Minister of National Defence
Ministre de la Défense nationale
220428-D-XI929-1012 (52035502967) (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Anita Anand

since 26 October 2021
Department of National Defence
Canadian Armed Forces
StyleThe Honourable
Member of
Reports to
AppointerMonarch (represented by the governor general);[3]
on the advice of the prime minister[4]
Term lengthAt His Majesty's pleasure
Precursor
Inaugural holderGeorge Perry Graham
Formation1 January 1923
SalaryCA$269,800 (2019)[5]
Websiteforces.gc.ca

The minister of national defence (MND; French: ministre de la défense nationale) is a minister of the Crown in the Cabinet of Canada responsible for the management and direction of all matters relating to the national defence of Canada.[6]

The Department of National Defence is headed by the deputy minister of national defence (the department's senior civil servant), while the Canadian Armed Forces are headed by the chief of the defence staff (the senior serving military officer).[7] Both are responsible to the minister of national defence. The King (represented by the governor general of Canada) is Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces and has final authority on all orders and laws for the "defence of the realm".[8][9]

The minister is responsible, through the tenets of responsible government, to Parliament for "the management and direction of the Canadian Forces". Any orders and instructions for the Canadian Armed Forces are issued by or through the chief of the defence staff.[10] The Department of National Defence exists to aid the minister in carrying out her responsibilities, and acts as the civilian support system for the Canadian Forces.[11][12]

The current minister of national defence is Anita Anand. The parliamentary secretary, who represents the minister when she is away from the House of Commons, is Bryan May.

History

On 1 January 1923, the National Defence Act, 1922 came into effect, merging the Department of Militia and Defence, the Department of the Naval Service, and the Air Board to form the Department of National Defence. The ministerial heads of the former departments, the minister of militia and defence, the minister of the naval service, and the minister of aviation were merged to form a new position, the minister of national defence.

During the Second World War, the minister of national defence was assisted by two subordinate ministers. The minister of national defence for air was an additional minister in the Department of National Defence responsible for the Royal Canadian Air Force; while the minister of national defence for naval services was another minister in the Department of National Defence responsible for the Royal Canadian Navy. The air and naval post was reincorporated into the portfolio of the minister of national defence following the Second World War.

The Munsinger affair was Canada's first national political sex scandal in 1966. The affair involved Gerda Munsinger, a German citizen who had been convicted in Germany as a common prostitute, a petty thief and a smuggler, who emigrated to Canada in 1956 in spite of a warning card dated 1952, and who was in 1960 the mistress of the former Associate Minister of National Defence Pierre Sévigny. Munsinger was "a self-admitted espionage agent" in the employ of the "Russian Intelligence Service".[13]

Canadian military spending
1
2
3
4
5
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7
8
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020
Military spending: as percent share of GDP (1950–2020)[14]
Canadian military spending
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020
Military spending: Constant 2019 USD million (1953–2020)[15]

The Defence Portfolio

The Defence Portfolio is a collection of organizations and agencies that report to the minister of national defence. Although deputy heads for individual agencies direct and oversee the activities of their agency, the minister is accountable to Parliament its activities.[16] The Defence Portfolio includes:[17]

The minister of national defence is also the designated lead minister for search and rescue (LMSAR) within the federal government.

List of ministers

Key:

