Group of Seven
and the European Union

PredecessorGroup of Eight (G8) (reversion)
Formation25 March 1973 ("Library Group")
1st G6 summit: 15 November 1975
Founder"Library Group":
United States George Shultz
West Germany Helmut Schmidt (also 1st G6 summit)
France Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (also 1st G6 summit)
United Kingdom Anthony Barber
United States (Richard Nixon)
West Germany (Willy Brandt)
France (Georges Pompidou)
United Kingdom (Edward Heath)
1st G6 summit:
United States Gerald Ford
United Kingdom Harold Wilson
Italy Aldo Moro
Japan Miki Takeo
Founded atWashington, D.C. ("Library Group")
Rambouillet (1st G6 summit)
Typeinformal club
FieldsInternational politics
Membership (2021)
7 (and the EU)
FundingMember states
Formerly called

The Group of Seven (G7) is an informal club of wealthy democracies consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States.[1] The heads of government of the member states, as well as the representatives of the European Union, meet at the annual G7 Summit.

As of 2018, the G7 represents 58% of the global net wealth ($317 trillion),[2] more than 46% of the global gross domestic product (GDP) based on nominal values, and more than 32% of the global GDP based on purchasing power parity. The seven countries involved are also the largest IMF-advanced economies in the world.[3][4]


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Flags of G7 members as seen on University Avenue in Toronto

The concept of a forum for the world's major industrialized countries emerged before the 1973 oil crisis. On Sunday, 25 March 1973, the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, George Shultz, convened an informal gathering of finance ministers from West Germany (Helmut Schmidt), France (Valéry Giscard d'Estaing), and the United Kingdom (Anthony Barber) before an upcoming meeting in Washington, D.C. When running the idea past President Nixon, Nixon noted that he would be out of town and offered use of the White House. The meeting was subsequently held in the library on the ground floor.[5] Taking their name from the setting, this original group of four became known as the "Library Group".[6] In mid-1973, at the World Bank-IMF meetings, Shultz proposed the addition of Japan to the original four nations, who agreed.[5] The informal gathering of senior financial officials from the United States, the United Kingdom, West Germany, Japan, and France became known as the "Group of Five".[7]

Then, in 1974, French President Georges Pompidou died and his immediate successor refused to run in the special election, resulting in two changes of head of state in France in one year. West German Chancellor Brandt, American President Richard Nixon, and Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka all resigned due to scandals. In the United Kingdom, a minority government was formed after a hung election, creating a situation so unstable that another election the same year had to take place. Finally, the traditionally unstable government of the 1st Italian Republic changed Prime Ministers yet again. The new American President, Gerald Ford, asked some other new heads of state/government to hold a retreat the following year so that they might get to know one another.

In 1975, a summit hosted by France brought together representatives of six governments: France, West Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Schmidt was head of government and Giscard d'Estaing head of state, respectively, in their respective countries, and since they both spoke fluent English, it occurred to them that they, and British Prime Minister Harold Wilson and U.S. President Gerald Ford could get together in an informal retreat and discuss election results and the issues of the day. In late spring, d'Estaing of France invited the heads of government from West Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States to a summit in Château de Rambouillet;[8] the annual meeting of the six leaders was organized under a rotating presidency, forming the Group of Six (G6). In 1976, with Wilson out as prime minister of Britain, Schmidt and Gerald Ford felt an English speaker with more experience was needed, so Pierre Trudeau, the Prime Minister of Canada, the next largest advanced economy after the first six, was invited to join the group[9] and the group became the Group of Seven (G7).[8] Since first invited by the United Kingdom in 1977, the European Union has been represented by the president of the European Commission and the leader of the country that holds the presidency of the Council of the European Union;[10] the Council President now also regularly attends.

