Countries or territories by GDP (PPP) per capita in 2023
  >$60,000
  $50,000 – $60,000
  $40,000 – $50,000
  $30,000 – $40,000
  $20,000 – $30,000
  $10,000 – $20,000
  $5,000 – $10,000
  $2,500 – $5,000
  $1,000 – $2,500
  <$1,000
  No data

A country's gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita is the PPP value of all final goods and services produced within an economy in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year. This is similar to nominal GDP per capita but adjusted for the cost of living in each country.

In 2019, the estimated average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world was Int$ 18,381.[a] For rankings regarding wealth, see list of countries by wealth per adult.

Method

The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the IMF and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.

Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made based on nominal GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards between economies because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income.

This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,[3][4] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (See Standard of living and GDP.)

GDP (PPP) and GDP (PPP) per capita are usually measured by international dollar, which is a hypothetical currency that has the same purchasing power in every economy as the U.S. dollar in the United States.

Table

All figures are in current international dollars, and rounded to the nearest whole number.

The table initially ranks each country or territory with their latest available year's estimates, and can be reranked by any of the sources.

* Nearly all country links in the table connect to articles titled "Income in (country or territory)" or to "Economy of (country or territory)".

GDP per capita (current international dollar) by country or  territory/non-sovereign state, non-IMF member, or country with limited recognition 
Country/Territory UN Region IMF[5][6] World Bank[7] CIA[8][9][10]
Estimate Year Estimate Year Estimate Year
 Luxembourg * Europe 143,304 2023 142,214 2022 115,700 2021
 Liechtenstein * Europe 139,100 2009
 Ireland * Europe 137,638 2023 126,905 2022 102,500 2021
 Singapore * Asia 133,108 2023 127,565 2022 106,000 2021
 Monaco * Europe 115,700 2015
 Qatar * Asia 114,210 2023 114,648 2022 92,200 2021
 Macau * Asia 98,157 2023 61,231 2022 64,800 2021
 Bermuda * Americas 95,869 2022 80,300 2021
 Switzerland * Europe 89,537 2023 83,598 2022 71,000 2021
 United Arab Emirates * Asia 88,962 2023 87,729 2022 69,700 2021
 Isle of Man * Europe 84,600 2014
 Cayman Islands * Americas 84,280 2022 67,500 2021
 San Marino * Europe 84,135 2023 59,451 2020 56,400 2020
 Norway * Europe 82,236 2023 114,899 2022 65,700 2021
 United States * Americas 80,412 2023 76,330 2022 63,700 2021
