Listed here are the monarchs who reigned over Canada, starting with the French colony of Canada, which subsequently became a British colony, followed by the British Dominion of Canada, and, finally, the present-day sovereign state of Canada.[11] The date of the first claim by a monarch over Canada varies, with most sources giving the year as 1497, when John Cabot made landfall somewhere on the North American coast (likely either modern-day Newfoundland or Nova Scotia) and claimed the land for England on behalf of King Henry VII.[20] However, some sources, instead, put this date at 1535, when the word Canada was first used to refer to the French colony of Canada,[21] which was founded in the name of King Francis I.[22][23] Monarchical governance subsequently evolved under a continuous succession of French, British, and eventually uniquely Canadian sovereigns.[28] Since the first claim by Henry VII,[29] there have been 33 sovereigns of Canada, including two sets of co-sovereigns.[37]

While Canada became a Dominion within the British Empire upon Confederation in 1867,[38][39][40][41] the concept of a fully independent Canada sharing the person of the sovereign with the United Kingdom and other countries, such as Australia and New Zealand, only emerged gradually over time through constitutional convention,[42] and was officially confirmed with the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931.[43] Since then,[31] the Canadian Crown has been legally distinct from those of the other Commonwealth realms, with its own separate and distinct monarch.[N 1] Although the term king of Canada was used as early as the beginning of the reign of George VI,[45] it was not until 1953 that the monarch's title was made official, with Elizabeth II being the first monarch to be separately proclaimed as Queen of Canada, as per the Royal Style and Titles Act.

Sovereigns of Canada

The French Crown (1534–1763)

Portrait Regnal name Reign Full name Consort
House of Valois
Francis I
(1494–1547)
24 July 1534 31 March 1547 Francis Eleanor of Austria
Territorial claim:
Henry II
(1519–1559)
31 March 1547 10 July 1559 Henry Catherine de' Medici
Francis II
(1544–1560)
10 July 1559 5 December 1560 Francis Mary, Queen of Scots
Charles IX
(1550–1574)
5 December 1560 30 May 1574 Charles Maximilian Elisabeth of Austria
Henry III
(1551–1589)
30 May 1574 2 August 1589 Alexandre Édouard Louise of Lorraine
House of Bourbon
Henry IV
(1553–1610)
2 August 1589 14 May 1610 Henri de Bourbon Margaret of Valois,
Marie de' Medici
Louis XIII
(1601–1643)
14 May 1610 14 May 1643 Louis Anne of Austria
Louis XIV
(1638–1715)
14 May 1643 1 September 1715 Louis-Dieudonné Maria Theresa of Spain,
Françoise d'Aubigné
Territorial changes:
Louis XV
(1710–1774)
1 September 1715 10 February 1763 Louis Marie Leszczyńska
Territorial changes:

The English and British Crowns (1497–1931)

Portrait Regnal name Reign Full name Consort
House of Tudor
Henry VII
(1457–1509)
24 June 1497 21 April 1509 Henry Elizabeth of York
Territorial changes:
  • 1497: in Henry's name, John Cabot laid claim to lands that soon came to be called "Canada".[N 2][30] The English Crown did not concretely exercise this claim until the reign of King George III, when the colony of Canada was officially ceded from France to Great Britain.
Henry VIII
(1491–1547)
21 April 1509 28 January 1547 Henry Catherine of Aragon (1509), Anne Boleyn (1533), Jane Seymour (1536), Anne of Cleves (1540), Catherine Howard (1540), Catherine Parr (1543)
Edward VI
(1537–1553)
28 January 1547 6 July 1553 Edward None

Mary I
(1516–1558)
& Philip II
(1527–1598)
as co-sovereigns
19 July 1553 (Mary I)

25 July 1554 (Philip II)

17 November 1558 Mary

Felipe

each other
Elizabeth I
(1533–1603)
17 November 1558 24 March 1603 Elizabeth None
Territorial changes:
House of Stuart
James I
(1566–1625)
24 March 1603 27 March 1625 Charles James Anne of Denmark
Charles I
(1600–1649)
27 March 1625 30 January 1649 Charles Henrietta Maria of France
Interregnum 30 January 1649 29 May 1660
Charles II
(1630–1685)
29 May 1660 6 February 1685 Charles Catherine of Braganza
Territorial changes:
James II
(1633–1701)
6 February 1685 1 December 1688 James Mary of Modena
Vacant 1 December 1688 13 February 1689

Mary II
(1662–1694)
& William III
(1650–1702)
as co-sovereigns
13 February 1689 28 December 1694