Until the 1985 Plaza Accord no one outside a tight official circle knew when the seven finance ministers met or what they agreed upon. The summit was announced the day before and a communiqué was issued afterwards.[11]

Following 1994's G7 summit in Naples, Russian officials held separate meetings with leaders of the G7 after the group's summits. This informal arrangement was dubbed the Political 8 (P8) – or, colloquially, the G7+1. At the invitation of Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair and President of the United States Bill Clinton,[12] Russian President Boris Yeltsin was invited first as a guest observer, later as a full participant. After the 1997 meeting Russia was formally invited to the next meeting and formally joined the group in 1998, resulting in a new governmental political forum, the Group of Eight or G8.[8] The Russian Federation, in fact, had and has limited net national wealth and financial weight compared to the other members of the G8. Russia also has never been a major advanced economy according to the IMF.[13][14] However, the Russian Federation was ejected from the G8 political forum in March 2014, following the Russian annexation of Crimea.[15]

There have been various proposals to expand the G7. In 2020, US President Donald Trump, advocated that Russia should be invited to re-join the group and wished Australia, India and South Korea to join.[16] The last three countries were approved by various think tank groups and the government of Boris Johnson.[17] The French jurist and consultant Eric Garner de Béville, a member of the Cercle Montesquieu, also proposed Spain's membership to the G7.[18] Initiated in 2014, based in the G7, the Atlantic Council’s D-10 Strategy Forum brings together top policy planning officials and strategy experts from ten leading democracies at the forefront of building and maintaining the rules-based democratic order: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States, plus the European Union. Other democracies – including India, Indonesia, Poland, and Spain – have participated as observers.[19]


G7 is located in North America
Host venues of G7 summits in North America
G7 is located in Japan
Host venues of G7 summits in Japan

The institution was founded to facilitate shared macroeconomic initiatives by its members in response to the collapse of the exchange rate 1971, during the time of the Nixon shock, the 1970s energy crisis and the ensuing recession.[20]

Since 1975, the group meets annually on summit site to discuss economic policies [citation needed]; since 1987, the G7 Finance Ministers have met at least semi-annually, up to four times a year at stand-alone meetings.[21]

In 1996, the G7 launched an initiative for the 42 heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC).[22]

In 1997, the G7 provided $300 million to the effort to build the containment of the reactor meltdown at Chernobyl.[23]

In 1999, the G7 decided to get more directly involved in "managing the international monetary system" through the Financial Stability Forum, formed earlier in 1999 and the G-20, established following the summit, to "promote dialogue between major industrial and emerging market countries".[24] The G7 also announced their plan to cancel 90% of bilateral, and multilateral debt for the HIPC, totaling $100 billion. In 2005 the G7 announced debt reductions of "up to 100%" to be negotiated on a "case by case" basis.[25]

In 2008 the G7 met twice in Washington, D.C. to discuss the global financial crisis of 2007–2008[26] and in February 2009 in Rome.[27][28] The group of finance ministers pledged to take "all necessary steps" to stem the crisis.[29]

On 2 March 2014, the G7 condemned the "Russian Federation's violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine."[30] The G7 stated "that the International Monetary Fund (IMF) remains the institution best prepared to help Ukraine address its immediate economic challenges through policy advice and financing, conditioned on needed reforms", and that the G7 was "committed to mobilize rapid technical assistance to support Ukraine in addressing its macroeconomic, regulatory and anti-corruption challenges."[30] On 24 March 2014, the G7 convened an emergency meeting in response to the Russian Federation's annexation of Crimea at the official residence of the Prime Minister of the Netherlands, the Catshuis in The Hague. This location was chosen because all G7 leaders were already present to attend the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit hosted by the Netherlands. This was the first G7 meeting neither taking place in a member nation nor having the host leader participating in the meeting.[31] On 4 June 2014 leaders at the G7 summit in Brussels, condemned Moscow for its "continuing violation" of Ukraine's sovereignty, in their joint statement and stated they were prepared to impose further sanctions on Russia.[32] This meeting was the first since Russia was expelled from the G8 following its annexation of Crimea in March.[32]

The annual G7 leaders' summit is attended by the heads of government.[33] The member country holding the G7 presidency is responsible for organizing and hosting the year's summit. The serial annual summits can be parsed chronologically in arguably distinct ways, including as the sequence of host countries for the summits has recurred over time and series.[34] Generally every country hosts the summit once every 7 years.[35]

List of summits

# Date Host Host figure Location held Notes (previous)

Links (future)