  Liberal Party of Canada
  Historical conservative parties: Liberal-Conservative, Conservative (historical), Unionist, National Liberal and Conservative, Progressive Conservative
  Conservative Party of Canada
No. Portrait Name Term of office Political party Ministry
1
George Perry Graham.jpg
George Perry Graham January 1, 1923 April 27, 1923 Liberal 12 (King)
2
Edward Mortimer Macdonald.jpg
Edward Mortimer Macdonald April 28, 1923
(Acting until Aug.17)
June 28, 1926 Liberal
3
Hugh Guthrie.jpg
Hugh Guthrie June 29, 1926
(Acting until Jul.13)
September 25, 1926 Conservative (historical) 13 (Meighen)
VACANT September 25, 1926 September 30, 1926 14 (King)
James Alexander Robb.jpg
James Robb
(Acting)
October 1, 1926 October 7, 1926 Liberal
4
James Ralston3.png
James Ralston
(1st time)
October 8, 1926 August 7, 1930 Liberal
5
Donald Matheson Sutherland.jpg
Donald Matheson Sutherland August 7, 1930 November 16, 1934 Conservative (historical) 15 (Bennett)
6
No image.svg
Grote Stirling November 17, 1934 October 23, 1935 Conservative (historical)
7
Ian Alastair Mackenzie.jpg
Ian Alistair Mackenzie October 24, 1935 September 18, 1939 Liberal 16 (King)
8
Norman McLeod Rogers.jpg
Norman McLeod Rogers September 19, 1939 June 10, 1940 Liberal
Charles Gavan Chubby Power.jpg
Charles Power
(Acting)
June 11, 1940 July 4, 1940 Liberal
(4)
James Ralston3.png
James Ralston
(2nd time)
July 5, 1940 November 1, 1944 Liberal
9
LGen Andrew McNaughton, 1942 cropped.jpg
Andrew McNaughton November 2, 1944 August 20, 1945 Military
10
Douglas Charles Abbott.jpg
Douglas Abbott August 21, 1945 December 9, 1946 Liberal
11
Brooke Claxton.jpg
Brooke Claxton December 10, 1946 November 15, 1948 Liberal
November 15, 1948 June 30, 1954 17 (St. Laurent)
12
No image.svg
Ralph Campney July 1, 1954 June 20, 1957 Liberal
13
George Pearkes 1917.jpg
George Pearkes June 21, 1957 October 10, 1960 Progressive Conservative 18 (Diefenbaker)
14
No image.svg
Douglas Harkness October 11, 1960 February 3, 1963 Progressive Conservative
VACANT February 4, 1963 February 11, 1963
15
No image.svg
Gordon Churchill February 12, 1963 April 21, 1963 Progressive Conservative
16
Paul Hellyer-c1969.jpg
Paul Hellyer April 22, 1963 September 18, 1967 Liberal 19 (Pearson)
17
No image.svg
Léo Cadieux September 18, 1967 April 19, 1968 Liberal
April 20, 1968 September 16, 1970 20 (P. E. Trudeau)
Charles Drury
(1st time; Acting)
September 17, 1970 September 23, 1970 Liberal
18
No image.svg
Donald Macdonald September 24, 1970 January 27, 1972 Liberal
19 Edgar Benson January 28, 1972 August 31, 1972 Liberal
No image.svg
Jean-Eudes Dubé
(Acting)
September 1, 1972 September 6, 1972 Liberal
Charles Drury
(2nd time; Acting)
September 7, 1972 November 26, 1972 Liberal
20
No image.svg
James Richardson November 27, 1972 October 12, 1976 Liberal
21
No image.svg
Barney Danson October 13, 1976
(Acting until Nov.3)
June 3, 1979 Liberal
22
No image.svg
Allan McKinnon June 4, 1979 March 2, 1980 Progressive Conservative 21 (Clark)
23
No image.svg
Gilles Lamontagne March 3, 1980 August 11, 1983 Liberal 22 (P. E. Trudeau)
24
No image.svg
Jean–Jacques Blais August 12, 1983 June 29, 1984 Liberal
June 30, 1984 September 16, 1984 23 (Turner)
25
No image.svg
Robert Coates September 17, 1984 February 11, 1985 Progressive Conservative 24 (Mulroney)
26
No image.svg
Erik Nielsen February 12, 1985
(Acting until Feb.26)
June 29, 1986 Progressive Conservative
27
No image.svg
Perrin Beatty June 30, 1986 January 29, 1989 Progressive Conservative
28
Bill McKnight.jpg
Bill McKnight January 30, 1989 April 20, 1991 Progressive Conservative
29
Marcel Masse 2012-04-12.jpg
Marcel Masse April 21, 1991 January 3, 1993 Progressive Conservative
30
KimCampbell.jpg
Kim Campbell January 4, 1993 June 24, 1993 Progressive Conservative
31
No image.svg
Tom Siddon June 25, 1993 November 3, 1993 Progressive Conservative 25 (Campbell)
32
No image.svg
David Collenette November 4, 1993 October 4, 1996 Liberal 26 (Chrétien)
33
No image.svg
Doug Young October 5, 1996 June 10, 1997 Liberal
34
Art Eggleton 1.JPG
Art Eggleton June 11, 1997 June 25, 2002 Liberal
35
John McCallum.jpg
John McCallum June 26, 2002 December 11, 2003 Liberal
36
David Pratt December 12, 2003 July 19, 2004 Liberal 27 (Martin)
37
Bill Graham by Rod Brito.jpg
Bill Graham July 20, 2004 February 5, 2006 Liberal
38
Gordon O
Gordon O'Connor February 6, 2006 August 14, 2007 Conservative 28 (Harper)
39
Peter MacKay crop.JPG
Peter MacKay August 14, 2007 July 15, 2013 Conservative
40
Rob Nicholson infobox.jpg
Rob Nicholson July 15, 2013 February 9, 2015 Conservative
41
Jason Kenney in 2019 - cropped.jpg
Jason Kenney February 9, 2015 November 4, 2015 Conservative
42
Canadian Minister of Defense Harjit Sajjan.jpg
Harjit Sajjan November 4, 2015 October 26, 2021 Liberal 29 (J. Trudeau)
43
Anita Anand (cropped).jpg
Anita Anand October 26, 2021 Incumbent Liberal