 Denmark * Europe 74,958 2023 74,005 2022 58,000 2021
 Netherlands * Europe 73,317 2023 69,577 2022 56,600 2021
 Hong Kong * Asia 72,861 2023 69,049 2022 60,000 2021
 Brunei * Asia 72,610 2023 69,275 2022 60,100 2021
 Taiwan * Asia 72,485 2023 47,800 2019
 Falkland Islands * Americas 70,800 2015
 Iceland * Europe 69,833 2023 69,081 2022 53,600 2020
 Austria * Europe 69,069 2023 67,936 2022 54,100 2021
 Saudi Arabia * Asia 68,453 2023 59,065 2022 44,300 2021
 Andorra * Europe 68,232 2023 49,900 2015
 Sweden * Europe 66,209 2023 64,578 2022 53,600 2021
 Germany * Europe 66,038 2023 63,150 2022 53,100 2021
 Belgium * Europe 65,813 2023 65,027 2022 51,700 2021
 Australia * Oceania 64,675 2023 62,625 2022 49,800 2021
 Malta * Europe 63,481 2023 55,928 2022 44,700 2021
 Gibraltar * Europe 61,700 2014
 Guyana * Americas 61,099 2023 40,642 2022 21,900 2021
 Bahrain * Asia 60,715 2023 61,228 2022 49,400 2021
 Finland * Europe 59,869 2023 59,027 2022 48,800 2021
 Canada * Americas 59,813 2023 58,400 2022 47,900 2021
 France * Europe 58,765 2023 55,493 2022 45,000 2021
 European Union *[n 1] Europe 56,975 2023 57,286 2022 44,100 2021
 United Kingdom * Europe 56,836 2023 54,603 2022 45,000 2021
 South Korea * Asia 56,709 2023 50,070 2022 44,200 2021
 Jersey * Europe 56,600 2016
 Israel * Asia 54,771 2023 49,509 2022 42,100 2021
 Italy * Europe 54,259 2023 51,865 2022 41,900 2021
 Cyprus * Asia 53,931 [n 2]2023 49,931 [n 2]2022 41,700 [n 2]2021
 New Zealand * Oceania 53,809 2023 51,967 2022 42,900 2021
 Guernsey * Europe 52,500 2014
 Japan * Asia 52,120 2023 45,573 2022 40,800 2021
 Kuwait * Asia 51,765 2023 58,056 2022 43,900 2020
 Slovenia * Europe 51,407 2023 50,032 2022 40,000 2021
 Aruba * Americas 51,352 2023 42,698 2021 38,900 2021
 Spain * Europe 50,472 2023 45,825 2022 37,900 2021
 Sint Maarten (Dutch part) * Americas 49,541 2022 35,300 2018
 Lithuania * Europe 49,245 2023 48,397 2022 39,300 2021
 Czech Republic * Europe 49,025 2023 49,946 2022 40,700 2020
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon * Americas 46,200 2006
 Poland * Europe 45,538 2023 43,269 2022 34,900 2021
 Estonia * Europe 45,236 2023 46,697 2022 38,700 2021
 Portugal * Europe 45,227 2023 41,452 2022 33,700 2021
 Bahamas * Americas 44,950 2023 40,379 2022 30,200 2021
 Hungary * Europe 43,601 2023 41,907 2022 33,600 2021
 Croatia * Europe 42,873 2023 40,380 2022 31,600 2021
 Panama * Americas 42,738 2023 39,280 2022 29,000 2021
 Slovakia * Europe 42,228 2023 37,459 2022 31,900 2021
 Turkey * Asia 41,888 2023 37,274 2022 31,500 2021
 Seychelles * Africa 41,829 2023 35,228 2022 28,800 2021
 Greenland * Americas 41,800 2015
 Puerto Rico * Americas 41,682 2023 40,498 2022 32,600 2021
 Romania * Europe 41,029 2023 41,888 2022 30,800 2021
 Latvia * Europe 40,892 2023 39,956 2022 32,100 2021
 Faroe Islands * Europe 40,000 2014
