The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the broad, interdisciplinary subject of globalization:
Globalization (or globalisation) – processes of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture. Advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of the Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities. Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, economics, sociocultural resources, and the natural environment.
See also: International studies
Global studies – interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary academic study of globalizing forces and trends. Global studies may include the investigation of one or more aspects of globalization, but tend to concentrate on how globalizing trends are redefining the relationships between states, organizations, societies, communities, and individuals, creating new challenges that cannot be solved by nations or markets alone. Study of the factors contributing to globalization may originate in many academic concentrations, such as political science, economics, and sociology.
History of globalization – generally broken-down into three periods: Archaic, Proto-globalization, and Modern.
Links below are to articles, unless otherwise specified.
Since globalization is not an independent phenomenon but is highly interrelated with world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture, explanations of why globalization occurs and what the effects of globalization are or can be expected are related to theories ranging from economic development to revolutionary socialism.
Main articles: International business and International trade
International business development and the organization of business and trade worldwide are fundamental aspects of globalization and the development of globalizing systems.
Economic globalization – increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross-border movement of goods, services, technology, and capital. International economic activities and institutions that influence or characterize economic globalization include:
All aspects of globalization are essentially sociocultural in nature. Here, aspects of the globalization of culture are detailed, including cultural diversity, cultural homogenization and its backlash, as well as multiculturalism, multilingualism, global civics, world governance and other political developments and social movements related to globalization.
Along with the globalization of business comes a new spatial division of labor, which occurs when production processes are no longer confined to national economies and labor becomes sourced from different parts of the globe. This global workforce has implications ranging from immigration policy to basic human and labor rights.
The natural environment can be contrasted with the built environment, comprising the areas and components that are strongly influenced by humans. In the age of globalization, few absolutely natural environments remain. Human challenges to the natural environment, such as climate change, cross-boundary water and air pollution, over-fishing of the ocean, and the spread of invasive species require at least transnational and, often, global solutions.
Processes of globalization present humankind with many issues that are considered problematic in at least one culture or society, and often multiple societies.