World GDP per capita between 1500 and 2003

The world economy or global economy is the economy of all humans in the world, referring to the global economic system, which includes all economic activities conducted both within and between nations, including production, consumption, economic management, work in general, financial transactions and trade of goods and services.[1][2] In some contexts, the two terms are distinct: the "international" or "global economy" is measured separately and distinguished from national economies, while the "world economy" is simply an aggregate of the separate countries' measurements. Beyond the minimum standard concerning value in production, use and exchange, the definitions, representations, models and valuations of the world economy vary widely. It is inseparable from the geography and ecology of planet Earth.

It is common to limit questions of the world economy exclusively to human economic activity, and the world economy is typically judged in monetary terms, even in cases in which there is no efficient market to help valuate certain goods or services, or in cases in which a lack of independent research, genuine data or government cooperation makes calculating figures difficult. Typical examples are illegal drugs and other black market goods, which by any standard are a part of the world economy, but for which there is, by definition, no legal market of any kind.

However, even in cases in which there is a clear and efficient market to establish monetary value, economists do not typically use the current or official exchange rate to translate the monetary units of this market into a single unit for the world economy since exchange rates typically do not closely reflect worldwide value – for example, in cases where the volume or price of transactions is closely regulated by the government.

Rather, market valuations in a local currency are typically translated to a single monetary unit using the idea of purchasing power. This is the method used below, which is used for estimating worldwide economic activity in terms of real United States dollars or euros. However, the world economy can be evaluated and expressed in many more ways. It is unclear, for example, how many of the world's 7.8 billion people (as of March 2020)[3][4] have most of their economic activity reflected in these valuations.

According to Maddison[who?], until the middle of the 19th century, global output was dominated by China and India with Indian subcontinent being the world's largest economy from 1 C.E to 17 C.E. Waves of the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe and Northern America shifted the shares to the Western Hemisphere. As of 2024, the following 19 countries or collectives have reached an economy of at least US$2 trillion by GDP in nominal or PPP terms: Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, South Korea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, the European Union and the African Union.[5][6]

Despite high levels of government investment, the global economy decreased by 3.4% in 2020 in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic,[7] an improvement from the World Bank's initial prediction of a 5.2 percent decrease.[8] Cities account for 80% of global GDP, thus they faced the brunt of this decline.[9][10] The world economy increased again in 2021 with an estimated 5.5 percent rebound.[11]

Overview

World economy by country groups

Country group List of country groups by
GDP (nominal)
in 2024 (or at peaked level)
List of country groups by
GDP (PPP)
in 2024 (or at peaked level)
Number of
countries
Major economies
Value
(in millions of US$)
Share of
Global GDP
Value
(in millions of US$)
Share of
Global GDP
Major advanced economies (G7)
(Continents: Europe, North America and Asia)
48,678,121 44.5% 55,025,255 29.6% 7  United States
 Japan
 Germany
 United Kingdom
 France
 Italy
 Canada
Emerging and developing Asia
(Continents: Asia and Oceania)
26,686,077 24.4% 63,318,654 34.1% 30  China
 India
 Indonesia
 Thailand
 Bangladesh
 Vietnam
 Philippines
 Malaysia
Other advanced economies
(advanced economies excluding the G7)
(Continents: Europe, Asia, Oceania and North America)
15,134,208 13.8% 20,390,379 11.0% 34  South Korea
 Spain
 Taiwan
 Australia
 Netherlands
 Switzerland
 Belgium
 Singapore
 Sweden
 Ireland
 Norway
 Austria
Latin America and the Caribbean
(Continents: South America and North America)
7,004,688 6.4% 13,364,843 7.2% 33  Brazil
 Mexico
 Argentina
 Colombia
Emerging and developing Europe
(Continents: Europe and Asia)
5,164,278 4.7% 13,793,802 7.4% 15  Russia
 Turkey
 Poland
 Romania
Middle East and Central Asia
(Continents: Asia and Africa)
4,965,982 4.5% 13,933,205 7.5% 32  Saudi Arabia
 Egypt
 Iran
 Pakistan
 United Arab Emirates
 Algeria
 Kazakhstan
Sub-Saharan Africa
(Continent: Africa)
1,895,862
(peaked at 2,011,398 in 2022)
1.7% 5,850,984 3.2% 45  Nigeria
 South Africa
World 109,529,216 100.0% 185,677,122 100.0% 196