 Greece * Europe 39,864 2023 36,835 2022 29,500 2021
 Oman * Asia 39,336 2023 41,724 2022 34,300 2021
 Maldives * Asia 37,094 2023 24,772 2022 18,800 2021
 Malaysia * Asia 37,083 2023 33,434 2022 26,300 2021
 U.S. Virgin Islands * Americas 37,000 2016
 New Caledonia * Oceania 35,700 2021
 Guam * Oceania 35,600 2016
 Russia * Europe 35,310 2023 34,638 2022 27,500 2022
 British Virgin Islands * Americas 34,200 2017
 Montserrat * Americas 34,000 2011
 Bulgaria * Europe 33,780 2023 33,582 2022 24,400 2020
 Kazakhstan * Asia 32,712 2023 30,810 2022 26,100 2021
 Trinidad and Tobago * Americas 30,719 2023 27,778 2022 23,000 2021
 Chile * Americas 29,935 2023 30,209 2022 25,400 2021
 Saint Kitts and Nevis * Americas 29,893 2023 34,052 2022 26,500 2021
 Mauritius * Africa 29,349 2023 26,906 2022 21,000 2021
 Uruguay * Americas 28,984 2023 28,842 2022 22,800 2021
 Montenegro * Europe 28,002 2023 26,984 2022 20,600 2021
 Curaçao * Americas 27,302 2022 20,800 2021
 Costa Rica * Americas 26,809 2023 24,923 2022 21,200 2021
 Argentina * Americas 26,506 2023 26,505 2022 21,500 2021
 Serbia * Europe 26,074 2023 23,911 2022 19,800 2021
 Dominican Republic * Americas 25,523 2023 22,834 2022 18,600 2021
 Antigua and Barbuda * Americas 25,449 2023 25,337 2022 19,100 2021
 Mexico * Americas 24,976 2023 21,512 2022 19,100 2021
 Northern Mariana Islands * Oceania 24,500 2016
 Turks and Caicos Islands * Americas 24,472 2022 18,500 2021
 Libya * Africa 24,382 2023 23,375 2022 22,000 2021
 Belarus * Europe 24,017 2023 22,591 2022 19,800 2021
 China * Asia 23,309 [n 3]2023 21,483 [n 4]2022 17,600 [n 3]2021
 Thailand * Asia 22,491 2023 20,672 2022 17,100 2021
 Georgia * Asia 22,357 [n 5]2023 20,113 [n 5]2022 15,500 [n 5]2021
 World 22,097 [i]2023 20,946 2022 17,000 2021
 North Macedonia * Europe 21,391 2023 20,162 2022 16,500 2021
 Grenada * Americas 20,195 2023 16,987 2022 13,700 2021
 Brazil * Americas 20,079 2023 17,822 2022 14,100 2020
 Iran * Asia 19,942 2023 18,075 2022 12,400 2020
 Turkmenistan * Asia 19,939 2023 15,625 2019 15,000 2019
 Armenia * Asia 19,745 2023 18,942 2022 14,200 2021
 Bosnia and Herzegovina * Europe 19,634 2023 20,377 2022 15,700 2021
 Albania * Europe 19,566 2023 18,552 2022 14,500 2021
 Colombia * Americas 19,482 2023 20,287 2022 14,600 2021
 Botswana * Africa 19,394 2023 18,323 2022 14,800 2021
 Saint Martin (French part) * Americas 19,300 2005
 Gabon * Africa 19,165 2023 16,471 2022 13,800 2021
 Saint Lucia * Americas 18,973 2023 17,756 2022 13,000 2021
 Barbados * Americas 18,738 2023 17,837 2022 13,800 2021
 Azerbaijan * Asia 18,694 2023 17,764 2022 14,400 2021
 French Polynesia * Oceania 18,600 2021
 Equatorial Guinea * Africa 18,362 2023 17,396 2022 14,600 2021
 Suriname * Americas 18,311 2023 17,620 2022 14,800 2021
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Americas 17,840 2023 17,207 2022 13,700 2021
