekeeping efforts has greatly declined.[13] The large decrease was a result of Canada directing its participation to UN-sanctioned military operations through NATO, rather than directly through the UN.[14] Canada has faced controversy over its involvement in some foreign countries, notably the 1993 Somalia affair.[15] Canada's military currently has over 3000 personnel deployed overseas in multiple operations.[16]

Canada and the United States have a long, complex, and intertwined relationship;[17][18] they are close allies, co-operating regularly on military campaigns and humanitarian efforts.[19][20] Canada also maintains historic and traditional ties to the United Kingdom and to France,[21] along with both countries' former colonies through its membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.[22] Canada is noted for having a positive relationship with the Netherlands, owing, in part, to its contribution to the Dutch liberation during World War II.[23] Canada has diplomatic and consular offices in over 270 locations in approximately 180 foreign countries.[1]

Canada is a member of various international organizations and forums.[24] Canada was a founding member of the United Nations in 1945 and formed the North American Aerospace Defense Command together with the United States in 1958.[25] The country has membership in the World Trade Organization, the Five Eyes, the G7 and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).[2] Canada acceded to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 1976.[26] The country joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 ,[27] and seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC).[28] As of 2023, Canada is a signatory to 15 free trade agreements with 51 different countries.[29]

History

Main article: History of Canadian foreign relations

The foreign policies of Canada and its predecessor colonies were under British control until the 20th century. This included wars with the United States in 1775-1783 and 1812–1815. Economic ties with the U.S. were always close. Political tensions arose in the 19th century from anti-British sentiment in the U.S. in the 1860s. Boundary issues caused diplomatic disputes resolved in the 1840s over the Maine boundary. and early 1900s, in the early 20th century over the Alaska boundary. There is ongoing discussion regarding the Arctic. Canada-US relations have been friendly in the 20th and 21st centuries.[30]

Canada participated in Britain's wars, especially the Boer war, World War I and World War II. However, there was a bitter dispute between Francophone and Anglophone Canada during the First World War. Canada had its own seat in the League of Nations but played a small role in world affairs until the 1940s. Since then it has been active in NATO, the United Nations, and in promoting its middle-power status into an active role in world affairs.[31]

Administration

In 1982, responsibility for trade was added with the creation of the Department of External Affairs and International Trade. In 1995, the name was changed to Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade.

Canada has often carried out its foreign policy through coalitions and international organizations, and through the work of numerous federal institutions (e.g.: the Royal Canadian Mounted Police International Peace Operations Branch [32] or deployments of personnel by the Correctional Service of Canada[33]). Under the aegis of Canadian foreign policy, various departments and agencies conduct their own international relations and outreach activities. For example, the Canadian Forces and the Department of National Defence conduct defence diplomacy in support of national interests, including through the deployment of Canadian Defence Attachés,[34] participation in bilateral and multilateral military forums (e.g., the System of Cooperation Among the American Air Forces), ship and aircraft visits, military training and cooperation,[35] and other such outreach and relationship-building efforts.

There are two major elements of Canadian foreign relations, Canada-US relations and multilateralism.

Greg Donaghy, of Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs, argues:

Since taking power in 2006, Prime Minister Harper's government has clearly abandoned the liberal internationalism that had so often characterized Ottawa's approach to world affairs, replacing it with a new emphasis on realist notions of national interest, enhanced capabilities, and Western democratic values.[36][relevant?]</ref>

Canada's international relations are the responsibility of the Department of Global Affairs, which is run by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, a position currently held by Melanie Joly. Traditionally the Prime Minister has played a prominent role in foreign affairs decisions. Foreign aid, formerly delivered through the Canadian International Development Agency, has been administered by DFATD since March 2013.[37]

Foreign aid

Former Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton at the Haiti Ministerial Preparatory Conference addressing earthquake relief in Montreal, 25 January 2010

Canada's foreign aid was administered by the Canadian International Development Agency, which provided aid and assistance to other countries around the world through various methods. In March 2013 CIDA ceased to exist when it was folded into DFAIT, creating DFATD.[37] The strategy of the Canadian government's foreign aid policy reflects an emphasis to meet the Millennium Development Goals, while also providing assistance in response to foreign humanitarian crises. However a growing focus on development, defence, and diplomacy in recent decades has produced a concentration of foreign aid funding to countries determined to be security risks to Canadian policy. For example, in 2004–2005 the largest recipients of Canada's official developmental assistance were Afghanistan and Iraq, two nations in conflict with the United States of America and its allies at the time. The structural emphasis on security and industry development has contributed to a fixed foreign policy that generally fails to consider global health and international social and economic inequalities.[38] According to the OECD, 2019 official development assistance from Canada increased 0.5% to US$4.7 billion.[39][failed verification]

In addition, although Canada's foreign aid policies has been moulded with the intentions to be in accordance to the Millennium Development Goals, its focus on human security has slowly shifted away as new policy developments arose. The foreign aid provided by the country became less "people-centered" and less health-related. Canada's contributions have been quite inconsistent with regards to human security, which indicates that the reputation that the country has built throughout the years, in fact, exceeds the country's actual record. Canada's contributions internationally have been detrimental and crucial but it needs redirecting back to its original goals.[38]

Federalism and foreign relations

The provinces have a high level of freedom to operate internationally, dating to 1886 and Quebec's first representative to France, Hector Fabre. Alberta has had representatives abroad, starting with Alberta House in London (37 Hill Street), since 1948, and British Columbia around 25 years before that.[40] By 1984, Quebec had offices in ten countries including eight in the United States and three in other Canadian provinces while Ontario had thirteen delegations in seven countries.[41]

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which Canada maintains diplomatic relations with:

# Country Date[42]
1  United Kingdom 1 July 1926
2  United States 23 December 1926
3  France 31 January 1928
4  Japan 31 January 1928
5  Belgium 3 January 1939
6  Netherlands 3 January 1939
7  Ireland 11 September 1939
8  New Zealand 11 September 1939
9  South Africa 11 September 1939
10  Australia 2 November 1939
11  Argentina 14 November 1940
12  Brazil 14 November 1940
13  Chile 9 October 1941
 Taiwan (terminated) 6 November 1941
14  Serbia 9 February 1942
15  Norway 9 February 1942
16  Poland 9 February 1942
17  Russia 12 June 1942
18  Czech Republic 5 November 1942
19  Greece 5 November 1942
20  Mexico 30 January 1944
21  Peru 30 January 1944
22  Sweden 4 August 1944
23  Turkey 4 August 1944
24  Luxembourg 3 January 1945
25  Cuba 16 March 1945
26  India 6 April 1945
27   Switzerland 24 June 1945[43]
28  Denmark 5 December 1945
29  Iceland 6 June 1947[44]
30  Italy 13 August 1947
31  Finland 21 November 1947[45]
32  Philippines 4 December 1949
33  Pakistan 8 December 1949
34  Germany 15 December 1949
35  Uruguay 27 February 1951
36  Portugal 18 January 1952
37  Austria 9 August 1952
38  Indonesia 23 August 1952[46]
39  Colombia 6 November 1952
40  Venezuela 22 November 1952
41  Spain 21 February 1953
42  Sri Lanka 20 August 1953
43  Dominican Republic 22 April 1954
44  Haiti 12 May 1954
45  Egypt 28 July 1954
46  Israel 28 July 1954
47  Lebanon 26 August 1954
 Iran (suspended) 9 January 1955[47]
48  Tunisia 9 September 1957
49  Ghana 30 October 1957
50  Malaysia 29 March 1958
51  Myanmar 9 August 1958
52  Nigeria 1 October 1960
53  Costa Rica 20 January 1961
54  Paraguay 5 February 1961
55  Ecuador March 1961
56  Sierra Leone 27 April 1961
57  Sudan 29 May 1961
58  Bolivia May 1961
59  Iraq 27 June 1961
60  Honduras June 1961
61  Nicaragua June 1961
62  Panama 11 August 1961[48]
63  Cyprus 14 August 1961
64  Guatemala 16 September 1961
65  Thailand 8 November 1961
66  Cameroon 7 December 1961
67  Tanzania 9 December 1961
68  El Salvador 29 December 1961
69  Chad 12 February 1962
70  Republic of the Congo February 1962
71  Gabon February 1962
72  Guinea 28 March 1962
73  Benin 27 April 1962
74  Burkina Faso 27 April 1962
75  Ivory Coast 27 April 1962
76  Niger 27 April 1962
77  Morocco 17 May 1962
78  Senegal 1 June 1962
79  Togo 7 June 1962
80  Democratic Republic of the Congo 12 June 1962
81  Central African Republic 13 June 1962
82  Jamaica 2 August 1962[49]
83  Uganda 9 October 1962
84  Mali 7 January 1963
85  South Korea 14 January 1963
86  Trinidad and Tobago 28 February 1963
87  Malawi November 1963
88  Kenya 5 May 1964
89  Hungary 11 June 1964
90  Zambia 24 October 1964
91  Jordan 23 December 1964
92  Malta 23 December 1964
93  Madagascar 7 January 1965
94    Nepal 18 January 1965
95  Kuwait 27 April 1965
 Syria (suspended) 20 May 1965
96  Ethiopia 13 October 1965
97  Algeria 12 November 1965
98  Singapore 7 March 1966
99  Guyana 26 May 1966
100  Bulgaria 4 July 1966
101  Gambia 24 August 1966
102  Barbados 30 November 1966
103  Romania 4 April 1967
104  Lesotho 27 April 1967
105  Rwanda 8 July 1967
106  Mauritius 27 August 1967
107  Somalia 23 June 1968
108  Afghanistan 17 July 1968
109  Libya 26 October 1968
110  Mauritania 12 December 1968
111  Botswana 19 December 1968
112  Eswatini 10 February 1969
113  Burundi 27 March 1969[50]
 Holy See 15 October 1969
114  Fiji 10 October 1970[51]
115  China 13 October 1970
116  Liberia 24 February 1971
117  Tonga 11 June 1971
118  Samoa 11 June 1971
119  Bangladesh 14 February 1972
120  Bahamas 23 November 1972
121  Saudi Arabia 8 May 1973
122  Vietnam 21 August 1973
123  Mongolia 30 November 1973
124  Bahrain 2 February 1974
125  Oman 2 February 1974
126  Qatar 2 February 1974
127  United Arab Emirates 2 February 1974
128  Grenada 7 February 1974
129  Laos 15 June 1974
130  Mozambique 25 June 1975
131  Papua New Guinea 16 September 1975
132  Yemen 30 December 1975
133  Guinea-Bissau 26 March 1976
134  Seychelles 1 July 1976
135  Cape Verde 20 July 1976
136  Suriname 2 November 1976[52]
137  Comoros 16 June 1977
138  Angola 3 February 1978
139  Djibouti 13 June 1978
140  Solomon Islands 7 July 1978
141  São Tomé and Príncipe 13 December 1978
142  Dominica 21 December 1978
143  Saint Lucia 22 February 1979
144  Kiribati 12 July 1979
145  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 19 September 1979
146  Zimbabwe 19 April 1980
147  Vanuatu 30 July 1980
148  Equatorial Guinea 20 August 1980
149  Tuvalu 23 September 1980
150  Antigua and Barbuda 1 November 1981
151  Belize 24 November 1981[53]
152  Maldives 14 December 1981
153  Saint Kitts and Nevis 11 October 1983[54]
154  Brunei 15 November 1983
155  Albania 10 September 1987
156  Namibia 21 March 1990
157  Estonia 26 August 1991
158  Latvia 26 August 1991
159  Lithuania 26 August 1991
160  Cambodia 25 November 1991[55]
161  Slovenia 7 January 1992[56]
162  Ukraine 27 January 1992
163  Armenia 31 January 1992
164  Kyrgyzstan 17 February 1992
165  Moldova 20 February 1992
166  Tajikistan 28 March 1992[57]
167  Belarus 21 May 1992
168  Kazakhstan 21 May 1992
169  Turkmenistan 21 May 1992
170  Uzbekistan 21 May 1992
171  Azerbaijan 10 July 1992[58]
172  Georgia 23 July 1992
173  Slovakia 1 January 1993[59]
174  Croatia 14 April 1993
175  Eritrea 28 October 1993[60]
176  Bosnia and Herzegovina 14 December 1995[61]
177  Andorra 14 February 1996
178  Liechtenstein 12 March 1996
179  North Macedonia 4 July 1996[62]
180  Marshall Islands 14 August 1997
181  Palau 27 August 1997
182  Nauru 11 September 1997[63]
183  San Marino 24 November 1997[64]
184  Federated States of Micronesia 3 March 1998
 North Korea (suspended) 6 February 2001[65]
185  East Timor 5 February 2003
186  Bhutan 25 June 2003[66]
187  Montenegro 5 September 2006[67]
188  Monaco 13 March 2008[68]
 Kosovo 7 April 2009[69]
189  South Sudan 22 December 2011[70]
 Cook Islands 20 May 2023[71]
 Niue 12 September 2023[72][73]

Bilateral relations

Africa

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Algeria 1962 See Algeria-Canada relations

Algeria is Canada's top trading partner in Africa.

 Angola 1978
 Burundi 1969
 Cameroon 1961

Cameroon and Canada have established diplomatic ties on 7 December 1961[76] with three agreements and four protocoles signed in 1965. Both countries share the use of English and French as the two official languages as well as memberships in the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie and The Commonwealth.

  • Cameroon has a high commission in Ottawa.[77]
  • Canada has a high commission in Yaoundé.[78]
 Cape Verde 1976

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1976.[79]

  • Canada is accredited to Cape Verde from its embassy in Dakar, Senegal.
  • Cape Verde is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
 Comoros 1977
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1977.[80]
  • Canada is accredited to the Comoros from its high commission in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.
  • Comoros is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
  • Both countries are full members of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.
 Côte d'Ivoire 1962 See Canada–Ivory Coast relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Abidjan.
  • Côte d'Ivoire has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Democratic Republic of the Congo See Canada–Democratic Republic of the Congo relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Kinshasa.
  • DR Congo has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Egypt 1954 See Canada–Egypt relations

Both countries established embassies in their respective capitals in 1954.

