Uniting for Consensus core members

Uniting for Consensus (UfC), nicknamed the Coffee Club, is a movement that developed in the 1990s in opposition to the possible expansion of permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council. Under the leadership of Italy,[1][2] it aims to counter the bids for permanent seats proposed by G4 nations (Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan) and is calling for a consensus before any decision is reached on the form and size of the United Nation Security Council.


Italy, through the ambassador Francesco Paolo Fulci, along with Pakistan, Mexico and Egypt, founded the "Coffee Club" in 1995 .[3] The four countries were united by a rejection of the proposal to increase the number of permanent members of the Security Council, instead desiring to encourage the expansion of non-permanent seats. The founders of the group were soon joined by other countries, including Spain, Argentina, Turkey, and Canada, and in a short time the group came to include about 50 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.[3] The thesis of the Uniting for Consensus group is that the increase of permanent seats would further accentuate the disparity between the member countries and result in the extension of a series of privileges with a cascade effect. The new permanent members would in fact benefit from the method of electing, which is particularly advantageous in a number of specific organs of the United Nations System.[clarification needed]

During the 59th session of the United Nations General Assembly in 2005, the UfC group — led by the representatives of Canada, Italy, and Pakistan — made a proposal[4] that centred on an enlargement of the number of non-permanent members from ten to twenty. The non-permanent members would be elected by the General Assembly for a two-year term and would be eligible for immediate re-election, subject to the decision of their respective geographical groups.[5] The other members and co-sponsors of the text, entitled "Reform of the Security Council", were listed as Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, Malta, Mexico, San Marino, Spain and Turkey.[6] Although the proposal was not accepted, the initiative found broad consensus among member states, including permanent member China.[7]

On 20 April 2009, Italy, acting as representatives of the UfC group, provided a new model of reform,[8] which was presented as a concrete attempt to reach a deal. The document proposed creating a new category of seats, still non-permanent, but elected for an extended duration (3 to 5 years terms) without the possibility of immediate re-election. This new kind of seat would not be allocated to single national countries but rather to regional groups on a rotational basis. As far as traditional categories of seats are concerned, the UfC proposal does not imply any change, but only the introduction of small and medium size states among groups eligible for regular seats. This proposal includes even the question of veto, giving a range of options that goes from abolition to limitation of the application of the veto only to Chapter VII matters.

During the last round, Italy firmly rejected the G4 proposal as well as the African Union one and even denounced the unfair behaviour of G4 countries. According to Italy, the G4 is attempting to exclude the UfC proposal from the floor, “on the basis of a presumed level of support”.[9] Moreover, Italy believes that it has shown flexibility by putting forward a new proposal in April 2009, while the G4 remained tied to its 2005 document.[10] Italy's active role in current discussions started in February 2009 before the beginning of intergovernmental negotiations, when Minister of Foreign Affairs Franco Frattini hosted more than 75 countries to develop a shared path towards a reform of the Security Council.[11] In May 2011, the members states which have participated in the group meeting held in Rome rose to 120.[12][13]


As of 27 March 2023, core members of the Uniting for Consensus group were:[14]

Country Continent UN funding2 Member of the UN since International trade1 GDP (nominal)1 GDP (PPP)1 Defense budget1 Active military Population G20 OECD DAC
 Italy Europe 3.307% 1955 948,600 2,120,232 2,610,563 40,800 347,927 59,045,521 Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
 Canada North America 2.734% 1945 947,200 2,015,983 1,978,816 18,600 68,250 38,610,406 Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
 South Korea Asia 2.267% 1991 1,170,900 1,823,852 2,436,872 50,100 630,000 51,671,569 Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
 Spain Europe 2.146% 1955 715,200 1,439,958 1,959,037 5,767 132,798 47,394,223 Red XN* Green tickY Green tickY
 Turkey Europe / Asia 1.371% 1945 417,000 795,952 2,749,570 18,200 639,551 84,680,273 Green tickY Green tickY Red XN
 Mexico North America 1.292% 1945 813,500 1,285,518 2,613,797 11,600 280,506 126,014,024 Green tickY Green tickY Red XN
 Argentina South America 0.915% 1945 142,370 455,172 1,015,008 4,021 73,100 45,808,747 Green tickY Red XN Red XN
 Pakistan Asia 0.115% 1947 58,000 286,340 1,370,075 7,600 643,800 225,200,000 Red XN Red XN Red XN
 Malta Europe 0.017% 1964 9,200 10,582 23,501 42 2,130 514,564 Red XN Red XN Red XN
 Colombia South America 0.288% 1945 314,464 1,014,978 293,200 52,085,168 Red XN Green tickY Red XN
 Costa Rica North America 0.062% 1945 64,282 139,482 0 5,212,173 Red XN Green tickY Red XN
 San Marino Europe 0.002% 1992 1,702 2,694 0 33,661 Red XN Red XN Red XN
1USD millions 2Percent contributed to total UN budget

*While Spain is not an official member of the G20, it is a permanent invitee.

China and Indonesia are participating as Observers.[15][16]

See also


  1. ^ Ayca Ariyoruk (3 July 2005). "Players and Proposals in the Security Council Debate". Global Policy Forum. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  2. ^ Nicoletta Pirozzi; Natalino Ronzitti (May 2011). "The European Union and the Reform of the UN Security Council: Toward a New Regionalism?" (PDF). Istituto Affari Internazionali. Retrieved 3 November 2011.((cite web)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ a b Pamela Preschern (2009). "La riforma del Consiglio di Sicurezza dagli anni '90 ad oggi: problemi e prospettive" (PDF) (in Italian). Istituto Affari Internazionali. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  4. ^ "Uniting for Consensus group of States introduces text on Security Council reform to General Assembly". United Nations. 26 July 2005. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  5. ^ Kulwant Rai Gupta (2006). Reform of the United Nations. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 232. ISBN 81-269-0668-5. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  6. ^ "Draft resolution: Reform of the Security Council". United Nations. 21 July 2005. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  7. ^ "Remarks by Ambassador Wang Guangya at Meeting on Uniting for Consensus". Permanent mission of the PRC to the UN. 11 April 2005. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  8. ^ "Security Council reform" (PDF). Permanent mission of Italy to the UN. 17 April 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  9. ^ "Meeting of the informal plenary of the General Assembly on the question of the Security Council and related matters". Permanent mission of Italy to the UN. 2 September 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  10. ^ Nicoletta Pirozzi (10 June 2009). "L'Italia e la riforma del Consiglio di Sicurezza dell'Onu" (in Italian). Istituto Affari Internazionali. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  11. ^ "Italy hosts ministerial meeting on UNSC reform in Rome". Kyodo News. 5 February 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  12. ^ "Riforma ONU: Frattini, il Consiglio di Sicurezza sia più rappresentativo" (in Italian). Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs. 16 May 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  13. ^ Vincenzo Nigro (15 May 2011). "Consiglio di sicurezza Onu: Roma con 120 voti sfida Berlino" (in Italian). La Repubblica. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  14. ^ Internazionale, Ministero degli Affari Esteri e della Cooperazione. "Joint Press release of the "Uniting for Consensus" Group – Ministero degli Affari Esteri e della Cooperazione Internazionale". Retrieved 2023-07-18.
  15. ^ "Grasping the Nettle of UN Security Council Reform". Retrieved 2023-12-07.
  16. ^ "Tajani: China's support to achieve peace is needed". Retrieved 2024-02-09.