World economy by continent

Main article: List of continents by GDP § Continents by GDP (nominal)

GDP sector composition (2019 estimate)[12][13]
Continent Agricultural Industrial Service
World 7,908.260 38,354.363 81,575.461
Asia 5,105.362 20,858.549 32,939.397
North America 292.467 5,008.594 18,426.200
Europe 838.199 8,175.402 20,598.902
South America 539.510 2,014.140 5,024.223
Africa 1,076.690 1,941.037 3,559.579
Oceania 56.032 356.641 1,027.160

Current world economic league table of largest economies in the world by GDP and share of global economic growth

The 25 largest economies by GDP (nominal), the 25 largest economies by GDP (PPP), 28 economies with the highest peak GDP per capita (nominal) and the 28 economies with the highest peak GDP per capita (PPP) as of 2024. Members of the G-20 major economies are in bold.
List of the 25 largest economies
by GDP (nominal) at their peak level as of 2024 in million US$
[5]
List of the 25 largest economies
by GDP (PPP) at their peak level as of 2024 in million Int$
[5]
List of the 28 economies by highest
GDP (nominal) per capita at their peak level as of 2024 in US$
[14]
List of the 28 economies by highest
GDP (PPP) per capita at their peak level as of 2024 in Int$'
[15]
Rank Country Value Peak year
World 109,529,216 2024
1  United States 28,781,083 2024
 European Union[16] 19,226,235 2008
2  China 18,532,633 2024
3  Japan[17] 6,272,363 2012
4  Germany 4,591,100 2024
5  India 3,937,011 2024
6  United Kingdom 3,495,261 2024
7  France 3,130,014 2024
 African Union[18] 2,980,015 2022
8  Brazil[19] 2,616,156 2011
9  Italy[20] 2,408,655 2008
10  Russia[21] 2,292,470 2013
11  Canada 2,242,182 2024
12  Mexico 2,017,025 2024
13  South Korea 1,818,432 2021
14  Australia 1,790,348 2024
15  Spain 1,647,114 2024
16  Indonesia 1,475,690 2024
17  Netherlands 1,142,513 2024
18  Turkey 1,113,561 2024
19  Saudi Arabia 1,108,572 2022
20  Switzerland 938,458 2024
21  Poland 844,623 2024
22  Taiwan 802,958 2024
23  Belgium 655,192 2024
24  Argentina 654,892 2023
25  Iran[22] 644,036 2012
Rank Country Value Peak year
World 185,677,122 2024
1  China 35,291,015 2024
2  United States 28,781,083 2024
 European Union[23] 26,308,203 2024
3  India 14,594,460 2024
 African Union[24] 9,490,335 2024
4  Japan 6,720,962 2024
5  Germany 5,686,531 2024
6  Russia 5,472,880 2024
7  Indonesia 4,720,542 2024
8  Brazil 4,273,668 2024
9  United Kingdom 4,029,438 2024
10  France 3,987,911 2024
11  Turkey 3,831,533 2024
12  Mexico 3,434,224 2024
13  Italy 3,347,103 2024
14  South Korea 3,057,995 2024
15  Spain 2,516,376 2024
16  Canada 2,472,227 2024
17  Saudi Arabia 2,354,392 2024
18  Egypt 1,898,538 2024
19  Iran 1,854,845 2024
20  Poland 1,800,540 2024
21  Taiwan 1,792,349 2024
22  Australia 1,791,358 2024
23  Thailand 1,644,322 2024
24  Pakistan 1,642,572 2024
25  Bangladesh 1,619,803 2024
Rank Country Value Peak year
1  Monaco 240,862 2022
2  Liechtenstein 197,505 2021
3  Luxembourg 134,925 2021
4  Bermuda 118,775 2022
5  Ireland 106,059 2024
6  Norway 108,729 2022
7  Switzerland 105,669 2024
8  Qatar 101,933 2012
9  Cayman Islands 99,625 2022
10  Isle of Man 91,881 2014
11  Macau 90,874 2014
12  Singapore 88,447 2024
13  United States 85,373 2024
14  Iceland 84,594 2024
15  San Marino 79,110 2008
16 Channel Islands Channel Islands 75,148 2022
17  Denmark 69,467 2021
18  Faroe Islands 69,108 2021
19  Australia 68,486 2012
20  Netherlands 63,750 2024
21  Sweden 61,418 2021
22  Austria 59,225 2024
23  Greenland 57,116 2021
24  Canada 55,613 2022
25  Kuwait 55,596 2008
26  Belgium 55,536 2024
27  Finland 55,127 2024
28  Israel 54,931 2022
Rank Country Value Peak year
1  Qatar 169,698 2012
2  Macau 149,422 2013
3  Luxembourg 146,457 2022
4  Ireland 133,895 2024
5  Singapore 133,737 2024
6  Norway 121,259 2022
7  United Arab Emirates 110,213 2004
8  Bermuda 95,869 2022
9  Switzerland 91,932 2024
10  Kuwait 91,485 2007
11  Brunei 88,312 2012
12  San Marino 86,989 2024
13  United States 85,373 2024
14  Cayman Islands 84,280 2022
15  Guyana 80,137 2024
16  Denmark 77,954 2022
17  Taiwan 76,858 2024
18  Hong Kong 75,128 2024
19  Netherlands 74,542 2022
20  Iceland 73,784 2024
21  Austria 70,976 2022
22  Saudi Arabia 70,333 2024
23  Sweden 69,177 2024
24  Andorra 69,146 2024
25  Belgium 68,253 2022
26  Malta 67,682 2024
27  Germany 67,245 2024
28  Australia 66,627 2024