Ministers with military experience

Name Rank Branch Position (if applicable) / Unit(s)
James Ralston Colonel Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) Commanding Officer, 85th (Nova Scotia Highlanders) Battalion, CEF
Donald Matheson Sutherland Lieutenant Colonel CEF Officer Commanding, 52nd Battalion (New Ontario) and A Company 1st Battalion, Major, A Squadron 24th Regiment Grey's Horse
Andrew McNaughton General CEF / Canadian Militia / Permanent Active Militia Commanding Officer, 5th Battalion Canadian Mounted Rifles and Canadian Corps
Ralph Campney Lieutenant CEF / Canadian Army / Royal Flying Corps No.5 Stationary or General Hospital (Queen's), Commissioned Officer, 19th Canadian Infantry Battalion
Norman McLeod Rogers Lieutenant CEF 6th Nova Scotia Mounted Rifles
Charles Gavan Power Acting Major CEF Canadian Corps
Brooke Claxton Battery Sergeant-Major Victoria Rifles of Canada
George Pearkes Major General CEF / Canadian Militia and Canadian Army Commanding Officer, Canadian Corps
Douglas Harkness Lieutenant Colonel Canadian Army Royal Canadian Artillery
Gordon Churchill Lieutenant Colonel CEF Vickers Machine Gunner, Commanding Officer Fort Garry Horse and 1st Canadian Carrier Regiment (Canadian Corps)
Paul Hellyer Gunner Canadian Army Royal Canadian Artillery
Charles Drury Brigadier General Canadian Army Commanding Officer, 4th Field Regiment Royal Canadian Artillery, General Staff Officer of the 2nd Canadian Division and acting commander of the Royal Artillery 4th Canadian Division
Edgar Benson Sergeant Canadian Corps (Canadian Army) 1st Survey Regiment, Royal Canadian Artillery
Barney Danson Lieutenant Canadian Army The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada
James Armstrong Richardson Pilot Officer RCAF Consolidated Liberator anti-submarine patrol squadron of the (No. 10 Squadron RCAF)
Allan McKinnon Major Canadian Army Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery and Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry
Erik Nielsen Pilot Officer (RAF) / Adjutant (RCAF) Royal Flying Corps / RCAF 101 Squadron and 126 Squadron; RCAF Legal Officer
Gilles Lamontagne Flight Lieutenant RCAF bomber pilot No. 425 Bomber Squadron
Gordon O'Connor Brigadier General Canadian Army Royal Canadian Armoured Corps
Harjit Sajjan Lieutenant Colonel Canadian Army The British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own), Royal Canadian Armoured Corps

Bill Graham was enrolled under the University Naval Training Division of the Royal Canadian Naval Reserve and received commission as Sub Lieutenant in 1960. Graham did not serve in the Navy following his commission and thus does not have military experience.

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Canadian Parliamentary system - Our Procedure - House of Commons". www.ourcommons.ca. Retrieved 2020-04-20.
  2. ^ "Review of the Responsibilities and Accountabilities of Ministers and Senior Officials" (PDF).
  3. ^ "Constitutional Duties". The Governor General of Canada. Retrieved 2020-04-20.
  4. ^ "House of Commons Procedure and Practice - 1. Parliamentary Institutions - Canadian Parliamentary Institutions". www.ourcommons.ca. Retrieved 2020-04-20.
  5. ^ "Indemnities, Salaries and Allowances". Library of Parliament. April 11, 2018. Archived from the original on June 1, 2017. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
  6. ^ "Laws Defining Responsibilities and Authorities of National Defence". Department of National Defence. March 25, 2010. Archived from the original on July 10, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  7. ^ "About DND - What is the relationship between DND and the Canadian Forces?". Department of National Defence. February 1, 2012. Archived from the original on March 1, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  8. ^ Lagassé, Philippe (December 2013). "The Crown's Powers of Command-in Chief: Interpreting Section 15 of Canada's Constitution Act, 1867" (PDF). Review of Constitutional Studies. 18 (2): 189–220.
  9. ^ Federal Court of Canada (21 January 2008), In the Matter of Aralt Mac Giolla Chainnigh v. the Attorney-General of Canada (PDF), T-1809-06; 38, Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada, p. 5, 2008 FC 69, retrieved 7 February 2008
  10. ^ National Defence Act. Ottawa: Her Majesty the Queen as represented by the Minister of Justice. 2011. pp. 8, 12.
  11. ^ "FAQ - What is the relationship between DND and the CF?". Department of National Defence. February 13, 2012. Archived from the original on March 16, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  12. ^ "Civilians Supporting the Army". Department of National Defence. August 5, 2011. Archived from the original on May 16, 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  13. ^ Spence, Wishart Flett (September 1966). "Commission of Inquiry into Matters Relating to One Gerda Munsinger". Ottawa: Queen's Printer.
  14. ^ "Military expenditure by country as percentage of gross domestic product, 1949-2020" (XLSX). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 26 April 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  15. ^ "Military expenditure by country, in constant (2019) US$ m., 1949-2020" (XLSX). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 26 April 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  16. ^ "Defence Portfolio". National Defence. 2013-02-19. Retrieved 2020-04-14.
  17. ^ "The Defence Portfolio". Department of National Defence. August 5, 2011. Archived from the original on January 7, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2012.