  • Canada has had an embassy in Cairo.
  • Egypt has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Montreal.
 Equatorial Guinea 1968
  • Canada is accredited to Equatorial Guinea from its high commission in Abuja, Nigeria.[81]
  • Equatorial Guinea is accredited to Canada from its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York City.
 Eswatini 1968
  • Canada is accredited to Eswatini from its high commission in Maputo, Mozambique.[82]
  • Eswatini is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.[82]
  • Both countries are full members of Commonwealth of Nations.
 Ethiopia 1956 See Canada–Ethiopia relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
  • Ethiopia has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Kenya 1965 See Canada–Kenya relations
  • Canada has a High Commission in Nairobi.
  • Kenya has a high commission in Ottawa.
 Lesotho 1966 See Canada–Lesotho relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1966.[83]
  • Canada accredited to Lesotho from its high commission in Pretoria, South Africa.[83]
  • Lesotho has a high commission in Ottawa[83]
  • Both countries are full members of Commonwealth of Nations.
 Madagascar 1965 See Canada–Madagascar relations
  • Canada is accredited to Madagascar from its high commission in Pretoria, South Africa.[84]
  • Madagascar has an embassy in Ottawa.[85]
 Malawi 1973
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1973.[86]
  • Canada is accredited to Malawi from its high commission in Maputo, Mozambique.
  • Malawi is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
 Mali 1978 See Canada–Mali relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Bamako.
  • Mali has an embassy in Ottawa.
  • Canada has donated one billion dollars (US$, 2007) in bilateral development aid to Mali between 1962 and 2007, ranking it Mali's fifth-largest bilateral donor. Canada's development work in Mali has been chiefly in the railways, telecommunications and hydroelectricity sectors, in the management of government decentralization, in education and health.
  • Canada has contributed 9% towards the cost of the regional peace-keeping school, École de maintien de la paix Alioune Blondin Beye de Bamako, and has provided Canadian trainers to the school.
  • Two industrial, open-pit gold mines in Mali, Sadiola and Yatela, are partly owned by Canadian mining company IAMGOLD Corporation, and financed in part by Canada's public pension funds. Together, they contributed to one-half of Mali's industrial gold production during 1996–2007.
  • In 2005, there were 73 Canadian-owned mining properties in Mali. At least thirteen junior Canadian mining companies held exploration licences in Mali in 2009.
  • Over the period 2001–2005, Canadian mining assets in Mali represented 31% of Mali's total stock of foreign direct investment.
  • Malian-Canadian immigrants made up 0.0027% of the Canadian population in 2006.
 Morocco 1956
 Mozambique See Canada–Mozambique relations
  • Canada has a high commission in Maputo.
  • Mozambique is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
 Namibia See Canada–Namibia relations
  • Canada is accredited to Namibia from its high commission in Pretoria, South Africa.
  • Namibia is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
 Nigeria 1960-10-01
 Senegal 1962 See Canada–Senegal relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Dakar.[91]
  • Senegal has an embassy in Ottawa.[92]
 South Africa 1939 See Canada–South Africa relations

Canada established diplomatic relations with numerous countries, including South Africa, as World War II broke out.

  • Canada has a high commission in Pretoria.
  • South Africa has a high commission in Ottawa.
 Tunisia 1957
 Zambia 1964
  • Canada has an office of the high commission in Lusaka.
  • Zambia has a high commission in Ottawa.

Canada currently has a development assistance program in Zambia, which is focused on the health sector to provide Zambians with equal access to quality health care. Canada and Zambia are currently in the process of negotiating a Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement.[93]

Americas

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Argentina 1940-04 See Argentina–Canada relations

Canada's first ambassador to Buenos Aires, began his assignment in 1945. In 2011 Canada's largest imports were decorative items gold, wines and Iron and steel pipes.[94] Canada's largest exports to Argentina were Energy-related products; telephones sets, and fertilizers.[94] Bilateral trade in 2014 was $2.19 billion.[95] Both countries are members of the Organization of American States and the Cairns Group.

  • Argentina has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates-general in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.
  • Canada has an embassy in Buenos Aires.
 Antigua and Barbuda 1981

Antigua & Barbuda and Canada are two of fifteen commonwealth realms, members of: the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations. Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1967.[96][97]

  • Antigua and Barbuda is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States and has a consulate-general in Toronto.
  • The Canadian High Commission in Bridgetown, Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda.[98]
 Bahamas 1973 The Commonwealth of the Bahamas and Canada are two of fifteen commonwealth realms, members of: the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations.
 Barbados 1966-11-30 See Barbados–Canada relations

Barbados and Canada are both members of: the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations.

In 1907, the Government of Canada opened a Trade Commissioner Service to the Caribbean region located in Bridgetown, Barbados. Following Barbadian independence from the United Kingdom in November 1966, the Canadian High Commission was established in Bridgetown, Barbados in September 1973. There is a Barbadian High Commission in Ottawa and a Barbadian Consulate in Toronto. The relationship between both nations today partly falls within the larger context of Canada–Caribbean relations.

 Belize 1981-09-21

The nations of Belize and Canada are two of fifteen commonwealth realms, members of: the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations.

  • Belize is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
  • Canada is accredited to Belize from its embassy in Guatemala, City, Guatemala.
 Brazil 1941-05 See Brazil–Canada relations
 Chile 1941 See Canada–Chile relations

Canada and Chile are both members of: the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations.

Since 1997 Canada and Chile's trade relations have been governed by the Canada-Chile Free Trade Agreement, Chile's first full free trade agreement and Canada's first with a Latin American nation.[100]

  • Canada has an embassy in Santiago.
  • Chile has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates-general in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.
 Colombia 1953-01 See Canada–Colombia relations
 Cuba 1945 See Canada–Cuba relations

Canada has maintained consistently cordial relations with Cuba, in spite of considerable pressure from the United States, and the island is also one of the most popular travel destinations for Canadian citizens. Canada-Cuba relations can be traced back to the 18th century, when vessels from the Atlantic provinces of Canada traded codfish and beer for rum and sugar. Cuba was the first country in the Caribbean selected by Canada for a diplomatic mission. Official diplomatic relations were established in 1945, when Emile Vaillancourt, a noted writer and historian, was designated Canada's representative in Cuba. Canada and Mexico were the only two countries in the hemisphere to maintain uninterrupted diplomatic relations with Cuba following the Cuban Revolution in 1959.

  • Canada has an embassy in Havana and honorary consuls in Varadero and Guardalavaca.
  • Cuba has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates in Montreal and Toronto.
 Dominica 1979

Canada and the Commonwealth of Dominica are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, and the United Nations.

  • Canada is accredited to Dominica from its high commission in Bridgetown, Barbados.
  • Dominica is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C, United States.
 El Salvador 29 December 1961 See Canada–El Salvador relations
  • Canada has an embassy in San Salvador.
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates-general in Calgary, Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.
 Greenland See Canada-Greenland relations

Greenland (within the Kingdom of Denmark), and Canada are connected through indigenous culture and language, which is shared by the Inuit across Arctic Canada and also Alaska.[101] Both nations maintain cooperation and good relations through the Arctic Council and under the auspices of the Arctic Coastal States. In addition, both act as close partners at: Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC), Nordic Council, Nordic Atlantic Cooperation, and the West Nordic Foundation. Through the expansion of self-government in Greenland since 1979 both nations, but especially the administration at Nuuk have attached strategic importance to their bilateral relations with Canada in the areas of the politics, economic and trade relations and in the fields of education, science and culture.[102]

  • Canada maintains an embassy in Copenhagen, Denmark, and a consulate in capital city Nuuk.
  • Greenland maintains a non-resident office in Washington, D.C., with a Head of Representation.
 Grenada 1974-02-07 See Grenada–Canada relations

Canada and Grenada are two of fifteen commonwealth realms, members of: the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations.