1st 15–17 November 1975 France Valéry Giscard d'Estaing Château de Rambouillet, Yvelines G6 Summit
2nd 27–28 June 1976  United States Gerald R. Ford Dorado, Puerto Rico[36] Also called "Rambouillet II". Canada joined the group, forming the G7.[36]
3rd 7–8 May 1977  United Kingdom James Callaghan London, England The President of the European Commission was invited to join the annual G7 summits.
4th 16–17 July 1978  West Germany Helmut Schmidt Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia
5th 28–29 June 1979 Japan Masayoshi Ōhira Tokyo
6th 22–23 June 1980  Italy Francesco Cossiga Venice, Veneto Prime Minister Ōhira died in office on 12 June; Foreign Minister Saburō Ōkita led the delegation that represented Japan.
7th 20–21 July 1981  Canada Pierre E. Trudeau Montebello, Québec
8th 4–6 June 1982  France François Mitterrand Versailles, Yvelines
9th 28–30 May 1983  United States Ronald Reagan Williamsburg, Virginia
10th 7–9 June 1984  United Kingdom Margaret Thatcher London, England
11th 2–4 May 1985  West Germany Helmut Kohl Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia
12th 4–6 May 1986 Japan Yasuhiro Nakasone Tokyo
13th 8–10 June 1987  Italy Amintore Fanfani Venice, Veneto
14th 19–21 June 1988  Canada Brian Mulroney Toronto, Ontario
15th 14–16 July 1989  France François Mitterrand Paris, Paris
16th 9–11 July 1990  United States George H. W. Bush Houston, Texas
17th 15–17 July 1991  United Kingdom John Major London, England
18th 6–8 July 1992  Germany Helmut Kohl Munich, Bavaria
19th 7–9 July 1993 Japan Kiichi Miyazawa Tokyo
20th 8–10 July 1994  Italy Silvio Berlusconi Naples, Campania
21st 15–17 June 1995  Canada Jean Chrétien Halifax, Nova Scotia
22nd 27–29 June 1996  France Jacques Chirac Lyon, Rhône International organizations' debut to G7 Summits periodically. The invited ones here were: United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization.[37]
23rd 20–22 June 1997  United States Bill Clinton Denver, Colorado Russia joins the group, forming G8.
24th 15–17 May 1998  United Kingdom Tony Blair Birmingham, West Midlands
25th 18–20 June 1999  Germany Gerhard Schröder Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia First Summit of the G-20 major economies at Berlin.
26th 21–23 July 2000  Japan Yoshirō Mori Nago, Okinawa Formation of the G8+5 starts, when South Africa was invited. Until the 38th G8 summit in 2012, it has been invited to the Summit annually without interruption. Also, with permission from a G8 leader, other nations were invited to the Summit on a periodical basis for the first time. Nigeria, Algeria and Senegal accepted their invitations here. The World Health Organization was also invited for the first time.[37]
27th 21–22 July 2001  Italy Silvio Berlusconi Genoa, Liguria Leaders from Bangladesh, Mali and El Salvador accepted their invitations here.[37] Demonstrator Carlo Giuliani is shot and killed by the Carabinieri during a violent demonstration. One of the largest and most violent anti-globalization movement protests occurred for the 27th G8 summit.[38] Following those events and the September 11 attacks two months later in 2001, the G8 have met at more remote locations.
28th 26–27 June 2002  Canada Jean Chrétien Kananaskis, Alberta Russia gains permission to officially host a G8 Summit.
29th 1–3 June 2003  France Jacques Chirac Évian-les-Bains, Haute-Savoie The G8+5 was unofficially made, when China, India, Brazil, and Mexico were invited to this Summit for the first time. South Africa has joined the G8 Summit, since 2000, until the 2012 edition. Other first-time nations that were invited by the French president included: Egypt, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia and Switzerland.[37]
30th 8–10 June 2004  United States George W. Bush Sea Island, Georgia A record number of leaders from 12 different nations accepted their invitations here. Amongst a couple of veteran nations, the others were: Ghana, Afghanistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Turkey, Yemen and Uganda.[37] Also, the state funeral of former President Ronald Reagan took place in Washington during the summit. All of G8 participants attended this funeral, along with 20 more heads of state.
31st 6–8 July 2005  United Kingdom Tony Blair Gleneagles, Scotland The G8+5 was officially formed. On the second day of the meeting, suicide bombers killed 52 people on the London Underground and a bus. Nations that were invited for the first time were Ethiopia and Tanzania. The African Union and the International Energy Agency made their debut here.[37] During the 31st G8 summit in United Kingdom, 225,000 people took to the streets of Edinburgh as part of the Make Poverty History campaign calling for Trade Justice, Debt Relief and Better Aid. Numerous other demonstrations also took place challenging the legitimacy of the G8.[39]
32nd 15–17 July 2006  Russia (only G8 member, not G7)[13] Vladimir Putin Strelna, Saint Petersburg First G8 Summit on Russian Federation soil. Also, the International Atomic Energy Agency and UNESCO made their debut here.[37]
33rd 6–8 June 2007  Germany Angela Merkel Heiligendamm, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Seven different international organizations accepted their invitations to this Summit. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Commonwealth of Independent States made their debut here.[37]
34th 7–9 July 2008  Japan Yasuo Fukuda Tōyako, Hokkaidō Nations that accepted their G8 Summit invitations for the first time are: Australia, Indonesia and South Korea.[37]
35th 8–10 July 2009  Italy Silvio Berlusconi La Maddalena, Sardinia (cancelled)
L'Aquila, Abruzzo