 Egypt * Africa 17,123 2023 15,091 2022 11,600 2021
 Moldova * Europe 16,916 [n 6]2023 15,238 [n 6]2022 14,000 [n 6]2021
 Fiji * Oceania 16,564 2023 14,125 2022 10,400 2021
 South Africa * Africa 16,211 2023 15,905 2022 13,300 2021
 Peru * Americas 15,894 2023 15,048 2022 12,500 2021
 Indonesia * Asia 15,834 2023 14,653 2022 11,900 2021
 Kosovo * Europe 15,767 2023 14,971 2022 11,900 2021
 Cook Islands * Oceania 15,600 2022
 Paraguay * Americas 15,533 2023 15,977 2022 13,700 2021
 Palau * Oceania 15,169 2023 15,145 2021 13,800 2021
 Mongolia * Asia 15,088 2023 14,230 2022 11,700 2021
 Dominica * Americas 14,348 2023 13,573 2022 10,900 2021
 Ukraine * Europe 14,304 [n 7]2023 12,671 [n 7]2022 12,900 [n 7]2021
 Bhutan * Asia 14,297 2023 11,983 2021 10,900 2021
 Vietnam * Asia 14,285 2023 13,457 2022 10,600 2021
 Sri Lanka * Asia 14,267 2022 14,405 2022 13,400 2021
 Algeria * Africa 13,682 2023 13,210 2022 11,000 2021
 Ecuador * Americas 13,285 2023 12,822 2022 10,700 2021
 Tunisia * Africa 13,249 2023 12,490 2022 10,400 2021
 Jamaica * Americas 12,995 2023 11,822 2022 9,600 2021
 Jordan * Asia 12,809 2023 11,003 2022 9,200 2021
 Cuba * Americas 12,300 2016
 Anguilla * Americas 12,200 2008
 Eswatini * Africa 11,859 2023 10,782 2022 8,900 2021
 Lebanon * Asia 11,794 2022 14,257 2021 13,000 2021
 Iraq * Asia 11,742 2023 10,862 2022 9,000 2021
 El Salvador * Americas 11,717 2023 11,096 2022 9,100 2021
 Namibia * Africa 11,603 2023 11,206 2022 9,100 2021
 Philippines * Asia 11,326 2023 10,133 2022 8,100 2021
 American Samoa * Oceania 11,200 2016
 Nauru * Oceania 11,169 2023 13,118 2022 11,900 2021
 Belize * Americas 11,166 2023 11,451 2022 8,800 2021
 Niue * Oceania 11,100 2021
 Guatemala * Americas 10,595 2023 10,818 2022 8,900 2021
 Morocco * Africa 10,408 2023 9,519 2022 8,100 [n 8]2021
 Bolivia * Americas 10,340 2023 9,684 2022 8,100 2021
 Uzbekistan * Asia 10,316 2023 9,533 2022 7,700 2021
 Cape Verde * Africa 9,909 [n 9]2023 9,083 [n 9]2022 6,100 [n 9]2021
 Laos * Asia 9,787 2023 9,384 2022 7,800 2021
 India * Asia 9,183 2023 8,379 2022 6,600 2021
 Bangladesh * Asia 8,673 2023 7,395 2022 5,900 2021
 Venezuela * Americas 7,985 2023 17,402 2011 7,704 2018
 Saint Helena, Ascension and
Tristan da Cunha
Africa 7,800 2010
 Nicaragua * Americas 7,642 2023 6,875 2022 5,600 2021
 Mauritania * Africa 7,542 2023 6,424 2022 5,300 2021
 Honduras * Americas 7,163 2023 6,741 2022 5,600 2021
 Tonga * Oceania 7,127 2023 6,749 2021 6,100 2021
 Angola * Africa 7,077 2023 6,974 2022 5,900 2021
 Djibouti * Africa 6,985 2023 5,893 2022 4,900 2021
 Ivory Coast * Africa 6,960 2023 6,538 2022 5,300 2021
 Ghana * Africa 6,905 2023 6,498 2022 5,400 2021
 Pakistan * Asia 6,773 2023 6,437 2022 5,200 2021
 Palestine * Asia 6,642 [n 10]2023 6,759 [n 10]2022 5,600 [n 11]2021