  • Canada is accredited to Grenada from its high commission in Bridgetown, Barbados.
  • Grenada is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C, United States.
 Guyana 1964 See Canada–Guyana relations

Canada and the Co-Operative Republic of Guyana are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations.

 Haiti 1954 See Canada–Haiti relations

Canada and Haiti are both members of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations.

  • Canada has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.
  • Haiti has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Montreal.
 Honduras 1961
  • Canada has an embassy in Tegucigalpa.
  • Honduras has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Montreal.
 Jamaica 1962 See Canada–Jamaica relations

Canada and Jamaica are two of fifteen commonwealth realms, members of: the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations.

  • Since 4 March 1963, Canada has a high commission in Kingston.
  • Jamaica has a high commission in Ottawa.
 Mexico 1944-01 See Canada–Mexico relations

Despite the fact that historic ties between the two nations have been coldly dormant, relations between Canada and Mexico have positively changed in recent years; seeing as both countries brokered the North American Free Trade Agreement. Although on different sides of the Cold War spectrum (Canada was a member of NATO while Mexico was in the Non-Aligned Movement, the two countries were still allies in World War II.)

 Panama 1961 See Canada–Panama relations
 Paraguay 1961
 Peru 1940 See Canada–Peru relations
 Trinidad and Tobago 1962-08-31 See Canada–Trinidad and Tobago relations

Canada and the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, and the United Nations.

  • Canada has a high commission in Port of Spain.
  • Trinidad and Tobago has a high commission in Ottawa.
 United States 1927-02-18 See Canada–United States relations

Relations between Canada and the United States span more than two centuries, marked by a shared British colonial heritage, conflict during the early years of the U.S., and the eventual development of one of the most successful international relationships in the modern world. The most serious breach in the relationship was the War of 1812, which saw an American invasion of then British North America and counter invasions from British-Canadian forces. The border was demilitarized after the war and, apart from minor raids, has remained peaceful. Military collaboration began during the World Wars and continued throughout the Cold War, despite Canadian doubts about certain American policies. A high volume of trade and migration between the U.S. and Canada has generated closer ties, despite continued Canadian fears of being overwhelmed by its neighbour, which is ten times larger in population, wealth and debt.[112]

Canada and the United States are currently the world's largest trading partners, share the world's longest shared border,[113] and have significant interoperability within the defence sphere.

 Uruguay 1953-01 See Canada–Uruguay relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Ottawa, and consulates general in Montreal and Toronto, and an honorary consul in Vancouver.
 Venezuela 1953-01 See Canada–Venezuela relations

In February 1948 there was a Canadian consulate-general in Caracas and a Venezuelan consulate-general in Montreal. In that year the Venezuelan Consul General, on behalf of the government of Venezuela, made a rapprochement with Canada in order to open direct diplomatic representations between the two countries;[114] but the Canadian government delayed the opening of a diplomatic mission in Venezuela because of the lack of enough suitable personnel to staff a Canadian mission in Venezuela and the impossibility of Canada beginning a representation in Venezuela in that year without considering a policy of expansion of Canadian representation abroad.[115]

In the interest of protecting Canadian trade with Venezuela and considering the difficulties for business in being without a Canadian representation in Caracas, Canada was pushed to accept the Venezuelan offer of exchanging diplomatic missions.[116] Finally Canada elevated the former office of the Canadian Consulate General in Caracas to the category of embassy in 1953.[117]

Venezuela established an embassy in Canada in 1952.[118] Since then there have been good commercial relations between the two countries, especially in technology, oil and gas industry, telecommunications and others. In June 2019, Canada closed its embassy in Caracas due to diplomatic visas unable to be renewed under President Maduro's government.[119]

  • Venezuela has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates-general in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.

Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Afghanistan 1960s
1968 (officially)
See Afghanistan–Canada relations

The Canadian government announced in February 2009 that it was adding Afghanistan to its list of preferred countries to receive foreign aid.[111]

See also: War in Afghanistan, Embassy of Canada in Kabul, List of ambassadors of Canada to Afghanistan

 Armenia 1992 See Armenia–Canada relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Ottawa.
  • Canada has an embassy in Yerevan.[120]
 Azerbaijan 1992 See Azerbaijan–Canada relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Ottawa.
  • Canada is accredited to Azerbaijan from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
 Bangladesh 1972 See Bangladesh–Canada relations
  • Bangladesh has a high commission in Ottawa.
  • Canada has a high commission in Dhaka.
 Brunei 1984-05-07 See Brunei–Canada relations
 China 1970-10-13 See Canada–China relations

Since 2003, China has emerged as Canada's second largest trading partner, passing Britain and Japan. China now accounts for approximately six percent of Canada's total world trade. According to a recent study by the Fraser Institute, China replaced Japan as Canada's third-largest export market in 2007, with CA$9.3 billion flowing into China in 2007. Between 1998 and 2007, exports to China grew by 272 percent, but only represented about 1.1 per cent of China's total imports. In 2007, Canadian imports of Chinese products totalled C$38.3 billion. Between 1998 and 2007, imports from China grew by almost 400 percent.[121] Leading commodities in the trade between Canada and China include chemicals, metals, industrial and agricultural machinery and equipment, wood products, and fish products.[122]

Trade tariffs and other incidents in 2019, including the arrest of top Huawei executive Meng Wanzhou[123] have frozen relations between the two countries.

In July 2019, the UN ambassadors from 22 nations, including Canada, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC condemning China's mistreatment of the Uyghurs as well as its mistreatment of other minority groups, urging the Chinese government to close the Xinjiang re-education camps.[124]

 Georgia 1992-07-23 See Canada–Georgia relations
 India 1947-08-15 See Canada–India relations

In 2004, bilateral trade between India and Canada was at about C$2.45 billion.[125] However, India's Smiling Buddha nuclear test led to connections between the two countries being frozen, with allegations that India broke the terms of the Colombo Plan.[126] Although Jean Chrétien and Roméo LeBlanc both visited India in the late 1990s, relations were again halted after the Pokhran-II tests.[126] In 2023, Justin Trudeau accused the Indian government of involvement in the killing of a Sikh-Canadian leader, Hardeep Singh Nijjar on Canadian soil. “Any involvement of a foreign government in the killing of a Canadian citizen on Canadian soil is an unacceptable violation of our sovereignty,” the Prime Minister stated to the House of Commons.[127]

  • Canada has a high commission in New Delhi and has a consulate-general in Mumbai.
  • India has a high commission in Ottawa and consulates-general in Toronto and Vancouver.
 Indonesia 1952 See Canada–Indonesia relations
 Iran 1955 ended 2012 See Canada–Iran relations

Canadian-Iranian relations date back to 1955, up to which point the Canadian Consular and Commercial Affairs in Iran was handled by the British Embassy. A Canadian diplomatic mission was constructed in Tehran in 1959 and raised to embassy status in 1961. Due to rocky relations after the Iranian Revolution, Iran did not establish an embassy in Canada until 1991 when its staff, which had been living in a building on Roosevelt Avenue in Ottawa's west end, moved into 245 Metcalfe Street in the Centretown neighbourhood of Ottawa which was upgraded to embassy status, however in 2012, Canada severed all diplomatic ties with Iran in regard to Iran's treatment of human rights.