This G8 Summit was originally planned to be in La Maddalena (Sardinia), but was moved to L'Aquila as a way of showing Prime Minister Berlusconi's desire to help the region after the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. It was the most heavily attended summit in the history of the group (with 15 invited countries). Nations that accepted their invitations for the first time were: Angola, Denmark, Netherlands and Spain.[41] Also, a record of 11 international organizations were represented in this G8 Summit. For the first time, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Fund for Agricultural Development, the World Food Programme, and the International Labour Organization accepted their invitations.[42]
36th 25–26 June 2010[43]  Canada Stephen Harper Huntsville, Ontario[44] Malawi, Colombia, Haiti, and Jamaica accepted their invitations for the first time.[45]
37th 26–27 May 2011  France Nicolas Sarkozy Deauville,[46][47] Calvados Guinea, Niger, Côte d'Ivoire and Tunisia accepted their invitations for the first time. Also, the League of Arab States made its debut to the meeting.[48]
38th 18–19 May 2012  United States Barack Obama Chicago, Illinois (cancelled)
Camp David, Maryland (re-located)[49]
The summit was originally planned for Chicago, along with the NATO summit, but it was announced officially on 5 March 2012, that the G8 summit will be held at the more private location of Camp David and at one day earlier than previously scheduled.[50] Also, this is the second G8 summit, in which one of the leaders, Vladimir Putin, declined to participate. This G8 summit concentrated on the core leaders only; no non-G8 leaders or international organizations were invited.
39th 17–18 June 2013  United Kingdom David Cameron Lough Erne, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland[51] As in 2012, only the core members of the G8 attended this meeting. The four main topics that were discussed here were trade, government transparency, tackling tax evasion, and the ongoing Syrian crisis.[52]
40th 4–5 June 2014  European Union Herman Van Rompuy
José Manuel Barroso
Brussels, Belgium (re-located from Sochi, Russia) G7 summit as an alternative meeting without Russia in 2014 due to association with Crimean crisis.[53] The 2014 G8 summit in Sochi was cancelled and re-located to Brussels, Belgium without Russia.[54] Emergency meeting in March 2014 in The Hague.
41st 7–8 June 2015  Germany Angela Merkel Schloss Elmau, Bavaria[55] Summit dedicated to focus on the global economy as well as on key issues regarding foreign, security and development policy.[56] The Global Apollo Programme was also on the agenda.[57]
42nd 26–27 May 2016[58][59]  Japan Shinzō Abe Shima, Mie Prefecture[60] The G7 leaders aim to address challenges affecting the growth of the world economy, like slowdowns in emerging markets and drops in price of oil. The G7 also issued a warning to the United Kingdom that "a UK exit from the EU would reverse the trend towards greater global trade and investment, and the jobs they create and is a further serious risk to growth".[61] Commitment to an EU–Japan Free Trade Agreement.
43rd 26–27 May 2017[62]  Italy Paolo Gentiloni Taormina, Sicily[63] G7 leaders emphasized common endeavours: to end the Syrian crisis, to fulfill the UN mission in Libya and reducing the presence of ISIS, ISIL and Da'esh in Syria and Iraq. North Korea was urged to comply with UN resolutions, Russian responsibility was stressed for Ukrainian conflict. Supporting economic activity and ensuring price stability was demanded while inequalities in trade and gender were called to be challenged. It was agreed to help countries in creating conditions that address the drivers of migration: ending hunger, increasing competitiveness and advancing global health security.[64]
44th 8–9 June 2018  Canada[65] Justin Trudeau La Malbaie, Québec It took place at the Manoir Richelieu. Prime Minister Trudeau announced five themes for Canada's G7 presidency which began in January 2018. Climate, along with commerce trades, was one of the main themes. “Working together on climate change, oceans and clean energy”.[66] The G7 members' final statement contains 28 points. US President Donald Trump did not agree to the economic section of the final statement.[67] The G7 members also announced to recall sanctions and to be ready to take further restrictive measures against Russian Federation for the failure of Minsk Agreement's complete implementation.[68]
45th 24–26 August 2019  France[69] Emmanuel Macron Biarritz, Pyrénées-Atlantiques It was agreed at the summit that the World Trade Organization, "with regard to intellectual property protection, to settle disputes more swiftly and to eliminate unfair trade practices", "to simplify regulatory barriers and modernize international taxation within the framework of the OECD", "to ensure that Iran never acquires nuclear weapons and to foster peace and stability in the region.", "to support a truce in Libya that will lead to a long-term ceasefire" and addressed the Russian military intervention in Ukraine and the 2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests.[70][71][72][73]
46th Cancelled  United States (original host)[69]
Donald Trump (original host figure) Camp David, Maryland (cancelled) This meeting was originally scheduled to be held in Camp David, Maryland, but that meeting was officially cancelled on March 19, 2020 due to the concerns over the worldwide coronavirus pandemic and was replaced by a global videoconference.[74]
47th 11–13 June 2021  United Kingdom[75] Boris Johnson Carbis Bay, St Ives, Cornwall, England[76] Provisional agreement reached on global minimum corporate tax rate of 15%
48th TBD, 2022  Germany[75] TBD TBD
49th TBD, 2023  Japan[75] TBD TBD
50th TBD, 2024  Italy[75] TBD TBD