8 March 1702

Mary

William

each other
Anne
(1665–1714)
8 March 1702 1 August 1714 Anne Prince George of Denmark
Territorial changes:
House of Hanover
George I
(1660–1727)
1 August 1714 11 June 1727 George Louis Sophia Dorothea of Celle
George II
(1683–1760)
11 June 1727
old calendar
25 October 1760
new calendar
George Augustus Caroline of Ansbach
George III
(1738–1820)
25 October 1760 29 January 1820 George William Frederick Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Governors General of British North America: The Lord Dorchester, Robert Prescott, Robert Milnes, Thomas Dunn, James Henry Craig, George Prevost, Gordon Drummond, John Coape Sherbrooke, The Duke of Richmond
Territorial changes:
George IV
(1762–1830)
29 January 1820 26 June 1830 George Augustus Frederick Caroline of Brunswick
Governors General of British North America: The Earl of Dalhousie, James Kempt
William IV
(1765–1837)
26 June 1830 20 June 1837 William Henry Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Governors General of British North America: The Lord Aylmer, The Earl of Gosford
Victoria
(1819–1901)
20 June 1837 22 January 1901 Alexandrina Victoria Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Governors General of British North America: The Earl of Gosford, John Colborne, The Earl of Durham, The Lord Sydenham, Charles Bagot, The Lord Metcalfe, The Earl Cathcart, The Earl of Elgin, Edmund Walker Head, The Viscount Monck; Governors General of Canada: The Viscount Monck, the Lord Lisgar, the Earl of Dufferin, the Marquess of Lorne, the Marquess of Lansdowne, the Lord Stanley of Preston, the Earl of Aberdeen, the Earl of Minto
Prime Ministers of Canada: John A. Macdonald, Alexander Mackenzie, John Abbott, John Thompson, Mackenzie Bowell, Charles Tupper, Wilfrid Laurier
Territorial changes:
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Edward VII
(1841–1910)
22 January 1901 6 May 1910 Albert Edward Alexandra of Denmark
Governors General of Canada: The Earl of Minto, the Earl Grey
Prime Minister of Canada: Wilfrid Laurier
Territorial changes:
House of Windsor[a]
George V
(1865–1936)
6 May 1910 11 December 1931 George Frederick Ernest Albert Mary of Teck
Governors General of Canada: The Earl Grey, the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, the Duke of Devonshire, the Lord Byng of Vimy, the Marquess of Willingdon, the Earl of Bessborough
Prime Ministers of Canada: Wilfrid Laurier, Robert Borden, Arthur Meighen, William Lyon Mackenzie King, Richard B. Bennett
Territorial changes:
  • 1931: granted Royal Assent to the Statute of Westminster 1931, thereby creating the Canadian Crown and leaving Newfoundland as the only part of Canada's current territory left under the British Crown.

The Canadian Crown (1931–present)

In 1931 the Canadian Crown emerged as an independent entity from that of the British Crown due to the Statute of Westminster 1931.

The Dominion of Newfoundland had the same status as Canada in 1931. However, its parliament never adopted the statute to create a separate position of king of Newfoundland and would remain under the British Crown until it joined Canada in 1949.

Portrait Regnal name Reign Full name Consort
House of Windsor[b]
George V
(1865–1936)
11 December 1931 20 January 1936 George Frederick Ernest Albert Mary of Teck
Governors general: The Earl of Bessborough, the Lord Tweedsmuir
Prime ministers: Richard B. Bennett, William Lyon Mackenzie King
Edward VIII
(1894–1972)
20 January 1936 11 December 1936 Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David none
Governor general: The Lord Tweedsmuir
Prime minister: William Lyon Mackenzie King
George VI
(1895–1952)
11 December 1936 6 February 1952 Albert Frederick Arthur George Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Governors general: The Lord Tweedsmuir, the Earl of Athlone, the Viscount Alexander of Tunis
Prime ministers: William Lyon Mackenzie King, Louis St. Laurent
Territorial change:
  • 1949: merged Newfoundland (now Newfoundland and Labrador) into Canada, thereby putting all of Canada's current territory under the Canadian Crown.
Elizabeth II
(1926–2022)
6 February 1952 8 September 2022 Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Philip Mountbatten
Governors general: Vincent Massey, Georges Vanier, Roland Michener, Jules Léger, Edward Schreyer, Jeanne Sauvé, Ray Hnatyshyn, Roméo LeBlanc, Adrienne Clarkson, Michaëlle Jean, David Johnston, Julie Payette, Mary Simon
Prime ministers: Louis St. Laurent, John Diefenbaker, Lester B. Pearson, Pierre Trudeau, Joe Clark, John Turner, Brian Mulroney, Kim Campbell, Jean Chrétien, Paul Martin, Stephen Harper, Justin Trudeau
Charles III
(b. 1948)
8 September 2022 present Charles Philip Arthur George Camilla Shand
Governor general: Mary Simon
Prime minister: Justin Trudeau