  • Canada has an interest section in Tehran.
  • Iran has an interest section in Ottawa.
 Iraq 1961-02 to 1991–12
2005–06
See Canada and the Iraq War, Embassy of Iraq in Ottawa
  • Canada has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Israel 1950 See Canada–Israel relations

At the United Nations in 1947, Canada was one of the thirty-three countries that voted in favour of the creation of a Jewish homeland. Canada delayed granting de facto recognition to Israel until December 1948, and finally gave full de jure recognition to the new nation on 11 May 1949, only after it was admitted into the United Nations (UN). A week later, Avraham Harman became Israel's first consul general in Canada. In September 1953, the Canadian Embassy opened in Tel Aviv and Israeli Ambassador to Canada, Michael Comay, was appointed, although a non-resident Canadian Ambassador to Israel was not appointed until 1958.

 Japan 1928-12 See Canada–Japan relations

The two countries enjoy an amicable companionship in many areas; diplomatic relations between both countries officially began in 1950 with the opening of the Japanese consulate in Ottawa. In 1929, Canada opened its Tokyo legation, the first in Asia;[130] and in that same year, Japan its Ottawa consulate to legation form.[131]

 Kazakhstan 1992 See Canada–Kazakhstan relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Astana and a consulate in Almaty.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate in Toronto.
  • Canada has designated Kazakhstan as a priority emerging market for bilateral trade.[132]
 Kyrgyzstan 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1992.[133]

  • Canada is accredited to Kyrgyzstan from its embassy in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.
  • Kyrgyzstan is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
 Lebanon 1954 See Canada–Lebanon relations

Canada established diplomatic relations with Lebanon in 1954, when Canada deployed "Envoy Extraordinaire" to Beirut. In 1958, Canada sent its first ambassador. The embassy was closed in 1985 and reopened in January 1995. Lebanon opened a consulate in Ottawa in 1946. A consulate-general replaced the consulate in 1949, and it was upgraded to full embassy status in 1958.

  • Canada has an embassy in Beirut.[134]
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Montreal.[135]
 Malaysia 1957-08-31[136] See Canada–Malaysia relations
  • Canada has a High Commission in Kuala Lumpur
  • Malaysia has a High Commission in Ottawa.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • Canada's trade relationship with Malaysia includes commerce across several sectors.[137]
 Mongolia 1973-11-30 See Canada–Mongolia relations
  • Canada is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Ulaanbaatar.
  • Mongolia has an embassy in Ottawa.

Though Canada and Mongolia established diplomatic ties in 1973, ad hoc linkages and minor activities occurred between the two countries mainly through the Canada-Mongolia Society, which disbanded in 1980. When Mongolia formed a democratic government in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Canada began to support Mongolia with donor activities through the International Development Research Centre, Canadian International Development Agency and several non-governmental organizations.[138]

 North Korea 2001-02-06 to 2010-03-26 See Canada–North Korea relations

Canada and North Korea share very little trade due to the destabilizing element North Korea has caused in the Asia Pacific region. Canada is represented by the Canadian Ambassador resident in Seoul, and North Korea is represented through its office at the UN in New York City.

 Pakistan 1947-08-15 See Canada–Pakistan relations
  • Canada has a high commission in Islamabad and consulate in Karachi.
  • Pakistan has a high commission in Ottawa and consulates-general in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • The value of the bilateral trade relationship between Pakistan and Canada was close to C$694 million in 2007.[139]
  • There are an estimated 300,000 Pakistanis living in Canada.[140]

See also Pakistani Canadian, High Commission of Pakistan in Ottawa

 Philippines 1949 See Canada–Philippines relations
 Qatar See Canada–Qatar relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Doha.[143]
  • Qatar has an embassy in Ottawa.[144]
 Saudi Arabia 1973-05 See Canada–Saudi Arabia relations

Saudi Arabia is Canada's second largest trade partner among the seven countries of the Arabian Peninsula,[145] totalling more than $2 billion in trade in 2005,[146] nearly double its value in 2002, trade totalled $3.8 in 2014.[147] Canada chiefly imports petroleum, and oil from Saudi Arabia, while The largest exporting good are such as cereals, railway/tramway equipment; machinery equipment and paper in 2010.[148]

 Singapore 1965-12-15 See Canada–Singapore relations
 South Korea 1963-01-14[150] See Canada–South Korea relations
  • Canadian soldiers participated in the defence of South Korea during the Korean War.
  • Canada has an embassy in Seoul.
  • South Korea has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates-general in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.
  • Both countries are full members of the APEC, the OECD and the G20.
 Taiwan 1949–1970 official
1991-quasi-official
 Tajikistan 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1992.

  • Canada is accredited to Tajikistan from its embassy in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.
  • Tajikistan is accredited to Canada from it embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
 Thailand 1947 See Canada-Thailand relations
 Turkey 1943[158] See Canada–Turkey relations
 United Arab Emirates See Canada–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Toronto.
 Vietnam 1973-08-21 See Canada–Vietnam relations
 Yemen 1975-12 (North Yemen)
1976-05 (South Yemen)
1989-09 (united Yemen)

Europe

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania 1987-09-10 See Albania–Canada relations
 Belarus 15 April 1992[161]
  • Belarus had an embassy in Ottawa but was closed as of September 1, 2021, as a result of Canada's condemnation of the forced grounding of Ryanair Flight 4978[162][163]
  • Canada is accredited to Belarus from its embassy in Warsaw, Poland.
 Belgium 1939-01 See Belgium–Canada relations
  • Belgium has an embassy in Ottawa, two consulates (in Montreal and Toronto), and four honorary consuls (in Edmonton, Halifax, Vancouver and Winnipeg) located in Canada. Belgium's three regions (Wallonia, Flanders and Brussels) each have their own offices in the Montreal consulate. Wallonia also has a second office in the Toronto consulate, which also represents Flanders and Brussels.
  • Canada has an embassy in Brussels. Canada also has an honorary consulate in Antwerp, and Quebec maintains its own separate delegation in Brussels. The Canadian delegations to the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization are located in Belgium, as Belgium houses the headquarters of each. Luxembourg is often dealt with in tandem to Belgium.
  • Belgium and Canada are member states of a variety of international organizations. They include: the United Nations, NATO, La Francophonie, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.[164]
 Bulgaria
 Croatia 1993-04-14
 Cyprus 1960-08-16 See Canada–Cyprus relations

Canadian bilateral political relations with Cyprus stemmed initially from Cypriot Commonwealth membership at independence in 1960 (that had followed a guerrilla struggle with Britain). These relations quickly expanded in 1964 when Canada became a major troop contributor to UNFICYP. The participation lasted for the next 29 years, during which 50,000 Canadian soldiers served and 28 were killed. In large measure Canadian relations with Cyprus continue to revolve around support for the ongoing efforts of the UN, G8 and others to resolve the island's divided status.