Country leaders and EU representatives (as of 2021)

Current leaders

Member Representative(s) Minister of Finance Central Bank Governor
Canada Prime Minister Justin Trudeau Minister of Finance Chrystia Freeland Tiff Macklem
France President Emmanuel Macron Minister of the Economy and Finance Bruno Le Maire François Villeroy de Galhau
Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel Minister of Finance Olaf Scholz Jens Weidmann
Italy Prime Minister Mario Draghi Minister of Economy and Finance Daniele Franco Ignazio Visco
Japan Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga Minister of Finance Tarō Asō Haruhiko Kuroda
United Kingdom Prime Minister Boris Johnson Chancellor of the Exchequer Rishi Sunak Andrew Bailey
United States President Joe Biden Secretary of the Treasury Janet Yellen Jerome Powell
European Union Council President[77] Charles Michel Commissioner for Economy Paolo Gentiloni Christine Lagarde
Commission President[77] Ursula Von Der Leyen

Member country data

Member Trade mil. USD (2014) Nom. GDP mil. USD (2019)[78] PPP GDP mil. USD (2019)[78] Nom. GDP per capita USD (2019)[78] PPP GDP per capita USD (2019)[78] HDI (2017) Population (2014) Permanent members of UN Security Council DAC OECD Economic classification (IMF)[79]
Canada 947,200 1,736,426 1,920,997 46,271 51,190 0.926 35,467,000 Red XN Green tickY Green tickY Advanced
France 1,212,300 2,715,818 3,228,039 41,896 49,798 0.901 63,951,000 Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Advanced
Germany 2,866,600 3,861,550 4,672,006 46,472 56,226 0.936 80,940,000 Red XN Green tickY Green tickY Advanced
Italy 948,600 2,001,466 2,665,524 33,159 44,160 0.880 60,665,551 Red XN Green tickY Green tickY Advanced
Japan 1,522,400 5,079,916 5,450,654 40,255 43,193 0.909 127,061,000 Red XN Green tickY Green tickY Advanced
United Kingdom 1,189,400 2,830,764 3,254,845 42,378 48,727 0.922 64,511,000 Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Advanced
United States 3,944,000 21,433,225 21,433,225 65,253 65,253 0.924 318,523,000 Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Advanced
European Union (2014) 4,485,000 18,527,116 18,640,411 36,645 36,869 0.899 505,570,700 Green tickY Emerging and Developing / Advanced[80]