 Kenya * Africa 6,577 2023 5,764 2022 4,700 2021
 Samoa * Oceania 6,544 2023 6,041 2022 5,500 2021
 Kyrgyzstan * Asia 6,438 2023 6,133 2022 4,800 2021
 Nigeria * Africa 6,148 2023 5,860 2022 4,900 2021
 Cambodia * Asia 6,087 2023 5,349 2022 4,400 2021
 Tokelau * Oceania 6,004 2017
 Marshall Islands * Oceania 5,823 2023 7,228 2022 6,000 2021
 Tuvalu * Oceania 5,766 2023 5,421 2022 4,900 2021
 Congo * Africa 5,552 2023 3,791 2022 3,200 2021
 Tajikistan * Asia 5,361 2023 4,885 2022 3,900 2021
 Myanmar * Asia 5,124 2023 4,870 2022 4,400 [n 12]2021
 Nepal * Asia 4,934 2023 4,725 2022 3,800 2021
 Cameroon * Africa 4,661 2023 4,408 2022 3,700 2021
 Senegal * Africa 4,325 2023 4,209 2022 3,500 2021
 Benin * Africa 4,305 2023 4,056 2022 3,300 2021
 São Tomé and Príncipe * Africa 4,147 2023 4,738 2022 4,100 2020
 Zambia * Africa 4,068 2023 3,894 2022 3,200 2021
 Micronesia * Oceania 3,922 2023 3,855 2022 3,300 2021
 Wallis and Futuna * Oceania 3,800 2004
 East Timor * Asia 3,747 2023 4,828 2022 5,000 2021
 Ethiopia * Africa 3,719 2023 2,812 2022 2,300 2021
 Sudan * Africa 3,605 2023 4,216 2022 3,700 2021
 Tanzania * Africa 3,595 2023 3,097 2022 2,600 2021
 Comoros * Africa 3,464 2023 3,832 2022 3,200 2021
 Papua New Guinea * Oceania 3,403 2023 4,447 2022 3,700 2022
 Guinea * Africa 3,241 2023 3,187 2022 2,600 2021
 Lesotho * Africa 3,235 2023 2,695 2022 2,300 2021
 Uganda * Africa 3,222 2023 2,694 2022 2,200 2021
 Haiti * Americas 3,186 2023 3,305 2022 2,900 2021
 Rwanda * Africa 3,137 2023 2,792 2022 2,200 2021
 Guinea-Bissau * Africa 3,088 2023 2,190 2022 1,800 2021
 Vanuatu * Oceania 2,940 2023 3,289 2022 2,800 2021
 Syria * Asia 6,374 [11]2010 2,900 2015
 Gambia Africa 2,837 2023 2,510 2022 2,100 2021
 Togo * Africa 2,768 2023 2,608 2022 2,100 2021
 Zimbabwe * Africa 2,750 2023 2,531 2022 2,100 2021
 Burkina Faso * Africa 2,683 2023 2,546 2022 2,200 2021
 Mali * Africa 2,639 2023 2,517 2022 2,100 2021
 Solomon Islands * Oceania 2,411 2023 2,654 2022 2,400 2021
 Kiribati * Oceania 2,381 2023 2,365 2022 1,900 2021
 Sierra Leone * Africa 2,097 2023 1,931 2022 1,600 2021
 Yemen * Asia 2,053 2023 3,437 2013 2,500 2017
 Somalia * Africa 1,998 2023 1,364 2022 1,100 2021
 Afghanistan * Asia 1,991 2021 1,674 2021 1,500 2021
 Madagascar * Africa 1,907 2023 1,774 2022 1,500 2021
 Chad * Africa 1,807 2023 1,668 2022 1,400 2021
 Liberia * Africa 1,789 2023 1,725 2022 1,400 2021
 North Korea * Asia 1,700 2015
 Malawi * Africa 1,668 2023 1,732 2022 1,500 2021
 Eritrea * Africa 1,629 2011 1,600 2017
 Niger * Africa 1,579 2023 1,505 2022 1,200 2021
 Mozambique * Africa 1,584 2023 1,468 2022 1,200 2021
 DR Congo * Africa 1,510 2023 1,337 2022 1,100 2021
 Central African Republic * Africa 1,109 2023 967 2022 800 2021
 Burundi * Africa 890 2023 836 2022 700 2021
 South Sudan * Africa 476 2023 1,182 2015 1,600 2017