Twenty largest economies in the world by nominal GDP

Main article: List of countries by past and projected GDP (nominal)

The following is a list of the twenty largest economies by nominal GDP at peak value as of the specific year, according to the International Monetary Fund.[5]
Rank 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2029
1  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States
2  Japan  Japan  Japan  Japan  Japan  Japan  China  China  China  China  China
3  Soviet Union  Soviet Union  West Germany  Germany  Germany  Germany  Japan  Japan  Japan  Japan  India
4  West Germany  West Germany  France  France  United Kingdom  United Kingdom  Germany  Germany  Germany  Germany  Japan
5  France  France  United Kingdom  United Kingdom  France  China  United Kingdom  United Kingdom  United Kingdom  India  Germany
6  United Kingdom  United Kingdom  Soviet Union  Italy  Italy  France  France  France  France  United Kingdom  United Kingdom
7  Italy  Italy  Italy  Brazil  China  Italy  Italy  Brazil  India  France  France
8  China  Canada  Canada  China  Brazil  Canada  Brazil  Italy  Brazil  Brazil  Brazil
9  Canada  China  Iran  Spain  Canada  Spain  Russia  Russia  Italy  Italy  Canada
10  Mexico  Mexico  Spain  Canada  Mexico  South Korea  India  India  Russia  Canada  Italy
Rank 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2029
11  Argentina  Argentina  Brazil  Iran  Spain  Mexico  Spain  Canada  Canada  Russia  Mexico
12  Spain  India  China  South Korea  South Korea  Brazil  Canada  Spain  South Korea  Mexico  Russia
13  Netherlands  Spain  Australia  Russia  Iran  India  Australia  Australia  Spain  Australia  Australia
14  India  Brazil  Netherlands  Mexico  Russia  Russia  South Korea  South Korea  Australia  South Korea  Indonesia
15  Saudi Arabia  Australia  India  Netherlands  India  Australia  Mexico  Mexico  Mexico  Spain  South Korea
16  Australia  Netherlands  Mexico  Australia  Netherlands  Netherlands  Netherlands  Turkey  Indonesia  Indonesia  Spain
17  Brazil  Saudi Arabia  South Korea  India  Australia  Iran  Turkey  Netherlands  Turkey  Netherlands  Saudi Arabia
18  Sweden  Iran  Switzerland  Switzerland  Switzerland  Turkey  Indonesia  Indonesia  Netherlands  Saudi Arabia  Netherlands
19  Belgium  Nigeria  Sweden  Argentina  Argentina  Switzerland  Switzerland  Saudi Arabia  Saudi Arabia  Turkey  Turkey
20  Switzerland  Sweden  Argentina  Belgium  Taiwan  Sweden  Iran  Switzerland  Switzerland  Switzerland  Switzerland