  • Canada has an honorary consul in Nicosia.
  • Cyprus has a high commission in Ottawa.
 Czech Republic 1993 See Canada–Czech Republic relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Prague.
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates-general in Montreal and Toronto and honorary consuls (in Calgary, Vancouver and Winnipeg).
 Denmark 1949-10-14 See Canada–Denmark relations
 Estonia 1922
Office of the Embassy of Canada to Estonia in Tallinn
 Finland 1947-11-21 See Canada–Finland relations
Office of the Embassy of Canada to Finland in Helsinki
 France 1882 See Canada–France relations

Canada and the Republic of France are members of: the Canada-France Inter-Parliamentary Association, the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), the G8, the G20, NATO, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, and the United Nations. In the 2007 and 2008, French President Nicolas Sarkozy,[172] Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, and Quebec Premier Jean Charest[173] all spoke in favour of a Canada – EU free trade agreement. In October 2008, Sarkozy became the first French President to address the National Assembly of Quebec. In his speech he spoke out against Quebec separatism, but recognized Quebec as a nation within Canada. He said that, to France, Canada was a friend, and Quebec was family.[172]

 Germany See Canada–Germany relations
  • Until 2005 Canada's embassy was in Bonn, but in April 2005 a new embassy opened in Berlin. Canada also operates consulates in Munich, Düsseldorf and Hamburg.
  • The provinces of Ontario and Alberta have representatives in Germany, co-located in the consulates. Quebec runs a stand-alone bureau in Munich, with an "antenne culturelle" office in Berlin.
  • In addition to its embassy in Ottawa, Germany maintains consulates in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Additional diplomats responsible for specialized files are also accredited from Washington.
  • See also: Embassy of Canada in Berlin, Embassy of Germany in Ottawa
 Greece 1937 See also Canada–Greece relations
 Holy See 1969 See Canada–Holy See relations

Although the Roman Catholic Church has been territoriality established in Canada since the founding of New France in the early 17th century, Holy See–Canada relations were only officially established under the papacy of Paul VI in the 1960s.

  • Canada has an embassy in Rome accredited to the Holy See.
  • Holy See has an apostolic nunciature in Ottawa.
 Hungary 1964 See Canada–Hungary relations
 Iceland 1942 See Canada–Iceland relations
 Ireland 1929-12-28 See Canada–Ireland relations

Canada and Ireland enjoy friendly relations, the importance of these relations centres on the history of Irish migration to Canada. Roughly 4 million Canadians have Irish ancestors, or approximately 14% of Canada's population.

 Italy 1947 See Canada–Italy relations
 Kosovo 2009-04-07 See also International reaction to the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence

Canada recognized Kosovo on 18 March 2008.[187]

  • Canada is accredited to Kosovo from its embassy in Zagreb, Croatia.
  • Kosovo has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Latvia 1921 See Canada–Latvia relations
  • Canada re-recognized Latvia's independence on 26 August 1991. Restored relations on 3 September 1991.
  • Canada has an embassy in Riga.
  • Latvia has an embassy in Ottawa and honorary consuls in Quebec City and Toronto.
 Lithuania 1921
 Luxembourg
 Malta 1964
 Netherlands 1939-01 See Canada–Netherlands relations
  • Canada has an embassy in The Hague.
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Ottawa, and consulates general in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.
 North Macedonia 1995
  • North Macedonia and Canada established diplomatic relations on 4 July 1996.
  • Canada is accredited to North Macedonia from its embassy in Belgrade, Serbia.
  • North Macedonia has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Toronto.
 Norway 1942 See Canada–Norway relations
 Poland 1935 See Canada–Poland relations
  • The Canada-Poland diplomatic relationship goes back from the first bilateral agreement, a Convention on Merchant Shipping, which was signed in 1935.
  • Canada has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates general (in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver).
  • There are over 800,000 Polish-Canadians living in Canada.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and OECD.
 Portugal January 1952 See Canada–Portugal relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates-general in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.
 Romania 1967-04-03 See Canada–Romania relations
 Russia 1942-06-12 See Canada–Russia relations

Canada and Russia benefit from extensive cooperation on trade and investment, energy, democratic development and governance, security and counter-terrorism, northern issues, and cultural and academic exchanges.

  • Canada has an embassy in Moscow.
  • Russia has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates-general in Montreal and Toronto
 Serbia
 Slovakia 1993-01-01
 Slovenia
 Spain 1935 See Canada–Spain relations
 Sweden See Canada–Sweden relations

Both countries have strong commitments to peacekeeping, UN reform, development assistance, environmental protection, sustainable development, and the promotion and protection of human rights.[dubiousdiscuss] In additional, there are more than 300,000 Canadians of Swedish descent.[206]

  Switzerland 1945 See Canada–Switzerland relations
 Ukraine 1992 See Canada–Ukraine relations, Embassy of Ukraine in Ottawa

Diplomatic relations were established between Canada and Ukraine on 27 January 1992.[209] Canada opened its embassy in Kyiv[210] In April 1992, and the Embassy of Ukraine in Ottawa opened in October of that same year,[211] paid for mostly by donations from the Ukrainian-Canadian community. Ukraine opened a consulate general in Toronto in 1993[211][212] and announced plans to open another in Edmonton in 2008.[213]

The main bilateral agreement signed between the two governments is the joint declaration of the "Special Partnership" between the two countries signed in 1994 and renewed in 2001.[211]

  • Canada has an embassy in Kyiv and a consulate in Lviv.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Toronto.
 United Kingdom 1880 See Canada–United Kingdom relations

Canada and the United Kingdom are two of fifteen commonwealth realms, members of: the UK-Canada Free Trade Agreement, the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the G20, NATO, and the United Nations.

London and Ottawa enjoy cooperative and intimate contact, which has grown deeper over the years; the two countries are related through history, the Commonwealth of Nations, and their sharing of the same Head of State and monarch.

Oceania

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia 1939-09-12 See Australia–Canada relations

The Commonwealth of Australia and Canada are two of fifteen commonwealth realms, members of: the Commonwealth of Nations, the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership, the G20, and the United Nations.

 New Zealand 1942 See Canada–New Zealand relations

Canada and New Zealand are two of fifteen commonwealth realms, members of: the Commonwealth of Nations, the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership, the G20, and the United Nations. New Zealand and Canada have a longstanding relationship that has been fostered by both countries' shared history and culture, by their membership the Commonwealth of Nations and links between residents of both countries. The two countries have a common Head of State, currently King Charles III. New Zealand and Canada also have links through business or trade relations, the United Nations, the Commonwealth and mutual treaty agreements. New Zealand-Canada relations are important to both countries.

 Solomon Islands 7 July 1978

Canada and the Solomon Islands are two of fifteen commonwealth realms, members of: the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations.

  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 July 1978.[214]
  • Canada is accredited to the Solomon Islands from its high commission in Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Solomon Islands is accredited to Canada from its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York City, New York.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.

Other bilateral and plurilateral relations

One important difference between Canadian and American foreign policy has been in relations with communist governments. Canada established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China (13 October 1970) long before the Americans did (1 January 1979). It also has maintained trade and diplomatic relations with communist Cuba, despite pressures from the United States.

Arms Control

Main article: Canadian Arms trade

Countries on the Canadian Automatic Firearms Country Control List

Canadian Government guidance for export controls on weapons systems is published by Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada.[215][216] Automatic Firearms Country Control List, comprises a list of approved export nations which include as of 2014; (Albania, Australia, Belgium, Botswana, Bulgaria, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States).