Footnotes

  1. ^ There is no explicit "GDP (PPP) per capita" World estimate provided by the IMF. For this figure, the GDP (PPP) world value[6] has been divided by the global population according to the IMF.[12]
  1. ^ The EU is included because it is much more than a free-trade association like ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur. -- See: "The World Factbook". CIA. 2014. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 17 November 2022. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, the inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook. -- However, because the EU is an organization and not a sovereign state, it does not receive a ranking in this list.
  2. ^ a b c Data is for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
  3. ^ a b IMF and CIA figures exclude Taiwan and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  4. ^ World Bank figures exclude the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  5. ^ a b c Excludes data for Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
  6. ^ a b c Excludes data for Transnistria.
  7. ^ a b c Figures exclude the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol.
  8. ^ Includes Western Sahara.
  9. ^ a b c Referred to as "Cabo Verde".
  10. ^ a b Referred to as "West Bank and Gaza" in the IMF and World Bank reports.
  11. ^ CIA registers 2 separate entries for Palestine: "West Bank" and "Gaza Strip". Figures for West Bank include the Gaza Strip -- see "The World Factbook - West Bank". CIA.gov. 15 November 2022.
  12. ^ Referred to as "Burma".

Expanding the coverage of illegal economic activities in euro area national accounts

The share of the shadow economy is significant in many European countries, ranging from less than 10 to over 40 per cent of GDP.[13] Since 2014, EU member states have been encouraged by Eurostat, the official statistics body, to include some illegal activities.[14][15][16]

Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

Main articles: Corporate haven § GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy, and Corporate haven § Distorted GDP/GNP

There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in oil and gas tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.[17] It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists).[18] An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global foreign direct investment flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.[19]

A stunning $12 trillion—almost 40 per cent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 per cent of the world's investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.

— "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[19]

In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens.

Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.

— Brad Setser, Council on Foreign Relations, "Ireland exports its Leprechaun", 25 April 2018[20]

The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.

— Patrick Honohan, ex-Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland, 13 July 2016[21]

A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016 to 2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):

International Monetary Fund (2017) World Bank (2016)[22][23]
Rank Country/Territory Type
1  Qatar Oil & Gas
 Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
2  Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3  Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4  Brunei Oil & Gas
5  Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
6  Norway Oil & Gas
7  Kuwait Oil & Gas
8  United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
9   Switzerland Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
 Hong Kong Top 10 Tax Haven (Sink OFC)
10  San Marino Tax haven (Sink OFC)
11  United States 59,495
12  Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
13  Netherlands Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
14  Iceland 52,150
15  Bahrain Oil & Gas
Rank Country/Territory Type
1  Qatar Oil & Gas
2  Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
 Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3  Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4  Brunei Oil & Gas
5  United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
6  Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
7   Switzerland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
8  Norway Oil & Gas
 Hong Kong Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
9  United States 57,467
10  Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
11  Iceland 51,399
12  Netherlands Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
13  Austria 50,078
14  Denmark 49,496
15  Sweden 49,175

See also

Notes

  1. ^ There have been no exclusive estimates for the world average by the IMF. For calculating 2019 data, the total GDP estimate by IMF[1] has been divided by the total population estimate by United Nations Population Prospects.[2]

References

  1. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  2. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  3. ^ "Sarkozy attacks focus on economic growth (French president urges more emphasis on quality of life)", The Guardian, 14 September 2009.
  4. ^ "Alternative progress indicators to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a means towards sustainable development"[dead link]
  5. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2024.
  6. ^ a b "WEO Database, October 2023. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: World, E.U." IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2024.
  7. ^ "GDP per capita, PPP (current international $)". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 1 April 2024.
  8. ^ "Country Comparisons - Real GDP per capita". CIA.gov. The World Factbook. Retrieved 1 April 2024.
  9. ^ "The World Factbook - European Union". CIA.gov. Retrieved 1 April 2024.
  10. ^ "The World Factbook - World". CIA.gov. Retrieved 1 April 2024.
  11. ^ "WEO Database, October 2023. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: Syria". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  12. ^ "IMF DataMapper / Datasets / World Economic Outlook (October 2023) / Population". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2024.
  13. ^ "Explaining the Shadow Economy in Europe: Size, Causes and Policy Options". International Monetary Fund. November 2019.
  14. ^ "Sizing Up Black Markets and Red-Light Districts for G.D.P." The New York Times. 9 July 2014.
  15. ^ "GDP to include illegal activity". Financier Worldwide Magazine. August 2014.
  16. ^ "Handbook on the compilation of statistics on illegal economic activities in national accounts and balance of payments". Eurostat. 6 March 2018.
  17. ^ "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018.
  18. ^ Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R. Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?" (PDF). Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9–10): 1058–1068. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005. S2CID 16653726. The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries that have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
  19. ^ a b "Piercing the Veil, Finance & Development, June 2018, Vol. 55, No. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
  20. ^ "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018.
  21. ^ "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016.
  22. ^ "PPP (current international $)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  23. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.