Twenty largest economies in the world by GDP (PPP)

List of twenty largest economies by GDP based on purchasing power parity at peak value as of the specific year according to the International Monetary Fund and the CIA World Factbook.[5][25]
Rank 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2029
1  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States  China  China  China
2  Soviet Union  Soviet Union  Soviet Union  Japan  China  China  China  China  United States  United States  United States
3  Japan  Japan  Japan  China  Japan  Japan  India  India  India  India  India
4  West Germany  West Germany  West Germany  Germany  Germany  India  Japan  Japan  Japan  Japan  Japan
5  Italy  Italy  Italy  Russia  India  Germany  Germany  Germany  Germany  Germany  Indonesia
6  France  France  China  India  France  Russia  Russia  Russia  Russia  Russia  Germany
7  Brazil  Brazil  France  Italy  Italy  France  Brazil  Brazil  France  Indonesia  Russia
8  United Kingdom  United Kingdom  India  France  Russia  Brazil  France  United Kingdom  United Kingdom  Brazil  Brazil
9  Mexico  India  United Kingdom  Brazil  United Kingdom  United Kingdom  United Kingdom  France  Indonesia  United Kingdom  Turkey
10  Saudi Arabia  China  Brazil  United Kingdom  Brazil  Italy  Italy  Indonesia  Brazil  France  United Kingdom
Rank 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2029
11  India  Mexico  Mexico  Mexico  Mexico  Mexico  Indonesia  Mexico  Italy  Turkey  France
12  China  Saudi Arabia  Spain  Indonesia  Indonesia  Indonesia  Mexico  Italy  Mexico  Mexico  Mexico
13  Spain  Canada  Canada  Spain  Spain  Spain  South Korea  Turkey  Turkey  Italy  Italy
14  Canada  Spain  Indonesia  Saudi Arabia  Canada  South Korea  Spain  South Korea  South Korea  South Korea  South Korea
15  Iran  Iran  Saudi Arabia  Canada  South Korea  Canada  Saudi Arabia  Saudi Arabia  Spain  Spain  Saudi Arabia
16  Indonesia  Indonesia  Turkey  South Korea  Saudi Arabia  Saudi Arabia  Iran  Spain  Canada  Canada  Spain
17  Argentina  Turkey  Iran  Turkey  Turkey  Iran  Canada  Canada  Saudi Arabia  Saudi Arabia  Canada
18  Poland  Australia  South Korea  Iran  Iran  Turkey  Turkey  Iran  Iran  Egypt  Egypt
19  Netherlands  Netherlands  Australia  Australia  Australia  Australia  Australia  Egypt  Australia  Iran  Bangladesh
20  Turkey  Argentina  Netherlands  Thailand  Netherlands  Thailand  Taiwan  Australia  Poland  Poland  Vietnam

Statistical indicators

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (September 2020)

Finance

Countries or territories by GDP (PPP) per capita in 2021.
  >$60,000
  $50,000 – $60,000
  $40,000 – $50,000
  $30,000 – $40,000
  $20,000 – $30,000
  $10,000 – $20,000
  $5,000 – $10,000
  $2,500 – $5,000
  $1,000 – $2,500
  <$1,000
  No data
Countries by total wealth (trillions USD), Credit Suisse

Employment

World GDP per capita between 1500 and 2000 (log scale)
World GDP per capita between 1500 and 2003
GDP increase, 1990–1998 and 1990–2006, in major countries

Industries

Energy

Global primary energy consumption, measured in terawatt-hours (TWh) per year

Further information: World energy supply and consumption and Energy development

Cross-border

Gift economy

Communications

Telephones – main lines in use: 843,923,500 (2007)
4,263,367,600 (2008)

Transport

See also: Transport § Economic, and Category:Transport infrastructure

Transportation infrastructure worldwide includes:

Military

A pie chart showing global military expenditures by country for 2019, in US$ billions, according to SIPRI.

Science, research and development

See also: List of sovereign states by research and development spending, Economics of science, and Innovation

Number of scientific or technical journal article publications per million residents as of 2013.