Selected dates of diplomatic representation abroad

Multilateralism

Further information: Canadian peacekeeping

Constable Lorant Haged, Royal Canadian Mounted Police and instructor at the leadership and management course, looks at a target after the Afghan National Police (ANP) ceased fire at a 9mm familirization range 3 Dec.. The ANP are attending a six-month Leadership and Management course where they will also take a criminal Investigation course, leadership and management classes and Rule of Law. The intent of the school is teach the ANP officers and leaders at an advanced level of training that will help them become more effective in running police sub-stations.

Canada is and has been a strong supporter of multilateralism. The country is one of the world's leading peacekeepers, sending soldiers under the U.N. authority around the world.[217] Canadian former Minister of Foreign Affairs and subsequent Prime Minister, Lester B. Pearson, is credited for his contributions to modern international peacekeeping, for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957.[218] Canada is committed to disarmament, and is especially noted for its leadership in the 1997 Convention in Ottawa on the prohibition of the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines.[219]

In the last century Canada has made efforts to reach out to the rest of the world and promoting itself as a "middle power" able to work with large and small nations alike. This was demonstrated during the Suez Crisis when Lester B. Pearson mollified the tension by proposing peacekeeping efforts and the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force. In that spirit, Canada developed and has tried to maintain a leading role in UN peacekeeping efforts.[220]

Canada has long been reluctant to participate in military operations that are not sanctioned by the United Nations, such as the Vietnam War or the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, but does join in sanctioned operations such as the first Gulf War, Afghanistan and Libya. It participated with its NATO and OAS allies in the Kosovo Conflict and in Haiti respectively.

Despite Canada's track record as a liberal democracy that has embraced the values of the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Canada has not been involved in any major plan for Reform of the United Nations Security Council; although the Canadian government does support UN reform, in order to strengthen UN efficiency and effectiveness.[221]

Canada hosted the third Summit of the Americas in Quebec City.

Canada is working on setting up military bases around the world, while reducing aid and diplomatic efforts.[222][223] In the late 90s, Canada actively promoted the notion of human security as an alternative to business-as-usual approaches to foreign aid. However, by invoking the "three Ds" (defense, diplomacy, and development) as the fundamental basis for Canadian foreign policy, and then implementing this in a manner that conforms more to military security and trade interests, Canada has successfully distanced itself from the humanitarian objectives of foreign aid, with the human security goal far from being achieved. [224] Under the Harper government, emphasis on promoting Canada's military presence internationally has included an effort to rebrand Canada historically as a "warrior nation", in large measure to counter the image of only supporting peacekeeping and multilateralism.[225]

Canada’s relations within the Americas

Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and has been an active member, hosting the OAS General Assembly in Windsor, Ontario, in June 2000.

Canada–Caribbean relations

Main article: Canada–Caribbean relations

Many Caribbean Community countries turn to Canada as a valued partner.[226] Canadians, particularly Canadian banks and utility companies play an important economic role in the development of former British West Indies colonies. Efforts to improve trade have included the idea of concluding a free trade agreement to replace the 1986 bilateral CARIBCAN agreement. At various times, several Caribbean countries have also considered joining Canadian Confederation as new provinces or territories, although no Caribbean nation has implemented such a proposal. Note that many Caribbean countries are also involved in the Commonwealth of Nations, below.

Canada–Commonwealth of Nations

Main articles: Canada–United Kingdom relations, Canada–New Zealand relations, and Australia–Canada relations

Canada maintains close links to the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms, with which Canada has strong historic ties and shares a monarch. It also remains a member of the Commonwealth.

Canada–Europe and Canada–European Union relations

Main articles: Canada–European Union relations and Transatlantic relations

Canada is an active participant in discussions stemming from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).

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International organizations

Former Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper at 2015 G7 summit with Shinzō Abe, Barack Obama, Angela Merkel, François Hollande, David Cameron, and Matteo Renzi in Bavaria, Germany.

Canada is a member of the following organizations:[227]

Relations with international groups

Organization Main article Mission of Canada Heads of mission from Canada
 North Atlantic Treaty Organization Canada–NATO relations Mission of Canada to the North Atlantic Council (Brussels) List of permanent representatives of Canada to NATO
 Organization of American States Canada–Latin America relations Mission of Canada to the Organization of American States (Washington, D.C.) List of permanent representatives and observers of Canada to the Organization of American States
 United Nations Canada and the United Nations Mission of Canada to: the UN in New York, the UN in Geneva, the UN in Nairobi,
UNESCO in Paris, the FAO in Rome, the ICAO in Montreal
List of ambassadors of Canada to the United Nations

Organizations with headquarters in Canada

Major treaties signed in Canada

Territorial and boundary disputes

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Further information: Former colonies and territories in Canada

Secretary Kerry Chats With Arctic Council Chairman Leona Aglukkaq, Nunavut Territory Premier Peter Taptuna, and Northwest Territory Premier Robert McLeod in Iqaluit, Canada

Canada and the United States have negotiated the boundary between the countries over many years, with the last significant agreement having taken place in 1984 when the International Court of Justice ruled on the maritime boundary in the Gulf of Maine. Likewise, Canada and France had previously contested the maritime boundary surrounding the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, but accepted a 1992 International Court of Arbitration ruling.

Remaining disputes include managed maritime boundary disputes with the US (Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal Island).

Arctic disputes

Northwest Passage routes

A long-simmering dispute between Canada and the U.S. involves the issue of Canadian sovereignty over the Northwest Passage (the sea passages through the Arctic Archipelago). Canada's assertion that the Northwest Passage represents internal (territorial) waters has been challenged by other countries, especially the U.S., which argue that these waters constitute an international strait (international waters). Canadians were incensed when Americans drove the reinforced oil tanker Manhattan through the Northwest Passage in 1969, followed by the icebreaker Polar Sea in 1985, both without asking for Canadian permission.[228][229] In 1970, the Canadian government enacted the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act, which asserts Canadian regulatory control over pollution within a 100-nautical-mile (190 km) zone. In response, the Americans in 1970 stated, "We cannot accept the assertion of a Canadian claim that the Arctic waters are internal waters of Canada.... Such acceptance would jeopardize the freedom of navigation essential for United States naval activities worldwide." A compromise was reached in 1988, by an agreement on "Arctic Cooperation," which pledges that voyages of American icebreakers "will be undertaken with the consent of the Government of Canada." However the agreement did not alter either country's basic legal position. Essentially, the Americans agreed to ask for the consent of the Government of Canada without conceding that they were obliged to. In January 2006, David Wilkins, the American ambassador to Canada, said his government opposes Stephen Harper's proposed plan to deploy military icebreakers in the Arctic to detect interlopers and assert Canadian sovereignty over those waters.[230]

Along with other nations in the Arctic Council, Canada, Sweden, Iceland, Norway, Finland, Denmark and Russia, the maritime boundaries in the far north will be decided after countries have completed their submissions, due in 2012. Russia has made an extensive claim based on the Russian position that everything that is an extension of the Lomonosov Ridge should be assigned to Russia.[231][232] Their submission had been rejected when first submitted by the United Nations in 2001.[233]

In June 2019, the U.S. State Department spokesperson Morgan Ortagus said the US "view Canada’s claim that the waters of the Northwest Passage are internal waters of Canada as inconsistent with international law."[234]