Consorts

The Canadian monarch's consort—his or her spouse—has no constitutional status or power, but is a member of the Canadian royal family. In the United Kingdom, all female consorts have had the right to and have held the title of queen consort; as Canada does not have laws or letters patent under the Great Seal of Canada laying out the styles of any royal family members besides the monarch, royal consorts are, as a courtesy, addressed in Canada using the style and title as they hold in the UK. After informal discussions among the various Commonwealth prime ministers between 1954 and 1957, it was decided that the Duke of Edinburgh, husband of Elizabeth II, would not be granted the title of prince consort.[48][49]

Since Confederation, two sovereigns have reigned over Canada without a consort: Victoria, whose husband, Albert, died before Confederation, and Edward VIII, who married Wallis Simpson after his abdication.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The English Court of Appeal ruled in 1982, while "there is only one person who is the Sovereign within the British Commonwealth... in matters of law and government the Queen of the United Kingdom, for example, is entirely independent and distinct from the Queen of Canada."[44]
  2. ^ From 1763 to 1791 the colony of Canada was known as "Quebec" prior to returning to the name "Canada" (Upper and Lower) which were unified in 1841.
  3. ^ In 1867, the separate colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick joined to form the Dominion of Canada. Subsequently, each of the other colonies in British North America eventually joined the union as provinces. Other provinces were created by the Dominion from its territories. Over time, Canada gradually gained increasing independence from the United Kingdom due to continued evolution in constitutional practice. However, it remained under the British Crown until 1931, when the Canadian Crown is generally accepted as having been created due to the enactment of the Statute of Westminster. The Dominion of Newfoundland continued as a separate British colony under the British Crown until it joined Canada in 1949.
  1. ^ George V changed the name of the British royal house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to Windsor on 17 July 1917.[47] This change was made in response to anti-German sentiment in the British Empire during World War I.
  2. ^ Descendants of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and Queen Elizabeth II belong to the House of Windsor by Royal Command (9 April 1952 Declaration by Queen Elizabeth II to her Privy Council) although under the usual rules of genealogy they are, by paternal descent, also members of the Glücksburg branch of the House of Oldenburg (the ruling House of Denmark and of the former Kingdom of Greece). Accordingly, King Charles III is the first monarch of the House of Windsor who is a patrilineal descendant of the Glücksburg dynasty, instead of descending from Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in the male line as was the case with the previous monarchs of the House of Windsor.

References

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  2. ^ "Crown in Canada – The Monarch". Queen's Printer for Canada. 1 June 2012. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
  3. ^ Department of Canadian Heritage. "Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion > The Canadian Monarchy". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 25 August 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
  4. ^ a b Kenney, Jason (23 April 2007). "Speech to the Lieutenant Governors Meeting". Written at Regina. In Department of Canadian Heritage (ed.). Speeches > The Honourable Jason Kenney. Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
  5. ^ a b Valpy, Michael (13 November 2009). "The monarchy: Offshore, but built-in". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved 14 November 2009.
  6. ^ MacLeod 2012, p. 6
  7. ^ Monet, Jacques. Marsh, James Harley (ed.). Governor General. Toronto: Historica Canada. Archived from the original on 11 February 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2010. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  8. ^ The Royal Household. "The Queen and the Commonwealth > Queen and Canada > History and present government". Queen's Printer. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
  9. ^ Coyne, Andrew (13 November 2009). "Defending the royals". Maclean's. Toronto: Roger's Communications. ISSN 0024-9262. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
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  17. ^ Memorial University of Newfoundland (1997). "John Cabot's Voyage of 1497". Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  18. ^ a b Harper, Stephen (2008). "Letter" (PDF). In MacLeod, Kevin S. (ed.). A Crown of Maples. Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada (published 2012). p. vii. ISBN 978-0-662-46012-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
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  20. ^ [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]
  21. ^ "Origin of the Name - Canada". Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. 18 June 2013. Archived from the original on 12 April 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2015.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
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  30. ^ a b Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Garry. "The Sovereigns of Canada". Canadian Royal Heritage Trust. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  31. ^ a b MacLeod 2012, p. 78
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  37. ^ [30][31][32][33][34][35][36]
  38. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia (22 September 2013). "Confederation". Historica Canada. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
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  44. ^ R v Foreign Secretary, Ex parte Indian Association (as referenced in High Court of Australia: Sue v Hill [1999] HCA 30; 23 June 1999; S179/1998 and B49/1998), QB 892 at 928 (English Court of Appeal June 1999).
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  46. ^ David A. Lanegran; Carol Louise Urness (2008). Minnesota on the Map: A Historical Atlas. Minnesota Historical Society Press. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-0-87351-593-1.
  47. ^ "No. 30186". The London Gazette. 17 July 1917. p. 7119.
  48. ^ "Burke's Peerage and Gentry > The Royal Family > HRH The Duke of Edinburgh". Burke's Peerage & Gentry and The Origins Network. Retrieved 27 October 2008.
  49. ^ LCO 6/3677 Title of Prince: HRH Philip Duke of Edinburgh