The Royal Society in a 2011 report stated that in terms of number of papers the share of English-language scientific research papers the United States was first followed by China, the UK, Germany, Japan, France, and Canada.[38] In 2015, research and development constituted an average 2.2% of the global GDP according to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics.[39] Metrics and rankings of innovation include the Bloomberg Innovation Index, the Global Innovation Index and the share of Nobel laureates per capita.

Resources and environment

See also: Primary sector of the economy, Sustainable development, Economic impacts of climate change, Environmental resource management § Economics, Planetary management, Agriculture, Overexploitation, Overconsumption, and Ecosystem service

Further information: 2021 in the environment and environmental sciences § International goals

Shown is how the global material footprint and global CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and industrial processes changed compared with global GDP.[40]
The period since 1950 has brought "the most rapid transformation of the human relationship with the natural world in the history of humankind".[41] Through 2018, humans have reduced forest area by ~30% and grasslands/shrubs by ~68%, to make way for livestock grazing and crops for humans.[42]
This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (September 2020)

From the scientific perspective, economic activities are embedded in a web of dynamic, interrelated, and interdependent activities that constitute the natural system of Earth. Novel application of cybernetics in decision-making (such as in decision-making related to process- and product-design and related laws) and direction of human activity (such as economic activity) may make it easier to control modern ecological problems.[58]

Historical development

Further information: History of globalization and Broad measures of economic progress

Shift of the world's economic center of gravity since 1980 and projected until 2050[59]
Estimations of world population and GDP from a 2020 research paper[60]
Year Population
(million)
GDP per capita
($1990 in PPP)
GDP in billion
($1990 in PPP)
1000000 BCE 0.125 400 0.05
300000 BCE 1 400 0.40
25000 BCE 3.34 400 1.34
10000 BCE 4 400 1.60
5000 BCE 5 404 2.02
4000 BCE 7 409 2.87
3000 BCE 14 421 5.90
2000 BCE 27 433 11.7
1000 BCE 50 444 22.2
500 BCE 100 457 45.7
200 BCE 150 465 69.7
1 168 467 78.4
200 190 463 88.0
400 190 463 88.0
500 190 463 88.0
600 200 462 92.3
700 210 460 96.6
800 220 459 101
900 240 456 109
1000 265 453 120
1100 320 512 164
1200 360 551 198
1300 360 551 198
1400 350 541 190
1500 438 625 274
1600 556 629 350
1700 603 658 397
1820 1,042 712 741
1870 1,276 884 1,128
1900 1,563
1913 1,793 1,543 2,767
1920 1,863
1940 2,299 2,181 5,013
1950 2,528 2,104 5,318
1960 3,042 2,764 12,170
1970 3,691 3,725 13,751
1980 4,440 4,511 20,026
1990 5,269 5,149 27,133
2000 6,077 6,057 36,806
2010 6,873 7,814 53,704
2019 7,620 9,663 73,640

One example for a comparable metric other than GDP are the OECD Better Life Index rankings for different aggregative domains.

Legend
  Explained by: Housing
  Explained by: Income
  Explained by: Jobs
  Explained by: Community
  Explained by: Education
  Explained by: Environment
  Explained by: Civic engagement
  Explained by: Health
  Explained by: Life Satisfaction
  Explained by: Safety
  Explained by: Work-Life Balance
OECD Better Life Index rankings for 2016
Overall Rank
[61]
Country Housing Income Jobs Community Education Environment Civic engagement Health Life Satisfaction Safety Work-Life Balance
1  Norway
2  Australia
3  Denmark
4  Switzerland
5  Canada
6  Sweden
7  New Zealand
8  Finland
9  United States
10  Iceland
11  Netherlands
12  Germany
13  Luxembourg
14  Belgium
15  Austria
16  United Kingdom
17  Ireland
18  France
19  Spain
20  Slovenia
21  Czech Republic
22  Estonia
23  Japan
24  Slovakia
25  Italy
26  Israel
27  Poland
28  South Korea
29  Portugal
30  Latvia
31  Greece
32  Hungary
33  Russia
34  Chile
35  Brazil
36  Turkey
37  Mexico
38  South Africa

The index includes 11 comparable "dimensions" of well-being:[62]