The G7 is composed of the seven wealthiest advanced countries. The People's Republic of China, according to its data, would be the second-largest with 16.4% of the world net wealth,[2] but is excluded because the IMF and other main global institutions do not consider China an advanced country [citation needed] and because of its relatively low net wealth per adult and HDI.[81][13] As of 2017 Crédit Suisse reports the G7 (without the European Union) represents above 62% of the global net wealth.[82] Including the EU the G7 represents over 70% of the global net wealth.[83]

Member facts


2014 suspension and subsequent exclusion of Russia

Further information: 40th G7 summit

In March 2014 Russia was suspended by G7 members from the political forum G8 following the annexation of Crimea. After the suspension, in January 2017 the Russian Federation decided to permanently leave the G8. It was confirmed in June 2018.[94][95][96][97][98]

2015 protests

Further information: 41st G7 summit

About 7,500 protesters led by the group 'Stop-G7' demonstrated during the summit. About 300 of those managed to reach the 3 m high and 7 km long security fence surrounding the summit location despite Germany's immense efforts to prevent it and despite its remote location – the luxury hotel Schloss Elmau at the foot of the Wetterstein mountains (altitude of 1,008 m (3,307 ft) above sea level). The protesters questioned the legitimacy of the G7 to make decisions that could affect the whole world. Authorities had banned demonstrations in the closer area of the summit location and 20,000 police were on duty in Southern Bavaria to keep activists and protesters from interfering with the summit.[99][100]

2018 Trump conflict over tariffs and Russia

Further information: 44th G7 summit and Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present)

The 2018 meeting in Charlevoix, Canada, was marred by fractious negotiations concerning tariffs and Donald Trump's position that Russia should be reinstated to the G7. The Trump administration had just imposed steel and aluminum tariffs on many countries, including European countries that are fellow members of the G7, and Canada, the host country for the 2018 meeting. Trump expressed dismay at Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau for holding a press conference in which Canada restated its position on tariffs (a public criticism of Trump's economic policy), and directed his representatives at the meeting to not sign the economic section of the joint communiqué that is typically issued at the conclusion of the meeting. German Chancellor Angela Merkel described Trump's behavior as a "depressing withdrawal," while French President Emmanuel Macron invited him "to be serious."[101] In the final statement signed by all members except the US, G7 announced its intention to recall sanctions and to be ready to take further restrictive measures within the next months against the Russian Federation for its failure to completely implement the Minsk Agreement.[68]

Trump repeated calls for Russia to be re-admitted to the group in the 2019 meeting in Biarritz, saying it should be included in discussions relating to Iran, Syria, and North Korea. The Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte supported Trump's proposal, Shinzo Abe of Japan was neutral, and the rest of the G7 pushed back against the suggestion, after which the atmosphere allegedly became "tense".

2019 Amazon rainforest fires and Brazil

Further information: 45th G7 summit and 2019 Brazil wildfires

U.S. President Donald Trump's reiteration that Russia should be readmitted to the group (see above), instigation of a trade war with China, increased tensions in Iran, Trump's alleged reluctance to attend the conference and a number of international crises made the 2019 G7 meeting in Biarritz, France the most divided since its inception. Following Trump's previous rescinding of his signature to a joint communiqué agreed in 2018 due to an alleged slight from Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau (see above), French President Emmanuel Macron agreed that the group would not issue a joint communiqué at the Biarritz conference.[102]

The G7 nations pledged US$20 million to help Brazil and other countries in South America to fight the wildfires. This money was welcomed, although it was widely seen as "relatively small amount" given the scale of the problem.[103] Macron threatened to block a major trade deal between European Union and Brazil (Mercosur) that would benefit the agricultural interests accused of driving deforestation.[104]