See also

References

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Further reading

  • Murray, Robert W. and Paul Gecelovsky, eds. The Palgrave Handbook of Canada in International Affairs (Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2021) online
  • Bernstein, Alan (June 2013). "Science Diplomacy as a Defining Role for Canada in the Twenty-First Century". Science & Diplomacy. 2 (2).
  • Bothwell, Robert. Canada and the United States (1992) online
  • Bothwell, Robert. The big chill: Canada and the Cold War (1998) online
  • Bothwell, Robert. Alliance and illusion : Canada and the world, 1945-1984 (2007) online
  • Bothwell, Robert and Jean Daudelin eds. Canada Among Nations: 100 Years of Canadian Foreign Policy (2009)
  • Boucher, Jean-Christophe. "Yearning for a progressive research program in Canadian foreign policy." International Journal 69.2 (2014): 213–228. online commentary H-DIPLO
  • Bouka, Yolande, et al. "Is Canada's Foreign Policy Really Feminist? Analysis and Recommendations." Policy 13 (2021). online
  • Bow, Brian, and Andrea Lane, eds. Canadian Foreign Policy: Reflections on a Field in Transition (2020) excerpt
  • Bow, Brian J.; Patrick Lennox (2008). An independent foreign policy for Canada?: challenges and choices for the future. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-9634-0.
  • Bugailiskis, Alex, and Andrés Rozental, eds. Canada Among Nations, 2011-2012: Canada and Mexico's Unfinished Agenda (2012) further details
  • Carnaghan, Matthew, Allison Goody, "Canadian Arctic Sovereignty" (Library of Parliament: Political and Social Affairs Division, 26 January 2006)
  • Chapnick, Adam, and Christopher J. Kukucha, eds. The Harper Era in Canadian Foreign Policy: Parliament, Politics, and Canada’s Global Posture (UBC Press, 2016).
  • Collins, Jeffrey F. "Defence Procurement and Canadian Foreign Policy." in The Palgrave Handbook of Canada in International Affairs (Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2021) pp. 275–295.
  • Congressional Research Service. Canada-U.S. Relations (Congressional Research Service, 2021) 2021 Report, by an agency of the U.S. government; not copyright; Updated February 10, 2021.
  • Currie, Philip J., 'Canada and Ireland: A Political and Diplomatic History [Vancouver: UBC Press, 2020]
  • Eayrs, James. In Defence of Canada. (5 vols. University of Toronto Press, 1964–1983) the standard history
  • Fox, Annette Baker. Canada in World Affairs (Michigan State University Press, 1996)
  • Froese, Marc D (2010), Canada at the WTO: Trade Litigation and the Future of Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, ISBN 978-1-4426-0138-3
  • Glazov, Jamie. Canadian Policy Toward Khrushchev's Soviet Union (2003).
  • Granatstein, J. L., ed. Canadian foreign policy : historical readings (1986), excerpts from primary sources and scholars online free
  • Holloway, Steven Kendall (2006). Canadian foreign policy: defining the national interest. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 1-55111-816-5.
  • Hampson, Fen Osler, and James A. Baker. Master of Persuasion: Brian Mulroney's Global Legacy (2018)
  • Hawes, Michael K., and Christopher John Kirkey, eds. Canadian Foreign Policy in a Unipolar World (Oxford UP, 2017).
  • Hillmer, Norman and Philippe Lagassé. Justin Trudeau and Canadian Foreign Policy: Canada Among Nations 2017 (2018)
  • Holmes John W. The Shaping of Peace: Canada and the Search for World Order. (2 vols. University of Toronto Press, 1979, 1982)
  • Irwin, Rosalind (2001). Ethics and security in Canadian foreign policy. UBC Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-0863-7.
  • James, Patrick, Nelson Michaud, and Marc O'Reilly, eds. Handbook of Canadian foreign policy (Lexington Books, 2006), essays by experts; 610pp excerpt
  • James, Patrick. Canada and Conflict (Oxford University Press, 2012) H-DIPLO online reviews June 2014
  • Kirk, John M. and Peter McKenna; Canada-Cuba Relations: The Other Good Neighbor Policy UP of Florida (1997).
  • Kirton, John and Don Munton, eds. Cases and Readings in Canadian Foreign Policy Since World War II (1992) 24 episodes discussed by experts
  • Kukucha, Christopher J. "Neither adapting nor innovating: the limited transformation of Canadian foreign trade policy since 1984." Canadian Foreign Policy Journal (2018): 1–15.
  • McCormick, James M. "Pivoting toward Asia: Comparing the Canadian and American Policy Shifts." American Review of Canadian Studies 46.4 (2016): 474–495.
  • McCullough, Colin, and Robert Teigrob, eds. Canada and the United Nations: Legacies, Limits, Prospects (2017).
  • Melnyk, George. Canada and the New American Empire: War and Anti-War University of Calgary Press, 2004, highly critical
  • Michaud, Nelson. "Balancing Interests and Constraints: The Role of Provinces in the Shaping of Canadian Foreign Policy." in Political Turmoil in a Tumultuous World (Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2021) pp. 77–104.
  • Miller, Ronnie. Following the Americans to the Persian Gulf: Canada, Australia, and the Development of the New World Order (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1994)
  • Molot, Maureen Appel. "Where Do We, Should We, Or Can We Sit? A Review of the Canadian Foreign Policy Literature", International Journal of Canadian Studies (Spring-Fall 1990) 1#2 pp 77–96.
  • Nossal, Kim Richard et al. International Policy and Politics in Canada (2010), university textbook; online 1989 edition
  • Paris, Roland. "Are Canadians still liberal internationalists? Foreign policy and public opinion in the Harper era." International Journal 69.3 (2014): 274–307. online
  • Rochlin, James. Discovering the Americas: The Evolution of Canadian Foreign Policy towards Latin America (University of British Columbia Press, 1994)
  • Sarty, Keigh. “The Fragile Authoritarians: China, Russia and Canadian Foreign Policy.” International Journal 75:4 (December 2020): 614–628. DOI: The fragile authoritarians: China, Russia, and Canadian foreign policy. online review
  • Stacey, C. P. Canada and the Age of Conflict: Volume 1: 1867–1921 (1979), a standard scholarly history
  • Stacey, C. P. Canada and the Age of Conflict, 1921–1948. Vol. 2. (University of Toronto Press, 1981), a standard scholarly history; online
  • Stairs Denis, and Gilbert R. Winham, eds. The Politics of Canada's Economic Relationship with the United States (University of Toronto Press, 1985)
  • Stevenson, Brian J. R. Canada, Latin America, and the New Internationalism: A Foreign Policy Analysis, 1968–1990 (2000)
  • Thompson, John Herd; Randall, Stephen J (2008). Canada and the United States: Ambivalent Allies. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 978-0-8203-2403-6.
  • Tiessen, Rebecca, and Heather A. Smith. "Canada’s ‘Feminist’ Foreign Policy Under the Harper Conservatives (2006–2015) and Trudeau Liberals (2015–2019) in Global Perspective." in The Palgrave Handbook of Canada in International Affairs (Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2021) pp. 117-139.
  • Wildeman, Jeremy. "Assessing Canada’s foreign policy approach to the Palestinians and Israeli-Palestinian peacebuilding, 1979–2019." Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 27.1 (2021): 62-80. online
  • Wildeman, Jeremy. "The Middle East in Canadian foreign policy and national identity formation." International Journal 76.3 (2021): 359-383. online
  • Wilson, Robert R. and David R. Deener; Canada-United States Treaty Relations (Duke University Press, 1963)

Primary Sources