  1. Housing: housing conditions and spendings (e.g. real estate pricing)
  2. Income: household income (after taxes and transfers) and net financial wealth
  3. Jobs: earnings, job security and unemployment
  4. Community: quality of social support network
  5. Education: education and what one gets out of it
  6. Environment: quality of environment (e.g. environmental health)
  7. Governance: involvement in democracy
  8. Health
  9. Life Satisfaction: level of happiness
  10. Safety: murder and assault rates
  11. Work-life balance

Economic studies

To promote exports, many government agencies publish on the web economic studies by sector and country. Among these agencies include the USCS (US DoC) and FAS (USDA) in the United States, the EDC and AAFC in Canada, Ubifrance in France, the UKTI in the United Kingdom, the HKTDC and JETRO in Asia, Austrade and the NZTE in Oceania. Through Partnership Agreements, the Federation of International Trade Associations publishes studies from several of these agencies (USCS, FAS, AAFC, UKTI, and HKTDC) as well as other non-governmental organizations on its website globaltrade.net.

See also

Regional economies:

Events:

Lists:

References

  1. ^ "THE GLOBAL ECONOMY | definition in the Cambridge English Dictionary". dictionary.cambridge.org. Archived from the original on 4 May 2022. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  2. ^ "World Economy." – Definition. American English Definition of with Pronunciation by Macmillan Dictionary. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 January 2015.
  3. ^ "World Population: 2020 Overview". Archived from the original on 2021-03-09. Retrieved 2020-09-20.
  4. ^ "2020 World Population Data Sheet". Archived from the original on 2020-09-28. Retrieved 2020-09-20.
  5. ^ a b c d e "World Economic Outlook Database April 2024". www.imf.org. Retrieved 2024-04-17.
  6. ^ "More QE From the Bank of England to Support the UK Economy in 2021". Vant Age Point Trading. Archived from the original on 20 January 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  7. ^ OECD (March 2021). "OECD Economic Outlook, Interim Report March 2021". Archived from the original on 21 May 2023. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  8. ^ "The Global Economic Outlook During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Changed World". World Bank. Archived from the original on 2021-06-09. Retrieved 2021-06-07.
  9. ^ "Cities are the hub of the global green recovery". blogs.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 2021-06-07. Retrieved 2021-06-07.
  10. ^ "Mayor of Lima sees COVID-19 as spark for an urban hub to the green recovery". European Investment Bank. Archived from the original on 2022-04-08. Retrieved 2021-06-07.
  11. ^ Lucia Quaglietti, Collette Wheeler (11 January 2022). "The Global Economic Outlook in five charts". World Bank. Archived from the original on 21 May 2023. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  12. ^ "The World Factbook - GDP (purchasing power parity)". Archived from the original on January 11, 2019.
  13. ^ "The World Factbook - GDP - composition, by sector of origin". Archived from the original on January 10, 2019.
  14. ^ GDP per capita data for Monaco, Liechtenstein, Bermuda, Norway, the Cayman Islands, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands, the Faroe Islands, Sweden, Greenland, Kuwait and Israel by World Bank
  15. ^ GDP per capita data for Macau, Luxembourg, Norway, Bermuda, Kuwait, the Cayman Islands, Denmark, the Netherlands, Austria and Belgium by World Bank
  16. ^ "Peak GDP (Nominal) for the European Union". Archived from the original on 2022-11-08. Retrieved 2022-11-08.
  17. ^ World Bank's GDP (Nominal) Data for Japan
  18. ^ IMF GDP (nominal) for Africa (Region)
  19. ^ World Bank's GDP (Nominal) Data for Brazil
  20. ^ World Bank's GDP (Nominal) Data for Italy
  21. ^ World Bank's GDP (Nominal) Data for Russia
  22. ^ World Bank's GDP (Nominal) Data for Iran
  23. ^ "Peak GDP (PPP) for the European Union". Retrieved 2024-04-16.
  24. ^ IMF GDP (PPP) for Africa (Region)
  25. ^ "GDP (PURCHASING POWER PARITY)". CIA World Factbook. CIA World Factbook. 2014. Archived from the original on June 25, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
  26. ^ "World Bank GWP Growth Rate, 2020". WorldBank.org. Archived from the original on 30 August 2018. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
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