See also


  1. ^ McHugh, David (23 August 2019). "After 45 years, G-7 endures despite the Trump tweets". AP. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  2. ^ a b Research Institute – Global Wealth Databook 2018[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
  4. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. imf.org. October 2017. Major Advanced Economies (G7).
  5. ^ a b Shultz, George P. (1993). Turmoil and Triumph: My Years as Secretary of State. p. 148. ISBN 0-684-19325-6.
  6. ^ Bayne, Nicholas; Putnam, Robert D. (2000). Hanging in There. Ashgate Pub Ltd. 230 pages. ISBN 075461185X. p. 20.
  7. ^ Farnsworth, Clyde H. (8 May 1977). "A Secret Society of Finance Ministers," New York Times.
  8. ^ a b c "Evian summit – Questions about the G8". Ministère des Affaires étrangères, Paris. Archived from the original on 20 April 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
  9. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia – Canada and the G8 G8: The Most Exclusive Club in the World, Thomas S. Axworthy, The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica Foundation of Canada, Toronto, Undated. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  10. ^ "EU and the G8". European Union. Archived from the original on 26 December 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2006.
  11. ^ Schaefer, Robert K (2005). "Dollar Devaluations". Understanding Globalization: The Social Consequences of Political, Economic, and Environmental Change. Rowman and Littlefield. p. 346.
  12. ^ "Russia – Odd Man Out in the G-8", Mark Medish, The Globalist, 02-24-2006 Archived 5 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed: 7 December 2008
  13. ^ a b c "Select Country or Country Groups". www.imf.org.
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 September 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2018.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ Smale, Alison; Shear, Michael D. (24 March 2014). "Russia Is Ousted From Group of 8 by U.S. and Allies". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  16. ^ "Donald Trump postpones G7 summit and signals wider invitation list". The Guardian. 31 May 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  17. ^ "D-10 Strategy Forum". Atlantic Council.
  18. ^ "L'Espagne peut-elle intégrer le G7". Challenges (in French). 2 March 2021.
  19. ^ "D-10 Strategy Forum". Atlantic Council.
  20. ^ Bayne, Nicholas (7 December 1998), "International economic organizations : more policy making less autonomy", in Reinalda, Bob; Verbeek, Bertjan (eds.), Autonomous Policymaking By International Organizations (Routledge/Ecpr Studies in European Political Science, 5), Routledge, ISBN 9780415164863, OCLC 70763323, OL 7484858M, 0415164869
  21. ^ "G7/8 Ministerial Meetings and Documents". G8 Information Centre. University of Toronto. 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  22. ^ International Money Fund. "Debt Relief Under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative;Perspectives on the Current Framework and Options for Change". IMF.org. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
  23. ^ "The True Cost of the Chernobyl Disaster Has Been Greater Than It Seems". Time. 26 April 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  24. ^ Van Houtven, Leo (September 2004). "Rethinking IMF Governance" (PDF). Finance & Development. International Money Fund. p. 18. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
  25. ^ "G7 backs Africa debt relief plan". 5 February 2005 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
  26. ^ Bo Nielsen (14 April 2008). "G7 Statement Fails to Convince Major Traders to Change Outlook". Bloomberg L.P.
  27. ^ Simon Kennedy (10 October 2008). "G7 Against the Wall – Weighs Loan-Guarantee Plan (Update1)". Bloomberg L.P.
  28. ^ "Yahoo.com". Archived from the original on 16 February 2009.
  29. ^ O'Grady, Sean (11 October 2008). "G7 pledges action to save banks". The Independent. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  30. ^ a b "Statement by G7 Nations". G8 Info Ctr. University of Toronto. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  31. ^ "G7 leaders descend on the Netherlands for Ukraine crisis talks". CBC news. Thomson Reuters. 23 March 2014.
  32. ^ a b BBC (5 June 2014). "G7 leaders warn Russia of fresh sanctions over Ukraine". BBC.
  33. ^ Feldman, Adam (7 July 2008). "What's Wrong with the G-8". Forbes. New York.
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